∅- 1 (subject pronoun) s/he [subject]; he/she [subject] | third person subject (3.S) in a verb phrase, the subject is the agent in the verb other subject pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

x̱a- | i [subject] →  first person singular subject (1s.S)

tu- | we [subject] →  first person plural subject (1p.S)

i- | you [subject] →  second person singular subject (2s.S)

yi- | you all [subject] →  second person plural subject (2p.S)

∅- | s/he [subject] →  third person subject (3.S)

has + ∅- | they [subject] →  third person pluralizer (3pl)

du- | someone [subject] →  fourth person human subject (4h.S)

woosh, wooch | each other, together [subject] →  reciprocal subject (recip.S)

∅- 2 (classifier) | ∅ group classifier; (–d,∅,–i) | Tlingit classifiers combine with verb roots and optional thematic prefixes to form a verb the verb root contains meaning, and the classifier communicates what the verb does classifiers change group and become a different verb when the activity the verb describes changes, and examples would be «ayatéen (∅, "seeing") and «altín» (l, "watching") which have the same root but a different classifier a Tlingit classifier is –i for incomplete activity and +i for complete activity a Tlingit classifier is –d by default and +d for middle voice (subject is also object, which includes reflexive and reciprocal forms), antipassives that remove the embedded object pronoun, and fourth person human («4H») subjects for l, s, & sh classifiers it helps to think of default form as –d & –i, and the classifier changes from there to move into certain modes ∅ group is the default group, and then s group, and then l group, and then the rare sh group

–i verb modes

act imperfective (+) | s/he is doing it; s/he does it

imperfective (–) | s/he is not doing it; s/he does not do it

progressive imperfective (+) | s/he is in the process of doing it

perfective (–) | s/he didnʼt do it

imperative | do it!

perfective habitual (+) | s/he does it (every time)

perfective habitual (–) | s/he hasnʼt done it yet

future (+) | s/he will do it; it will happen

future (–) | s/he wonʼt do it; s/he is not going to do it; it wonʼt happen

hortative | let her/him do it; let us do it

repetitive imperfective | s/he does it (regularly)

potential decessive | s/he would have done it

conditional | if/when s/he does it

+i verb modes

state imperfective (+) | s/he is doing it; s/he does it

perfective (+) | s/he did it

potential (+) | s/he might do it

potential (–) | s/he might not do it

potential attributive | no way s/he can do it

∅ group

∅- | (–d,∅,–i)

ÿa- | (–d,∅,+i)

da- | (+d,∅,–i)

di- | (+d,∅,+i)

s group

sa- | (–d,∅,–i)

si- | (–d,∅,+i)

s- | (+d,∅,–i)

dzi- | (+d,∅,+i)

l group

la- | (–d,∅,–i)

li- | (–d,∅,+i)

l- | (+d,∅,–i)

dli- | (+d,∅,+i)

sh group

sha- | (–d,∅,–i)

shi- | (–d,∅,+i)

sh- | (+d,∅,–i)

ji- | (+d,∅,+i)

∅- ⁓ a- (object pronoun) her/him [object]; him/her [object] | third person object (3.O) in a verb phrase, the object is impacted by the verb, and is not the subject the standard in Tlingit is to write all single letter object pronouns as part of the verb prefix and all pronouns more than one letter as part of the preverb, except for «ḵu-» open object pronouns (ending in a vowel) will cause contraction in the verb prefix the default form is «∅-» but will change to «a-» if the subject is also third person [∅-] and there is no ergative marker in the verb phrase other object pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

x̱at | me [object] →  first person singular object (1s.O)

haa | us [object] →  first person plural object (1p.O)

i- | you [object] →  second person singular object (2s.O)

yee | you all [object] →  second person plural object (2p.O)

∅- ⁓ a- | her/him →  third person object (3.O)

has + ∅- ⁓ a- | them [object] →  third person pluralizer (3pl)

ash | this gal/guy [object] →  third person proximal object (3prx.O)

ḵaa ⁓ ḵu- | someone [object] →  fourth person human object (4h.O)

at | something [object] →  fourth person nonhuman object (4n.O)

aa- | one, some [object] →  partitive object (part.O)

sh ⁓ ∅- | -self →  reflexive object (rflx.O)

woosh, wooch | each other, together [object] →  reciprocal object (recip.O)

∅ conjugation motion preverbs | these preverbs create motion verbs using the ∅ conjugation prefix

motion towards a terminus

N-{t,x̱,de} | arriving at N; coming to N

neil(t) ⁓ neilx̱ ⁓ neildé | moving inside; coming home

N-xʼ + neil(t) | moving inside house at N

haat ⁓ haax̱ ⁓ haa(n)dé | coming to our vicinity

yóo-{t,x̱,de} | going away; going off somewhere

kux ⁓ kuxx̱ ⁓ kúxde | moving aground; into shallow water

ÿan ⁓ ÿax̱ ⁓ ÿánde | moving ashore; to rest; completing

N-xʼ + ÿan | coming to rest at N

N-náx̱ + ÿan | moving across N; to the other side of N

ÿan + kʼi- | setting up; erecting

ÿan + sha- | setting up; leaning against

motion toward area

kei | moving up

ux̱ + kei | moving out of control, blindly, amiss

N-x̱ʼé-xʼ + kei | catching up with N

yei | disembark, exit boat or other vehicle

yeiḵ ⁓ yeeḵ | moving down to shore

héeni + yeiḵ | moving down into water

daaḵ | moving up from shore; back from open

dáag̱i + daaḵ | moving farther up from shore

ḵwáaḵx̱ + daaḵ | moving by mistake, wrongly

daak | seaward; out into open; falling from sky

ḵux̱ ⁓ ḵux̱dé [+d] | reverting; returning

N-xʼ ḵux̱ [+d] | reverting to N; returning to N

motion confined to a location

N-xʼ | coming near N

N-ÿa | coming up to N

N + gunaÿa- | separating from N

N + jishá- | getting ahead of N

gági | emerging; coming out into open

dáagi | coming out of water

héeni | going into water

g̱unayéi ⁓ g̱unéi | beginning

N-x̱ | moving in place at N; while stuck at N

N-xʼ + ÿax̱ | turning over by N

áa + ÿax̱ | turning over

shú + ÿax̱ | turning over end by end

ÿetx̱ | starting, taking off, picking up

oscillating motion

yoo | moving back and forth; to and fro

ÿan + yoo | moving up and down (from surface)

hanging

N-x̱ sha-ÿa-oo | hanging up at N

ÿax̱ + sha-ÿa-oo | hanging up

revertive motion

a-ÿa-oo [+d] | reverting, turning back

kei + a-ÿa-oo [+d] | escape, flee, run away

oblique unbounded motion

N-x̱ + ÿa-oo ⁓ ÿaa | moving obliquely, circuitously along N

N + daa-x̱ | circling around N

N-dé + ÿa-oo ⁓ ÿaa | moving obliquely, circuitously toward N

hé-dé | moving over that way, aside, out of the way

N-dáx̱ + ÿa-oo ⁓ ÿaa | moving obliquely, circuitously away from N

N + jikaa-dáx̱ | getting out of Nʼs way

N-náx̱ + ÿa-oo ⁓ ÿaa | moving obliquely, circuitously along, through N

N-xʼ + ÿa-oo ⁓ ÿaa | moving obliquely, circuitously at N

N + daséi-xʼ | exchanging places with N

woosh + kaanáx̱ [+d] | gathering together, assembling

a 1 (possessive pronoun) its | third person nonhuman possessive (3N.P) used to show a relationship between things, including ownership («haa aaní» – “our land”), kinship term origination («du éesh» – “her/his father”), the link to a relational base («ax̱ x̱áni» – “next to me”), and conjugation of certain verbs («du toowú sigóo» – “s/he is happy”) other possessive pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

ax̱ | my →  first person singular possessive (1s.P)

haa | our →  first person plural possessive (1p.P)

i | your →  second person singular possessive (2s.P)

yee | you allʼs →  second person plural possessive (2p.P)

du | her/his →  third person human singular possessive (3Hs.P)

has du ⁓ s du | their →  third person plural possessive (3p.P)

a | its →  third person nonhuman possessive (3N.P)

ash | this galʼs/guyʼs →  third person proximal possessive (3prx.P)

a | that other galʼs/guyʼs →  third person obviate possessive (3obv.P)

ḵaa | someoneʼs →  fourth person human possessive (4h.P)

at | somethingʼs →  fourth person nonhuman possessive (4n.P)

aa | oneʼs, someʼs →  partitive possessive (part.P)

chush ⁓ sh- | -selfʼs →  reflexive possessive (rflx.P)

woosh, wooch | each otherʼs →  reciprocal possessive (recip.P)

a 2 (possessive pronoun) gal; guy | that other galʼs/guyʼs | third person obviate possessive (3obv.P) used to show a relationship between things, including ownership («haa aaní» – “our land”), kinship term origination («du éesh» – “her/his father”), the link to a relational base («ax̱ x̱áni» – “next to me”), and conjugation of certain verbs («du toowú sigóo» – “s/he is happy”) other possessive pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

ax̱ | my →  first person singular possessive (1s.P)

haa | our →  first person plural possessive (1p.P)

i | your →  second person singular possessive (2s.P)

yee | you allʼs →  second person plural possessive (2p.P)

du | her/his →  third person human singular possessive (3Hs.P)

has du ⁓ s du | their →  third person plural possessive (3p.P)

a | its →  third person nonhuman possessive (3N.P)

ash | this galʼs/guyʼs →  third person proximal possessive (3prx.P)

a | that other galʼs/guyʼs →  third person obviate possessive (3obv.P)

ḵaa | someoneʼs →  fourth person human possessive (4h.P)

at | somethingʼs →  fourth person nonhuman possessive (4n.P)

aa | oneʼs, someʼs →  partitive possessive (part.P)

chush ⁓ sh- | -selfʼs →  reflexive possessive (rflx.P)

woosh, wooch | each otherʼs →  reciprocal possessive (recip.P)

a- (subject pronoun) someone [subject in a motion verb, appears as an object pronoun] | fourth person human subject (4h.S) in a verb phrase, the subject is the agent in the verb used to indicate an unspecified person is the pronoun, and best translated as “someone” as a subject in verbs, it translates to “the verb occurs,” as in «yoo duwasáakw» (it is called), «hít wududliyéx̱» (a house was built), and «adulʼeix̱ ax̱áa» (dance paddle) will make all ∅ classifiers –d and all non-∅ classifiers (s,l,sh) +d regardless of verb theme or mode will appear as «a-» in the object position for motion verbs other subject pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

x̱a- | i [subject] →  first person singular subject (1s.S)

tu- | we [subject] →  first person plural subject (1p.S)

i- | you [subject] →  second person singular subject (2s.S)

yi- | you all [subject] →  second person plural subject (2p.S)

∅- | s/he [subject] →  third person subject (3.S)

has + ∅- | they [subject] →  third person pluralizer (3pl)

du- | someone [subject] →  fourth person human subject (4h.S)

woosh, wooch | each other, together [subject] →  reciprocal subject (recip.S)

a- ⁓ ∅- (object pronoun) her/him [object]; him/her [object] | third person object (3.O) in a verb phrase, the object is impacted by the verb, and is not the subject the standard in Tlingit is to write all single letter object pronouns as part of the verb prefix and all pronouns more than one letter as part of the preverb, except for «ḵu-» open object pronouns (ending in a vowel) will cause contraction in the verb prefix the default form is «∅-» but will change to «a-» if the subject is also third person [∅-] and there is no ergative marker in the verb phrase other object pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

x̱at | me [object] →  first person singular object (1s.O)

haa | us [object] →  first person plural object (1p.O)

i- | you [object] →  second person singular object (2s.O)

yee | you all [object] →  second person plural object (2p.O)

∅- ⁓ a- | her/him →  third person object (3.O)

has + ∅- ⁓ a- | them [object] →  third person pluralizer (3pl)

ash | this gal/guy [object] →  third person proximal object (3prx.O)

ḵaa ⁓ ḵu- | someone [object] →  fourth person human object (4h.O)

at | something [object] →  fourth person nonhuman object (4n.O)

aa- | one, some [object] →  partitive object (part.O)

sh ⁓ ∅- | -self →  reflexive object (rflx.O)

woosh, wooch | each other, together [object] →  reciprocal object (recip.O)

a dákx̱u (compound noun) food | steamed food | a + √dákw-x̱-u →  its-(3n.p) + √cooked-in-pit.[repetitive].[relational] (JL)

a daax̱ yaa dulsheech át (compound noun) banister; railing | "thing people go along touching around it" | a + daa-x̱ + yaa + du-l-√shee-ch + át →  its-(4n.P) + around/about.along/repeatedly + along + someone-(4h.S).cl-(–d,l,–i).√touch.[repetitive] + thing-(4n.i) (KE)

a déinde aa (compound noun) close ²; rest ²; vicinity | the one(s) in the vicinity of it; the rest of it/them | a + déin-de + aa →  its-(3N.P) + vicinity.towards + one(s)-(part.i) (KE)

a géit yaa nasgít (verbal noun) shenanigans | "violating it (law or custom)" | a + géi-t + yaa + na-s-√gít →  its-(3n.P) + against/opposing.at-(arrived) + along + (progressive).cl-(+d,s,–i).√acts-so (SE)

a ít aa (compound noun) • variants: e ítde aa (C) • after | the following one; the next one | a + ít + aa →  its-(4n.P) + following + one(s)-(part.i) (KE)

a ee- ⁓ a- (postpositional pronoun) that other gal/guy: (to) that other gal/guy | third person obviate postpositional (3obv.PP) used in certain verbs where something is going towards the object (literally or figuratively) a special type of pronoun that combines three things: possessive pronoun, empty base, and relational suffix other possessive pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

ax̱ ee- ⁓ x̱aan | (to) me →  first person singular postpositional (1s.PP)

haa ee- ⁓ haan | (to) us →  first person plural postpositional (1p.PP)

i ee- | (to) you →  second person singular postpositional (2s.PP)

yee ee- | (to) you all →  second person plural postpositional (2p.PP)

du ee- ⁓ u- | (to) her/him →  third person human singular postpositional (3s.PP)

has du ee- ⁓ s du ee- | (to) them →  third person plural postpositional (3p.PP)

a ee- ⁓ aan | (to) it →  third person nonhuman postpositional (3p.PP)

ash ee- | (to) this gal/guy →  third person proximal postpositional (3prx.PP)

a ee- ⁓ a- | (to) that other gal/guy →  third person obviate postpositional (3obv.PP)

ḵaa ee- ⁓ ḵu ee- ⁓ ḵoon | (to) someone →  fourth person human postpositional (4h.PP)

at ee- | (to) something →  fourth person nonhuman postpositional (4n.PP)

aa ee- | (to) one, some →  partitive postpositional (part.PP)

chush | (to) -selfʼs →  reflexive postpositional (rflx.PP)

woosh, wooch | (to) each other →  reciprocal postpositional (recip.PP)

a ee- ⁓ aan (postpositional pronoun) it | (to) it | third person nonhuman postpositional (3p.PP) used in certain verbs where something is going towards the object (literally or figuratively) a special type of pronoun that combines three things: possessive pronoun, empty base, and relational suffix other possessive pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

ax̱ ee- ⁓ x̱aan | (to) me →  first person singular postpositional (1s.PP)

haa ee- ⁓ haan | (to) us →  first person plural postpositional (1p.PP)

i ee- | (to) you →  second person singular postpositional (2s.PP)

yee ee- | (to) you all →  second person plural postpositional (2p.PP)

du ee- ⁓ u- | (to) her/him →  third person human singular postpositional (3s.PP)

has du ee- ⁓ s du ee- | (to) them →  third person plural postpositional (3p.PP)

a ee- ⁓ aan | (to) it →  third person nonhuman postpositional (3p.PP)

ash ee- | (to) this gal/guy →  third person proximal postpositional (3prx.PP)

a ee- ⁓ a- | (to) that other gal/guy →  third person obviate postpositional (3obv.PP)

ḵaa ee- ⁓ ḵu ee- ⁓ ḵoon | (to) someone →  fourth person human postpositional (4h.PP)

at ee- | (to) something →  fourth person nonhuman postpositional (4n.PP)

aa ee- | (to) one, some →  partitive postpositional (part.PP)

chush | (to) -selfʼs →  reflexive postpositional (rflx.PP)

woosh, wooch | (to) each other →  reciprocal postpositional (recip.PP)

a jáḵwti (verbal noun) thing; beat up | beat up old thing | a + √jáḵw-t-i →  its-(3n.p) + √beat-up.[repetitive].[relational] (JL)

a kachóox (compound noun) dough; clay | dough shaped with hands; clay shaped with hands; something shaped by hands and clay-like or dough-like; "its thing shaped by hand" | a + ka-∅-√chóox →  its-(3n.p) + hsf.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√rub/massage (JL)

a kagaadí (compound noun) • variants: hít kagaadí • rafter | a + ka-∅-√gaat-í →  its-(3n.p) + hsf.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√rafter.[relational] (JL)

a kagúḵxʼu (noun) • variants: góoḵ • egg | dried salmon eggs | usually dried in stomach or gunnysack strung in tree | a + ka-∅-√gúḵ-xʼ-u →  its-(3n.p) + hsf.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√dry-salmon-eggs.[repetitive].[relational] (JL)

a kaxóowu (compound noun) rick: big rock used as a weight | "its rock on it for weight" | a + ka-∅-√xóow-u →  its-(3n.p) + hsf.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√weigh-down-with-rocks.[relational] (JL)

a kát dul.usʼku át (compound noun) • variants: a káa dul.usʼku át • washboard | "thing on which people wash" | ká-t + du-l-√.usʼ-k-u + át →  on.at-(arriving) + someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,l,–i).√wash.[repetitive].[relational] + thing-(4n.i) (KE)

a kát sh is.éex̱ át (compound noun) crockpot; cooker: slow cooker | a + ká-t + sh + i-s-√.ée-x̱ + át →  its-(4n.p) + on.at-(arrived) + self-(rflx.O) + [peg vowel].cl-(+d,s,–i).√cook.[repetitive] + thing-(4n.i) (JL)

a kát sh kadultsex̱t át (compound noun) bicycle | "thing a person kicks themselves around on" | a + ká-t + sh + ka-du-l-√tsex̱-t + át →  its-(3n.P) + on.at-(arrived) + [reflexive] + hsf.someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,l,–i).√kick.[repetitive] + thing-(4n.i) (KE)

a kát yadu.usʼgu át (compound noun) • variants: a kát yadu.usʼgu sʼíxʼ • wash basin | "thing on which the face is washed" | a + ká-t + ya-du-∅-√.usʼ-k-u + át →  its-(3n.p) + on.at-(arrived) vsf.someone-(4h.S).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√wash.[repetitive].[relational] + thing-(4n.i) (JL)

a káxʼ yóok duwahéigi át (compound noun) stirrer; stirring stick | a + ká-xʼ + yóo-k + du-ÿa-√háa-k-i + át →  its-(3n.P) + on.at-(residing) + along.[repetitive] + someone-(4h.S).cl-(–d,∅,+i).√move-(small parts).[repetitive].[relational] + thing-(4n.i) (EM)

a káx̱ sh kawdujiléedi át (compound noun) slide (at a park) | "thing on which people slide themselves" | (JM) a + ka-x̱ + sh + du-ji-√léet-i + át →  something-(4n.P) + on.at-(repeatedly) + rflx + someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,sh,+i).√slide.[relational] + thing-(4n.i)

a káa dulséix̱ yagee (compound noun) • variants: a káa dulséix̱ yakyee • Sunday | "a day of rest" | a + káa + du-l-√sáa-x̱ + yagee →  its-(3n.p) + on + someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,l,–i)-√rest.[repetitive] + day (JL)

a káa dul.usʼku át (compound noun) washboard | "thing on which things are washed" | a + ká + du-l-√.usʼ-k-u + át →  its-(3n.P) + on + someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,l,–i).√wash.[repetitive].[relational] + thing-(4n.i) (KE) • variants: kát dul.usʼku át •

a káa ḵududziteeyi yoo x̱ʼatánk (compound noun) law; words one lives by | "words a person lives on" | a + ká + ḵu-du-dzi-√tee-yi + yoo + x̱ʼa-∅-√tán-k →  its-(3n.P) + on + areal.someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,s,+i).√be.[relational] + along + mouth.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√communicate.[repetitive] (KE)

a náax̱ adux̱aa át (compound noun) oarlock | "thing through which a person oars" | originally two sturdy pegs or sticks inserted into sides of boat | a + náax̱ + a-du-∅-√x̱aa + át →  its-(3n.p) + ? + a-theme.someone-(4h.S).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√paddle + thing-(4n.i) (JL)

a siyeiḵ (compound noun) • variants: a sayeiḵ (T) • day: the next day | usually with a «-xʼ» relational suffix | (JL)

a tayeex̱ nasyéḵ (compound noun) • variants: a tayeex̱ nasyíḵ • underline | "marking underneath it" | a + tayee-x̱ + na-s-√yéḵ →  its-(4n.p) + underneath-repeatedly/along + na-md.cl-(–d,s,–i).√mark (FS)

a tuḵ akoogaanjí (compound noun) firefly | "its butt is always lit" | a + tuḵ + a-ka-ÿu-∅-ÿa-√gaan-ch-í →  its-(4n.P) + butt/bottom + her/him/it-(3.O).hsf.[perfective].s/he-(3.S).cl-(–d,∅,+i).√burn/light.[repeatedly].[relational]

a tóo at dultʼixʼx̱i át (compound noun) • variants: a tóo at iltʼixʼx̱ át • freezer | "thing that freezes something inside of it" | a + tóo + at + du-l-√tʼixʼ-x̱-i + át →  its-(4n.P) + inside + something-(4n.O) + someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,l,–i).√freeze/harden.[repetitive].[relational] + thing-(4n.i) (JL)

a tóo at is.atʼx̱i át (compound noun) refrigerator | "thing in which things are chilled" | a + tóo + at + i-s√.atʼ-x̱-i + át →  its-(3n.p) + inside + something-(4n.O) + peg-vowel.cl-(+d,s,–i).√cold.[repeatedly].[relational] + thing-(4n.i) (JL)

a tóo sh isxuk át (compound noun) dryer | "thing in which things dry themselves" | a + tóo + sh + i-s-√xuk + át →  its-(3n.p) + inside + self-(rflx.O) + peg-vowel.cl-(+d,s,–i).√dry + thing-(4n.i) (JL)

a tóo yoo kawdzigít (compound noun) experience | something a person has been through; "s/he fell through it" | a + tóo + yoo + ka-ÿu-dzi-√gít →  its-(3n.p) + inside + too/fro + hsf.pfv.cl-(+d,s,+i).√fall/occur (GD, MD)

a tóonáx̱ héen naadaayi át (compound noun) pipe | pipe for carrying water; "thing through which water flows" | a + tóo-náx̱ + héen + na-∅-√daa-yi + át →  its-(3n.p) + inside.through/via + water + na-md.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√flow/run.[relational] + thing-(4n.i) (JL)

a tóonáx̱ kadusʼíḵsʼ át (compound noun) straw (for drinking) | "thing that somone draws through it by sucking" | a + tóo-náx̱ + ka-du-∅-√sʼíḵ-sʼ + át →  its-(4n.P) + inside.through + hsf.someone-(4h.S).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√draw-out-(by suction).[repetitive] + thing-(4n.i) (KE) • variants: kaxéesʼ •

a tóonáx̱ yoo x̱ʼadul.átgi át (compound noun) phone; telephone | "thing through which someone talks" | a + tú-náx̱ + yoo + x̱ʼa-du-l-√.át-k-i + át →  its(3n.P) + inside.through + along + mouth.someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,l,–i).√communicate.[repetitive].[relational] + thing-(4n.i) (RD)

a x̱oo aa (compound noun) some of them | "the one(s) among it" | a + x̱oo + aa →  its-(4n.P) + among + one(s)-(part.i) (KE)

a x̱ʼéix̱ yei sheich katíx̱ʼaa (compound noun) padlock | "key that joins it at the mouth" | a + x̱ʼéi-x̱ + yei + sheich + katíx̱ʼaa →  its-(3n.p) + mouth.at-(repeatedly) + downward + ? + key (JL)

a yáx̱ (particle) like: itʼs like that | often appears with «áwé» as in «a yáx̱ áwé!» (thatʼs what itʼs like!)

ach kooshx̱ʼílʼaa yeit (compound noun) sled (for recreational sledding) | "the one(s) beneath to slide with” | áa-ch + ka-ÿu-sh-√x̱ʼílʼ-aa + yee-át →  something-(4n.i).erg-(inst) + hsf.[perfective].cl-(+d,sh,–i).√slip/slide.the-one(s)-(part.i) + beneath.thing-(4n.i) (KE)

adawóotl (verbal noun) war; trouble; rush; hurry | “s/he troubled/warred” | (KE) a-∅-da-√wóotl →  her/him/it-(3.O).s/he-(3.S).cl-(+d,∅,–i).√agitated/trouble/war

adátxʼi (compound noun) children | “somethingʼs children” | this could be translated as "somethingʼs children" but always refers to human children | (KE) at + yát-xʼ-i →  [somethingʼs-(4n.P) + child.pos] • variants: atyátxʼi, atyétxʼi (T), adétxʼi (T), edétxʼi (C) •

adátxʼi áa dultini yé (compound noun) daycare; preschool | "place where children are watched / cared for" | at-yát-xʼ-i + áa + du-l-√tin-i + yé →  somethingʼs-(4n.p).child.[plural].[relational] + place + someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,l,–i).√see.[relational] + place (NJ, WA)

adátxʼi daat yawustaag̱i ḵáa (compound noun) guardian at liedem | "protects & serves the children" | adátxʼi + daat + ya-ÿu-s-√taaḵ-i + ḵáa →  children + about + vsf.pfv.cl-(+d,s,–i)√care-for.[relational] + person-(4h.i) (GD, MD)

adulʼeix̱ ax̱áa (compound noun) dance paddle | a-du-∅-√lʼeix̱ + a-∅-√x̱áa →  [a-theme].someone-(4h.S).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√dance + [a-theme].cl-(–d,∅,–i).√paddle

ag̱anáa (interjection) oh no! | often used to express grief or regret; sometimes used for pretend grief | (KE)

akoolx̱éitlʼ (verbal noun) fear | a-ka-ÿu-l-√x̱éitlʼ →  a-theme.hsf.pfv.cl-(+d,l,–i).√afraid (JL)

aldaawáa (noun) checkers; games played using string in the hands | (KE)

alḵáa (verbal noun) • variants: at ilḵáa • stick gambling; gambling; bingo; game of chance | a-l-ḵáa →  [a-theme].cl-(+d,l,–i).√gamble-(with sticks) (KE)

alʼeix̱ (verbal noun) dance | a-∅-√lʼeix̱ →  [a-theme]cl-(–d,∅,–i).√dance (KE)

alʼóon (verbal noun) hunt | a-∅-√lʼóon →  [a-theme].cl-(–d,∅,–i).√hunt (KE)

alʼóoni (verbal noun) hunter | a-∅-√lʼóon-i →  [a-theme].cl-(–d,∅,–i).√hunt.[relational] (KE)

anahoo (noun) rutabaga; turnip | (KE)

anax̱ (particle) through it; along it | áa-náx̱ →  it.through/along (KE) || (preverb) | for motion verbs, creates a na-conjugation motion verb (unbounded)

Ana.óot (borrowed noun) • variants: Giyaḵw, Gutéix̱ʼ • Aleut | from Sugpiaq aluʼuut: people/community | (JC, KE)

Anáaski (borrowed noun) • variants: Anásgi • Alaska | from Unangan Alaxsxi-x: object to which the action of the sea is directed | Bergsland, Knut (ed.) (1994). Aleut Dictionary: Unangam Tunudgusii. Alaska Native Language Center (KE)

Anóoshi (borrowed noun) Russian | (KE)

Anóoshi aaní (compound noun) Russia | "Russian land" | Anóoshi + aan-í →  Russian + land-(occupied).[relational] (KE)

Anóoshi héeni (compound noun) vodka | "Russian water" | Anóoshi + héen-i →  Russian + water/river.[possessive]

asg̱eiwú (verbal noun) seiner; fisher: seine fisher; seine boat; boat: seine boat | a-s-√g̱eiwú →  [a-theme].cl-(+d,s,–i).√web/seine (KE)

asḵuḵgu náakw (compound noun) medicine: cough medicine | "coughing medicine" | the verb root for cough has been documented as √ḵooḵ and √kooḵ, and is presented here as √ḵooḵ | a-s-√ḵúḵ-kw-u + náakw →  a-theme.cl-(+d,s,–i).√cough.[repeatedly].[relational] + medicine (JL, NS) (JL)

astʼeix̱í (verbal noun) fisher (troller) | "fishes with a hook" | a-s-√tʼeix̱-í →  [a-theme].cl-(+d,s,–i).√fish-(with hook).[relational] (KE)

asxʼaan sháachʼi (compound noun) bird: green bird (sparrow or finch); sparrow: green bird (sparrow or finch); finch: green bird (sparrow or finch) | "green plant on the tip of the tree branch" | aas-xʼaan + sháachʼ-i →  tree.tip-(of branch) + green-plant-that-grows-on-trees.[relational] (KE, JL)

asxʼeit (verbal noun) • variants: asxʼeet (At,T) • hunting | (JL)

ash 1 (independent pronoun) this guy/gal | third person proximal independent (3prx.i) independent pronouns are not linked to anything grammatically, and are most often used in phrases like «yáadu x̱át» (here i am) and «uháan áyá» (it is us) "proximate third person represents the topic of discourse, the person nearest the speaker’s point of view, or the person ealier spoken of and already known.” (Bloomfield 1962: 38) other independent pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

x̱át | me →  first person singular independent (1s.i)

uháan | us →  first person plural independent (1p.i)

wa.é | you →  second person singular independent (2s.i)

yeewháan | you all →  second person plural independent (2p.i)

hú | s/he →  third person human singular independent (3Hs.i)

hás | them →  third person plural independent (3p.i)

á | it →  third person nonhuman independent (3N.i)

ash | this gal/guy →  third person proximal independent (3prx.i)

á | that other gal/guy →  third person obviate independent (3obv.i)

ḵáa | someone →  fourth person human independent (4h.i)

át | something →  fourth person nonhuman independent (4n.i)

aa | one, some →  partitive independent (part.i)

chúsh | -self →  reflexive independent (rflx.i)

wóosh, wóoch | each other, together →  reciprocal independent (recip.i)

ash 2 (possessive pronoun) this galʼs/guyʼs | third person proximal possessive (3prx.P) used to show a relationship between things, including ownership («haa aaní» – “our land”), kinship term origination («du éesh» – “her/his father”), the link to a relational base («ax̱ x̱áni» – “next to me”), and conjugation of certain verbs («du toowú sigóo» – “s/he is happy”) "proximate third person represents the topic of discourse, the person nearest the speaker’s point of view, or the person ealier spoken of and already known.” (Bloomfield 1962: 38) other possessive pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

ax̱ | my →  first person singular possessive (1s.P)

haa | our →  first person plural possessive (1p.P)

i | your →  second person singular possessive (2s.P)

yee | you allʼs →  second person plural possessive (2p.P)

du | her/his →  third person human singular possessive (3Hs.P)

has du ⁓ s du | their →  third person plural possessive (3p.P)

a | its →  third person nonhuman possessive (3N.P)

ash | this galʼs/guyʼs →  third person proximal possessive (3prx.P)

a | that other galʼs/guyʼs →  third person obviate possessive (3obv.P)

ḵaa | someoneʼs →  fourth person human possessive (4h.P)

at | somethingʼs →  fourth person nonhuman possessive (4n.P)

aa | oneʼs, someʼs →  partitive possessive (part.P)

chush ⁓ sh- | -selfʼs →  reflexive possessive (rflx.P)

woosh, wooch | each otherʼs →  reciprocal possessive (recip.P)

ash 3 (object pronoun) this gal/guy [object] | third person proximal object (3prx.O) in a verb phrase, the object is impacted by the verb, and is not the subject the standard in Tlingit is to write all single letter object pronouns as part of the verb prefix and all pronouns more than one letter as part of the preverb, except for «ḵu-» open object pronouns (ending in a vowel) will cause contraction in the verb prefix "proximate third person represents the topic of discourse, the person nearest the speaker’s point of view, or the person ealier spoken of and already known.” (Bloomfield 1962: 38) other object pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

x̱at | me [object] →  first person singular object (1s.O)

haa | us [object] →  first person plural object (1p.O)

i- | you [object] →  second person singular object (2s.O)

yee | you all [object] →  second person plural object (2p.O)

∅- ⁓ a- | her/him →  third person object (3.O)

has + ∅- ⁓ a- | them [object] →  third person pluralizer (3pl)

ash | this gal/guy [object] →  third person proximal object (3prx.O)

ḵaa ⁓ ḵu- | someone [object] →  fourth person human object (4h.O)

at | something [object] →  fourth person nonhuman object (4n.O)

aa- | one, some [object] →  partitive object (part.O)

sh ⁓ ∅- | -self →  reflexive object (rflx.O)

woosh, wooch | each other, together [object] →  reciprocal object (recip.O)

ash ee- (postpositional pronoun) this gal/guy: (to) this gal/guy | third person proximal postpositional (3prx.PP) used in certain verbs where something is going towards the object (literally or figuratively) a special type of pronoun that combines three things: possessive pronoun, empty base, and relational suffix other possessive pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

ax̱ ee- ⁓ x̱aan | (to) me →  first person singular postpositional (1s.PP)

haa ee- ⁓ haan | (to) us →  first person plural postpositional (1p.PP)

i ee- | (to) you →  second person singular postpositional (2s.PP)

yee ee- | (to) you all →  second person plural postpositional (2p.PP)

du ee- ⁓ u- | (to) her/him →  third person human singular postpositional (3s.PP)

has du ee- ⁓ s du ee- | (to) them →  third person plural postpositional (3p.PP)

a ee- ⁓ aan | (to) it →  third person nonhuman postpositional (3p.PP)

ash ee- | (to) this gal/guy →  third person proximal postpositional (3prx.PP)

a ee- ⁓ a- | (to) that other gal/guy →  third person obviate postpositional (3obv.PP)

ḵaa ee- ⁓ ḵu ee- ⁓ ḵoon | (to) someone →  fourth person human postpositional (4h.PP)

at ee- | (to) something →  fourth person nonhuman postpositional (4n.PP)

aa ee- | (to) one, some →  partitive postpositional (part.PP)

chush | (to) -selfʼs →  reflexive postpositional (rflx.PP)

woosh, wooch | (to) each other →  reciprocal postpositional (recip.PP)

ash kadulyát yé (compound noun) playground | "the place people play" | a-sh + ka-du-l-√yát + yé →  it-[inst] + hsf.someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,l,–i).√child + place/way (SE)

at 1 (object pronoun) something [object] | fourth person nonhuman object (4n.O) in a verb phrase, the object is impacted by the verb, and is not the subject the standard in Tlingit is to write all single letter object pronouns as part of the verb prefix and all pronouns more than one letter as part of the preverb, except for «ḵu-» open object pronouns (ending in a vowel) will cause contraction in the verb prefix used to indicate that an unspecified thing is the pronoun, and is best translated as "something" as an object can signal the unidentified as in «at x̱waa.áx̱» (i hear something), or can create special meanings as an object verbs, such as: «adaná» (s/he is drinking it) and «at daná» (s/he is drinking alcohol) other object pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

x̱at | me [object] →  first person singular object (1s.O)

haa | us [object] →  first person plural object (1p.O)

i- | you [object] →  second person singular object (2s.O)

yee | you all [object] →  second person plural object (2p.O)

∅- ⁓ a- | her/him →  third person object (3.O)

has + ∅- ⁓ a- | them [object] →  third person pluralizer (3pl)

ash | this gal/guy [object] →  third person proximal object (3prx.O)

ḵaa ⁓ ḵu- | someone [object] →  fourth person human object (4h.O)

at | something [object] →  fourth person nonhuman object (4n.O)

aa- | one, some [object] →  partitive object (part.O)

sh ⁓ ∅- | -self →  reflexive object (rflx.O)

woosh, wooch | each other, together [object] →  reciprocal object (recip.O)

at 2 (possessive pronoun) somethingʼs | fourth person nonhuman possessive (4n.P) used to show a relationship between things, including ownership («haa aaní» – “our land”), kinship term origination («du éesh» – “her/his father”), the link to a relational base («ax̱ x̱áni» – “next to me”), and conjugation of certain verbs («du toowú sigóo» – “s/he is happy”) other possessive pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

ax̱ | my →  first person singular possessive (1s.P)

haa | our →  first person plural possessive (1p.P)

i | your →  second person singular possessive (2s.P)

yee | you allʼs →  second person plural possessive (2p.P)

du | her/his →  third person human singular possessive (3Hs.P)

has du ⁓ s du | their →  third person plural possessive (3p.P)

a | its →  third person nonhuman possessive (3N.P)

ash | this galʼs/guyʼs →  third person proximal possessive (3prx.P)

a | that other galʼs/guyʼs →  third person obviate possessive (3obv.P)

ḵaa | someoneʼs →  fourth person human possessive (4h.P)

at | somethingʼs →  fourth person nonhuman possessive (4n.P)

aa | oneʼs, someʼs →  partitive possessive (part.P)

chush ⁓ sh- | -selfʼs →  reflexive possessive (rflx.P)

woosh, wooch | each otherʼs →  reciprocal possessive (recip.P)

at ashoowatán (verbal noun) mean something; signify something; denote something; simile | "to compare one’s words to things" | (NR, NS) at + a-shu-ÿu-ÿa-√tán →  something-(4n.O) + [a-theme].end.pfv.cl-(–d,∅,+i).√tán

at áatʼláni (compound noun) • variants: átʼláni • food: cold food; drink: cold drink; seafood: raw seafood | at + √áatʼ-láni →  something-(4n.O) + √cold.[??] (JL)

at chʼéx̱ʼdi (verbal noun) cursor (on computer) | "points at something" | at + ∅-√chʼéx̱ʼ-t-i →  something-(4n.O) + cl-(–d,∅,–i).√point (HC, FS)

at danáayi (verbal noun) drunk ¹; drunkard | "drinking something" | at + da-√náa-yi →  something-(4n.O) + cl-(+d,∅,–i).√drink.[relational] (KE)

at dáli (verbal noun) weight: a certain measure of weight; pound (weight unit) | at + ∅-√dál-i →  something-(4n.O) + cl-(–d,∅,–i).√be-heavy.[relational] (JL)

at daayí (compound noun) birch | "somethingʼs bark" | at + daayí →  somethingʼs-(4n.P) + bark (KE)

at daayí ḵákw (compound noun) basket: birch bark basket | "somethingʼs bark basket" | at + daayí + ḵákw →  somethingʼs-(4n.P) + bark + basket (KE)

at daa.ideidí (compound noun) frame (of house, boat, etc) | "thing of somethingʼs body" | at + daa.-it-át-í →  somethingʼs-(4n.p) + body/around.remnant.thing-(4n.i).[relational] (JL)

at dultʼéexʼ (verbal noun) cast (to help set a broken bone) | at + du-l-√tʼéexʼ →  something-(4n.O) + someone-(4n.S).cl-(+d,l,–i).√frozen/hard (JL)

at duxáshgu (verbal noun) tongue: cut tongues for an íx̱tʼ | "cut from something" | in order to gain spiritual power, an íx̱tʼ would fast regularly, and if it were meant to be an animal would present itself and then die in front of the fasting íx̱tʼ, who would then cut the tongue and keep it in a pouch, thus gaining spiritual power by having that animal as a «yeik» (spirit helper) | (JL)

at gutu.ádi (compound noun) animal in the woods; animal that walks on land | "thing of the woods"; "thing of the wilderness" | at + gú-tú-át-i →  somethingʼs-(4n.P) + base.inside.thing-(4n.i).[relational]

at gutú (landform) woods; bush; brush ¹; underbrush; wilderness; forest | "inside the base of something" | (KE) at + gú-tú →  somethingʼs-(4n.P) + base.inside • variants: at gatú (T), et getú (C) •

at ee- (postpositional pronoun) something: (to) something | fourth person nonhuman postpositional (4n.PP) used in certain verbs where something is going towards the object (literally or figuratively) a special type of pronoun that combines three things: possessive pronoun, empty base, and relational suffix other possessive pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

ax̱ ee- ⁓ x̱aan | (to) me →  first person singular postpositional (1s.PP)

haa ee- ⁓ haan | (to) us →  first person plural postpositional (1p.PP)

i ee- | (to) you →  second person singular postpositional (2s.PP)

yee ee- | (to) you all →  second person plural postpositional (2p.PP)

du ee- ⁓ u- | (to) her/him →  third person human singular postpositional (3s.PP)

has du ee- ⁓ s du ee- | (to) them →  third person plural postpositional (3p.PP)

a ee- ⁓ aan | (to) it →  third person nonhuman postpositional (3p.PP)

ash ee- | (to) this gal/guy →  third person proximal postpositional (3prx.PP)

a ee- ⁓ a- | (to) that other gal/guy →  third person obviate postpositional (3obv.PP)

ḵaa ee- ⁓ ḵu ee- ⁓ ḵoon | (to) someone →  fourth person human postpositional (4h.PP)

at ee- | (to) something →  fourth person nonhuman postpositional (4n.PP)

aa ee- | (to) one, some →  partitive postpositional (part.PP)

chush | (to) -selfʼs →  reflexive postpositional (rflx.PP)

woosh, wooch | (to) each other →  reciprocal postpositional (recip.PP)

at éewu (verbal noun) food: cooked food | "something cooked" | at + ∅-√.ée(w)-u →  something-(4n.O) + cl-(–d,∅,–i).√cook.[relational] (JL)

at kachʼáakʼu (verbal noun) carver | "carves something" | at + ka-∅-√chʼáakʼw-u →  something-(4n.O) + hsf.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√carve-design/incise.[relational] (KE)

at kahéeni (compound noun) juice | at + ka-héen-i →  somethingʼs-(4n.p) + on.water.(possessive) (KE)

at kasayé (verbal noun) strange: something strange | at + ka-sa-√yé →  something-(4n.O) + hsf.cl-(–d,s,–i).√strange (JL)

at katáxʼaa (verbal noun) pliers | "the one that something" | at + ka-√táxʼ-aa →  something-(4n.O) + hsf.√bite.one(s)-(part.i) (KE) • variants: kakatáxʼaa •

at katé (verbal noun) bullet | at + ka-∅-√té →  something-(4n.O) + hsf.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√rock (KE)

at kax̱útʼti (verbal noun) wood chips (from adzing) | at + ka-∅-√x̱útʼ-t-i →  something-(4n.O) + hsf.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√chop/chip.[repetitive].[relational] (JL)

at ka.áax̱u (verbal noun) wrappings (for a present or something bundled and tied) | at + ka-∅-√.áax̱w-u →  something-(4n.O) + hsf.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√bundle/wrap.[relational] (JL)

at káx̱ adéli (verbal noun) guard; watchman | "protects something" | at + ká-x̱ + a-∅-√dél-i →  somethingʼs-(4n.P) + on.at-(repeatedly) + [a-theme].cl-(–d,∅,–i).√protect.[relational] (KE)

at kaawaxúkw (verbal noun) dried thing, esp. food | "something was dried" | at + ka-ÿu-ÿa-√xúkw →  something-(4n.O) + hsf.pfv.cl-(–d,∅,+i).√dry

at kaayí (verbal noun) cord (of wood) | "something measured" | at + √kaay-í →  something-(4n.O) + √measure.[relational] (KE)

at kuna.áaḵw (compound noun) | at kuna.áag̱u plan; directions; commandment; suggestion | at + ka-u-na-∅-√.áaḵw →  something-(4h.O) + hsf.irr.na-md.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√command (JL)

at kookeidí (compound noun) parable | "a thing that is measured against something" | at + ka-ÿu-∅-√kaay-át-i →  something-(4n.O) + compare.pfv.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√measure.something-(4n.i).[relational] (NR, JL, KE)

at kʼé (verbal noun) thing: good thing | at + ∅-√kʼé →  something-(4n.O) + cl-(–d,∅,–i).√good (JL)

at layeix̱ sʼaatí (compound noun) carpenter | "master builder" | at + la-√yeix̱ + sʼaatí →  something-(4n.O) + cl-(–d,l,–i).√make/use + boss/master (KE)

at la.át (verbal noun) baggage; luggage; stuff packed up for carrying | áa-t la.√.át ² →  there-around cl-(–d,l,–i).√carry-(personal belongings) at la.át ashayalihéin →  he has many pieces of baggage (SN) (KE)

at luxʼaaḵáawu (compound noun) troublemaker | "person at the point of something" | at + lú-xʼaa-ḵáa-wu →  somethingʼs-(4n.p) + noise/point.tip.someone-(4h.i).[relational] (KE)

at natéeyi (verbal noun) hunter | at + na-∅-√tée-yi →  something-(4n.O) + na-con.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√carry-(general/compact)?.[relational] (JL)

at sag̱ahaayí (verbal noun) will; wish(es) | "something one wills to do" | at + sa-g̱a-∅-√haa-yí →  something-(4n.O) + voice.g̱a-md.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√willing.[relational] (KE, JL)

at sax̱án (verbal noun) love (of things); love (of everything) | at + sa-√x̱án →  something-(4n.O) + cl-(–d,s,–i).√love (KE)

at sʼaan.ax̱w dzáas (compound noun) spear ² | spear which binds rope around a seal; "thonging that wraps up limbs" | this spear was invented by a small beaver in Basket Bay | at + sʼaan-∅-√.áx̱w + dzáas →  something-(4n.O) + limb.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√tie-up/wrap-up + thonging (KE)

at sʼéilʼi (compound noun) rags (for cleaning or wiping) | "something torn"

at shax̱ishdi dzáas (compound noun) spear ² | spear for clubbing; "clubbing something on the head thonging" | at + sha-∅-√x̱ish-t-i + dzáas →  something + head.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√club.[repeatedly].[relational] + babiche/thonging (KE)

at shí (verbal noun) singing; song; music | at + ∅-√shí →  something-(4n.O) + cl-(–d,∅,–i).√sing (KE)

at shí ḵóok (compound noun) radio; phonograph; stereo; music box; ipod; music device | "song box" | at + ∅-√shí + ḵóok →  something-(4n.O) + cl-(–d,∅-–i).√sing + box (KE)

at shéexʼi (verbal noun) singers; choir | at + ∅√shée-xʼ-i →  something-(4n.O) + cl-(–d,∅,–i).√sing.[plural].[relational] (KE) • variants: et shéexʼi (C) •

at shéeyi (verbal noun) singer | at + ∅√shée-yi →  something-(4n.O) + cl-(–d,∅,–i).√sing.[relational] (KE)

at shooḵ (verbal noun) laughter | at + ∅-shooḵ →  something-(4n.O) + cl-(–d,∅,–i).√laugh/smile (KE)

at tugáni (compound noun) gunpowder | "burns something inside" | at + tu-∅-√gán-i →  something + inside.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√burn/light.[relational] (KE)

at tux̱ʼwánsʼi (compound noun) buckshot; moccasin lining | "something rotted to powder" | at + tu-∅-√x̱ʼwán-sʼ-i →  something + inside.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√rot-to-powder.[repetitive].[relational] (KE)

at tʼaa.éexʼi (verbal noun) town crier | "yells something to the landward side" | at + tʼáa-∅-√.éexʼ-i →  something-(4n.O) + landward-side.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√shout/call-out.[relational] (JL)

at tsʼíkʼwti (verbal noun) muscles of a shell creature; pincher | "pinches something" | at + ∅-√tsʼíkʼw-t-i →  something-(4n.O) + cl-(–d,∅,–i).√pinch-[repetitive].[relational] (JL)

at uhéini (verbal noun) property that has been claimed | at + wu-∅-√héin-i →  something-(4n.O) + pfv.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√claim.[relational] (JL)

at wujaaḵw (verbal noun) accomplishment | "something that is fitting" | at + wu-∅-√jaaḵw →  something-(4n.O) + pfv.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√fitting

at wulyáaḵw (verbal noun) simile; comparison | at + wu-la-√yáaḵw →  something-(4n.O) + pfv.cl-(–d,l,–i).√compare/represent-as (JL)

at wulyú (compound noun) speech: public speaking; public speaking | "something declared publicly" | (NR, HC, DK) at + ÿu-l-√yú →  something-(4h.O) + pfv.cl-(+d,l,–i).√declare/speak-publicly-(?) • variants: ḵaankageetxʼ yoo x̱ʼawditaaní •

at wuskú yís át ḵuwduwateen (compound noun) field trip | "traveling around for knowledge" | at + ÿu-sa-√kú + yís + aa-t + ḵu-ÿu-du-ÿa-√teen →  something-(4h.O) + pfv.cl-(–d,s,–i).√know + for-(benefit) + there.around + areal.pfv.someone-(4h.S).cl-(–d,∅,+i).√travel (GD, MD)

at wuskóowu (verbal noun) person; elder | elder; knowledgeable person; wisdom bearer; "knows something" | at + ÿu-s-√kóo-wu →  something-(4n.O) + [perfective].cl-(+d,s,–i).√know.[relational]

at wooskú daakahídi (compound noun) school | "house around wisdom" | (KE) at ÿu-s-√kú + daaká-hít-i →  something-(4n.O) + [perfective].cl-(+d,s,–i).√know + around-outside.house.[relational] • variants: ; áxʼ ḵaa ée at dultóow yé, sgóon, shgóon •

at xáshdi téel (compound noun) moccasins | "something cut up shoe" | (KE) at + ∅-√xásh-t-i + téel →  something-(4n.O) + cl-(–d,∅,–i).√cut/saw.[repetitive].[relational] + shoe • variants: keish téel (Y) •

at xáshdi xʼóow (compound noun) blanket sewn from scraps of hide | "something cut up blanket" | at + ∅-√xásh-t-i + xʼóow →  something-(4n.O) + cl-(–d,∅,–i).√cut/saw.[repetitive].[relational] + blanket (KE)

at xʼaan aaní (compound noun) fish camp; camp for drying fish | "something dried by smoke land" | at + ∅-√xʼaan + aan-i →  something-(4n.O) + cl-(–d,∅,–i).√dry-by-smoking-(fish) + land-(inhabited).[relational] (CG)

at xʼaan hídi (compound noun) smokehouse | "something dried by smoke house" | at + ∅-√xʼaan + híd-i →  something-(4n.O) + cl-(–d,∅,–i).√dry-by-smoking-(fish) + house.[relational] (KE) • variants: et xʼaan hídi (C), sʼeiḵ hídi (T), sʼeiḵ daakahídi, sʼeiḵ daakéedi (C) •

at x̱ʼawóosʼ (verbal noun) • variants: ḵaa x̱ʼawóosʼ • question | at + x̱ʼa-∅-√wóosʼ →  something-(4n.O) + mouth.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√ask (JL)

at x̱ʼéidi (compound noun) arrow; harpoon; tip | "somethingʼs mouth thing"; tip of harpoon or spear | at + √x̱áa-át-i →  somethingʼs-(4n.p) + mouth/opening.thing-(4n.i).[relational] (JL)

at x̱ʼéeshi (compound noun) fish: dryfish | thinly cut and dried fish possibly from a neighboring Na-Dene Northern Athabascan language | (KE) • variants: at duwax̱ʼéeshi •

at yahaayí xʼúxʼʼ kshaxeet (compound noun) art | art; drawing; painting; "paper on which somethingʼs image was written" | «ḵaa yahaayí kshaxeet» is the act of draiwng, painting, and making non-sculptural art; «at yahaayí xʼúxʼ kshaxeet» is an artifact from drawing, painting, and making non-sculptural art | at+ yahaayí + xʼúxʼ ka-sha-√xeet →  somethingʼs-(4n.p) + image/shadow + paper/membrane + hsf.cl-(–d,sh,–i).√furrow/write (GD)

at yawusḵá (verbal noun) promise | "something told" | at + ya-ÿu-sa-√ḵá →  something-(4n.O) + vsf.pfv.cl-(–d,s,–i).√say/tell (JL)

at yátxʼi daa yoo at kooneik ḵáa (compound noun) advocate: court appointed special advocate | "doing on behalf of children" | at yátxʼi + daa + yoo + at + ka-ÿu-ÿa-√nei-k + ḵáa →  children + around/about + to/fro + something-(4n.O) + hsf.pfv.cl-(–d,∅,+i).√do/work-on.repetitive + person-(4h.i) (GD, MD)

atkʼátskʼu (compound noun) child: adolescent | at-kʼátskʼu →  its-(4n.P).adolescent/small (KE)

atxaayí (compound noun) centipede | (KE)

atx̱a át (compound noun) moth | "thing that eats something" | at-∅-√x̱a + át →  something-(4n.O).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√eat + thing-(4n.i) (KE, JL) • variants: naa.át ax̱a át •

atx̱á (verbal noun) food; meal | "thing eaten" | át-√x̱á →  thing.√eat (KE)

atx̱á daakahídi (compound noun) restaurant; tavern | "building around food" | atx̱á + daaka-hít-i →  food + around-outside.house.[relational] (KE)

atx̱á jishagóon (compound noun) utensil: kitchen utensil; kitchen utensil | "food tool" | atx̱á + ji-shagóon →  food + hand.components/parts (KE)

atx̱aaxʼí sáani (verbal noun) snacks | "little things eaten" | át-√x̱á-xʼ-i + sáani →  thing.√eat.[plural].[peg vowel].[diminutive] (FW)

atyátxʼi (compound noun) children | “somethingʼs children” | this could be translated as "somethingʼs children" but always refers to human children. there has been debate about whether one «atyátxʼi» is human and «adátxʼi» is nonhuman but the consensus is that both were used for human children only | at + yát-xʼ-i →  [somethingʼs-(4n.P) + child.pos] (KE) • variants: adátxʼi, atyétxʼi (T), adétxʼi (T), edétxʼi (C) •

atyátxʼi latíni (compound noun) babysitter | “watches children” | (KE) at + yát-xʼ-i + la-√tín-i →  somethingʼs-(4h.P) + child.[plural].[possessive] + cl-(–d,l,–i).√see.[relational]

at.óow (verbal noun) possession: sacred clan-owned item | "something bought" | used to denote something that is owned by a clan and cannot be claimed by an individual things that can be at.óow are names, houses, stories, songs, land, the image of animals and the supernatural, and objects made with the images of those things at.óow may be jointly claimed by multiple clans, but use of at.óow that is not claimed by your clan is inappropriate unless proper permissions have been given the children, grandchildren, and close relatives of clans would often be dressed in some of the most valuable at.óow of a clan that recognizes the relationship publicly | at-∅-√.óow →  something-(4n.O).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√buy

atskanée! (interjection) • variants: atsganée • scary! | (KE)

awliwás (verbal noun) dryfish, hard | "roasted dry fish" | a-ÿu-∅-li-√wás →  her/him/it-(3.O).[perfective].s/he-(3.S).cl-(–d,l,+i).√roast/scorch-(by fire) (KE)

ax̱ (possessive pronoun) my | first person singular possessive pronoun (1s.P) used to show a relationship between things, including ownership («haa aaní» – “our land”), kinship term origination («du éesh» – “her/his father”), the link to a relational base («ax̱ x̱áni» – “next to me”), and conjugation of certain verbs («du toowú sigóo» – “s/he is happy”) other possessive pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

ax̱ | my →  first person singular possessive (1s.P)

haa | our →  first person plural possessive (1p.P)

i | your →  second person singular possessive (2s.P)

yee | you allʼs →  second person plural possessive (2p.P)

du | her/his →  third person human singular possessive (3Hs.P)

has du ⁓ s du | their →  third person plural possessive (3p.P)

a | its →  third person nonhuman possessive (3N.P)

ash | this galʼs/guyʼs →  third person proximal possessive (3prx.P)

a | that other galʼs/guyʼs →  third person obviate possessive (3obv.P)

ḵaa | someoneʼs →  fourth person human possessive (4h.P)

at | somethingʼs →  fourth person nonhuman possessive (4n.P)

aa | oneʼs, someʼs →  partitive possessive (part.P)

chush ⁓ sh- | -selfʼs →  reflexive possessive (rflx.P)

woosh, wooch | each otherʼs →  reciprocal possessive (recip.P)

ax̱ adée (interjection) my precious! | term of endearment used for children or for members of the opposite clan. used often when a child is in need of comfort, or in public when flirting with clan opposites | (DK)

ax̱ dachx̱ánkʼé (kinship term) grandchild | my wonderful grandchild! | endearing term used when speaking lovingly to a grandchild | dachx̱án-√kʼé →  grandchild.√good/fine (DK)

ax̱ ee- ⁓ x̱aan (postpositional pronoun) me: (to) me | first person singular postpositional (1s.PP) used in certain verbs where something is going towards the object (literally or figuratively) a special type of pronoun that combines three things: possessive pronoun, empty base, and relational suffix other possessive pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

ax̱ ee- ⁓ x̱aan | (to) me →  first person singular postpositional (1s.PP)

haa ee- ⁓ haan | (to) us →  first person plural postpositional (1p.PP)

i ee- | (to) you →  second person singular postpositional (2s.PP)

yee ee- | (to) you all →  second person plural postpositional (2p.PP)

du ee- ⁓ u- | (to) her/him →  third person human singular postpositional (3s.PP)

has du ee- ⁓ s du ee- | (to) them →  third person plural postpositional (3p.PP)

a ee- ⁓ aan | (to) it →  third person nonhuman postpositional (3p.PP)

ash ee- | (to) this gal/guy →  third person proximal postpositional (3prx.PP)

a ee- ⁓ a- | (to) that other gal/guy →  third person obviate postpositional (3obv.PP)

ḵaa ee- ⁓ ḵu ee- ⁓ ḵoon | (to) someone →  fourth person human postpositional (4h.PP)

at ee- | (to) something →  fourth person nonhuman postpositional (4n.PP)

aa ee- | (to) one, some →  partitive postpositional (part.PP)

chush | (to) -selfʼs →  reflexive postpositional (rflx.PP)

woosh, wooch | (to) each other →  reciprocal postpositional (recip.PP)

ax̱áa (verbal noun) paddle | “paddler” | a-∅-√x̱áa ² →  a-theme.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√paddle/row (KE)

ayaheeyáa (compound noun) curlew | (KE)

ayáx̱ (particle) correct; thatʼs how | often appears with «áwé» as in «ayáx̱ áwé!» (thatʼs how it is!)

á ¹ (particle) | [focus particle] | this particle puts focus on the previous word or phrase. it is often heard when giving someone a name, and the name is said and repeated while "killing money;" the name is said followed immediately by «á!»

á ² (independent pronoun) it || that place, time, reason, fact | third person nonhuman independent (3N.i) independent pronouns are not linked to anything grammatically, and are most often used in phrases like «yáadu x̱át» (here i am) and «uháan áyá» (it is us) common suffix combinations are listed below. take note of the ways that suffixes affect tone and vowel length | (JC, KE, JL)

ách [áa-ch] | because of it; with it

aag̱áa [áa-g̱áa] | after it; following it

aadáx̱ / aax̱ [áa-dáx̱] | from it; after it [that time]

aadé [áa-dé] | towards it

aan [áa-n] | with it

anax̱ [áa-náx̱] | through it; along it

át [áa-t] | arriving at it; at it

áwu [áa-wu] | located at it

áxʼ [áa-xʼ] | residing at it; located at it

áx̱ [áa-x̱] | moving along it; repeatedly at it

á ³ (independent pronoun) that other gal/guy | third person obviate independent (3obv.i) independent pronouns are not linked to anything grammatically, and are most often used in phrases like «yáadu x̱át» (here i am) and «uháan áyá» (it is us) "proximate third person represents the topic of discourse, the person nearest the speaker’s point of view, or the person ealier spoken of and already known.” (Bloomfield 1962: 38) | (JC, KE)

ách 1 (particle) because of it | áa-ch →  it-because (KE)

ách 2 (particle) with it; using it | áa-ch →  it.with-(instrumental) (JC)

ách at dusx̱a át (compound noun) fork | “thing a person eats with” | (KE) áa-ch + at + du-s-√x̱a + át →  one(s)-(part.i).erg-(inst) + something-(4n.O) + someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,s,–i).√eat + thing-(4n.i) • variants: aan at dusx̱a át •

ágé (particle) | [interrogative: marks yes/no questions] | this particle is used to turn any statement into a yes or no question the placement of the particle is often determined by grammar, but at times is determined by what part of the phrase is being questioned | (KE) • variants: gé •

áhé (particle) this here is | á-hé →  [focus-particle].this (KE)

ákyá (particle) is it this right here? | á-gé-yá →  [focus-particle].[yes/no question].right-here (KE)

ákyú (particle) is it that way over there? | á-gé-yú →  [focus-particle].[yes/no question].way-over-there (KE)

ák.hé (particle) is it this here? | á-gé-hé →  [focus-particle].[yes/no question].here (KE)

ák.wé (particle) is it that there? | á-gé-wé →  [focus-particle].[yes/no question].there (KE)

ánkʼw (noun) • variants: énkw (C) • brat; person | person who cries easily | (KE)

át 1 (independent pronoun) something | fourth person nonhuman independent (4n.i) independent pronouns are not linked to anything grammatically, and are most often used in phrases like «yáadu x̱át» (here i am) and «uháan áyá» (it is us) used to indicate that an unspecified thing is the pronoun. Like the fourth person human pronoun this one is often used as a placeholder in nouns and verbs. It alters a lot of words when used in a variety of forms. Keep an eye out for it as you build vocabulary, and you will see it is one of the most powerful words in Tlingit. For example: at.óow (sacred clan-owned item), at daná (s/he is drinking alcohol), and Daḵlʼaweidí [daḵ-lʼéiw-at~di] (Thing of the Inland Sand Bar – name of an Eagle-Killer Whale Clan). other independent pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

x̱át | me →  first person singular independent (1s.i)

uháan | us →  first person plural independent (1p.i)

wa.é | you →  second person singular independent (2s.i)

yeewháan | you all →  second person plural independent (2p.i)

hú | s/he →  third person human singular independent (3Hs.i)

hás | them →  third person plural independent (3p.i)

á | it →  third person nonhuman independent (3N.i)

ash | this gal/guy →  third person proximal independent (3prx.i)

á | that other gal/guy →  third person obviate independent (3obv.i)

ḵáa | someone →  fourth person human independent (4h.i)

át | something →  fourth person nonhuman independent (4n.i)

aa | one, some →  partitive independent (part.i)

chúsh | -self →  reflexive independent (rflx.i)

wóosh, wóoch | each other, together →  reciprocal independent (recip.i)

át 2 (preverb) arriving there | for motion verbs, creates a ∅-conjugation motion verb (towards a terminus) | áa-t →  there.at-(arriving) (JC)

át 3 (preverb) moving around there | for motion verbs, creates a na-conjugation motion verb (unbounded) | áa-t →  there.at-(moving around) (JC)

át ḵukawu.aag̱ú (verbal noun) director; planner; commander | "orders people around"; "directs people" | (KE) • variants: át at kawu.aag̱ú, ét et kawu.aag̱ú (C), ét ḵukawu.aag̱ú (C) •

át sh kawdudziyéedi (verbal noun) accordion | "thing a person stretches apart" | át + sh + ka-ÿu-du-dzi-√yéet-i →  something-(4n.i) + self-(rflx.o) + hsf.pfv.someone-(4h.s).cl-(+d,s,+i).√stretch.[relational] (GD, MD)

át wududziḵúx̱u át (borrowed noun) car; automobile | "thing that people drive around" | (KE) áa-t + ÿu-du-dzi-√ḵúx̱-u + át →  there.at-(arrived) + pfv.someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,s,+i).√go-(by boat or car).relational + thing-(4n.i) • variants: káa •

át wulisʼéesi (verbal noun) kite | "blows around" | áa-t + ÿu-li-√sʼées-i →  there.around + pfv.cl-(–d,l,+i).√blown-(by wind).[relational] (GD, MD)

át yana.á (verbal noun) fish migration; migration: fish migration | áa-t + ya-na-∅-√.á →  there.at-(arrived) + vsf.na-con.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√inspect/peer (JL)

átkʼ aheen (verbal noun) faith; belief; trust | "s/he believes it" | át-kʼ + a-∅-√heen →  it-(4n.i).[locative] + [a-theme].cl-(–d,∅,–i).√believe (KE)

átkʼ aheení (verbal noun) believer | át-kʼ + a-∅-√heen →  it-(4n.i).[locative] + [a-theme].cl-(–d,∅,–i).√believe.[relational] (KE)

átx̱ sateeyí át (compound noun) thing: important thing; important: thereʼs something important in it | "it is really something" | át-x̱ sa-√tee-yí + át →  thing-(4n.i).[locative] + cl-(–d,s,–i).√be.[relational] + thing-(4n.i) (GB)

átʼiweit (compound noun) pot: cooking pot | "cooking thing" | at-.√ée(w)-u-át →  something-(4n.O).√cook.[relational].thing-(4n.i) (JL)

átʼláni (compound noun) slime (inside clamshell) | "raw seafood"; "cold food or drink" | √.áatʼ-láni →  √cold.[?] (JL)

áwé (particle) that there is | this particle is used often in Tlingit oratory and conversation to signal a pause or that the speaker intends to speak or continue speaking | á-wé →  [focus-particle].that

áwu (particle) at: located at it | áa-wu →  it.located-at

áxʼ (particle) at: residing at it; at: located at it | áa-xʼ →  there.at-(residing or at rest)

áxʼ ḵaa ée at dultóow yé; sgóon; shgóon; at wooskú daakahídi (compound noun) school | “place where people are taught there” | (KE) áa-x + ḵaa + ée + at + du-l-√tóow + yé →  there.at-(residing) + someoneʼs-(4h.P) + [empty base] + something-(4n.O) + someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,l,–i).√teach + place

áx̱ (particle) at: moving around at it; at: repeatedly arriving at | áa-x̱ →  there.at-(moving around or arriving repeatedly) || (preverb) | for motion verbs, creates a na-conjugation motion verb (unbounded)

áx̱ sh kalgan sʼeenáa (compound noun) light: electric light | aa-x̱ + sh + ka-l-√gan + sʼeenáa →  there.at-(repetitive) + self-(rflx.O) + hsf.cl-(+d,l,–i).√burn/light + light (JL)

áyá (particle) this right here is | á-yá →  [focus-particle].this-right-here

áyú (particle) that way over there is | á-yá →  [focus-particle].that-way-over-here

aa 1 (independent pronoun) one of; some of | partitive independent (part.i) independent pronouns are not linked to anything grammatically, and are most often used in phrases like «yáadu x̱át» (here i am) and «uháan áyá» (it is us) used to refer to parts of a group or set, and can cover a wide range of meanings. In some cases, it can mean some general object, as in aadóo aayí sáyá? (whose thing is this?). In other cases, it can refer to a separated groups of things, as in daaḵw.aa sá? (which one of a group?). It often means the one or ones that perform a verb, and is used to create words in Tlingit. There are many of these, and you will see more as you study. Here are some examples: lítaa (knife; literally “the one that slides”), x̱út’aa (adze; literally “the one that chips out wood”), and ḵutlʼídaa (shovel; literally “the one that throws away a space”). other independent pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

x̱át | me →  first person singular independent (1s.i)

uháan | us →  first person plural independent (1p.i)

wa.é | you →  second person singular independent (2s.i)

yeewháan | you all →  second person plural independent (2p.i)

hú | s/he →  third person human singular independent (3Hs.i)

hás | them →  third person plural independent (3p.i)

á | it →  third person nonhuman independent (3N.i)

ash | this gal/guy →  third person proximal independent (3prx.i)

á | that other gal/guy →  third person obviate independent (3obv.i)

ḵáa | someone →  fourth person human independent (4h.i)

át | something →  fourth person nonhuman independent (4n.i)

aa | one, some →  partitive independent (part.i)

chúsh | -self →  reflexive independent (rflx.i)

wóosh, wóoch | each other, together →  reciprocal independent (recip.i)

aa 2 (possessive pronoun) oneʼs; someʼs | partitive possessive (part.P) used to show a relationship between things, including ownership («haa aaní» – “our land”), kinship term origination («du éesh» – “her/his father”), the link to a relational base («ax̱ x̱áni» – “next to me”), and conjugation of certain verbs («du toowú sigóo» – “s/he is happy”) other possessive pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

ax̱ | my →  first person singular possessive (1s.P)

haa | our →  first person plural possessive (1p.P)

i | your →  second person singular possessive (2s.P)

yee | you allʼs →  second person plural possessive (2p.P)

du | her/his →  third person human singular possessive (3Hs.P)

has du ⁓ s du | their →  third person plural possessive (3p.P)

a | its →  third person nonhuman possessive (3N.P)

ash | this galʼs/guyʼs →  third person proximal possessive (3prx.P)

a | that other galʼs/guyʼs →  third person obviate possessive (3obv.P)

ḵaa | someoneʼs →  fourth person human possessive (4h.P)

at | somethingʼs →  fourth person nonhuman possessive (4n.P)

aa | oneʼs, someʼs →  partitive possessive (part.P)

chush ⁓ sh- | -selfʼs →  reflexive possessive (rflx.P)

woosh, wooch | each otherʼs →  reciprocal possessive (recip.P)

aa- (object pronoun) one [object]; some [object] | partitive object (part.O) in a verb phrase, the object is impacted by the verb, and is not the subject the standard in Tlingit is to write all single letter object pronouns as part of the verb prefix and all pronouns more than one letter as part of the preverb, except for «ḵu-» open object pronouns (ending in a vowel) will cause contraction in the verb prefix other object pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

x̱at | me [object] →  first person singular object (1s.O)

haa | us [object] →  first person plural object (1p.O)

i- | you [object] →  second person singular object (2s.O)

yee | you all [object] →  second person plural object (2p.O)

∅- ⁓ a- | her/him →  third person object (3.O)

has + ∅- ⁓ a- | them [object] →  third person pluralizer (3pl)

ash | this gal/guy [object] →  third person proximal object (3prx.O)

ḵaa ⁓ ḵu- | someone [object] →  fourth person human object (4h.O)

at | something [object] →  fourth person nonhuman object (4n.O)

aa- | one, some [object] →  partitive object (part.O)

sh ⁓ ∅- | -self →  reflexive object (rflx.O)

woosh, wooch | each other, together [object] →  reciprocal object (recip.O)

√aa ¹ (verb root) | classification: singular sit; situated | plural form: √ḵee ¹

S-∅-√.aa ¹ (* positional verb – subject intransitive) sit (for singular subject to be seated) | for (singlular) S to be seated | only occurs in the imperfective a noun phrase with (-t) postposition is used to indicate where one is sitting, but this noun phrase is not required by the verb, for example: «.áa» (s/he is sitting) or «át .áa» (s/he is sitting there) the plural verb stem is used when indicating that one person is sitting with another, even though the subject is singular, for example: «du een ḵéen» (s/he is sitting with her/him) or «du een x̱aḵéen» (i am sitting with her/him) | (KE) Mary chʼa neilt áa →  Mary is sitting at home (SN)

• prohibitive: líl ee.aayíḵ! | donʼt be sitting!

• imperfective (+): .áa | s/he sits; s/he is sitting

• imperfective (–): tlél u.aa | s/he doesnʼt sit; s/he isnʼt sitting

N-t tu-x̱ʼa-S-d+∅-√.aa ¹ sit (for singular subject to be seated) | for (singlular) S to be seated on her/his butthole | this phrase is often humorous in Tlingit, referring to "really sitting upright" | Tsu té áyú káayag̱ ijeitx̱ awliyéx̱ a káa áyú tux̱ʼada.áa. →  He was also using a rock for a chair, heʼs sitting his butthole on it. (CW)

N-t + O-S-s-√.aa ¹ (* positional verb – transitive) seated (to have live creature seated there) | for S to have O (live creature) seated at N | only occurs in the imperfective could be used to indicate that one has a child or animal seated, but would generally not be used to refer to an adult | (KE) dóosh ḵóok yíkt as.áa →  he sat the cat in the box (and it was very docile and remained there) (SN)

• imperfective (+): át as.áa | s/he has her/him seated there

• imperfective (–): tlél át oos.áa | s/he doesnʼt have her/him seated there

N-t + l-√.áa ¹ (* positional verb – impersonal) situated there (of a building) | for a building to be situated at N | only occurs in the imperfective | (KE) hit tlein át la.aayín; kei oowagán ḵu.aa →  there used to be a large house there, but it burned down (SN) ax̱ hídi ANB Hall tuwánt la.áa →  my house is next to the ANB Hall (SN)

• imperfective (+): át la.áa | itʼs situated there

• imperfective (–): tlél át ul.aa | itʼs not situated there

√aa ² (verb root) inspect; examine; kiss; consider; think over; come to senses

N + daa + ya-S-d+s-√.aa ² (na act verb – subject intransitive) examine; inspect; judge; assess | for S to examine, inspect, look into N; for S to judge, assess N | (KE) haa daa yagax̱dus.áa →  weʼre going to be examined / weʼre going to get a checkup (SN) haat áyá x̱at kawduwaḵáa yee ḵusteeyí a daa yanḵas.aa →  they sent me here to look into your way of life (to judge whether it is good or not) (SN)

• imperative: a daa yanees.á! | examine it!

• prohibitive: líl a daa yees.éix̱iḵ! | donʼt examine it!

• imperfective (+): a daa yas.éix̱ | s/he is examining it

• imperfective (–): tlél a daa yoos.éix̱ | s/he isnʼt examining it

• perfective (+): a daa yawdzi.aa | s/he examined it

• perfective (–): tlél a daa yawus.aa | s/he didnʼt examine it

• future (+): a daa yakg̱was.áa | s/he will examine it

• future (–): tlél a daa yakg̱was.aa | s/he wonʼt examine it

N + x̱ʼéi-t⁓ + ya-S-d+s-√.aa ² (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) kiss | for S to kiss N | (KE) du sée x̱ʼéide yawdzi.áa →  she kissed her daughter (SN)

• imperative: ax̱ x̱ʼéit yees.á! | kiss me!

• prohibitive: líl ax̱ x̱ʼéix̱ yees.aayéeḵ! | donʼt kiss me!

• perfective (+): ax̱ x̱ʼéit yawdzi.áa | s/he kissed me

• perfective (–): tlél ax̱ x̱ʼéit yawus.á | s/he didnʼt kiss me

• future (+): ax̱ x̱ʼéide yakg̱was.áa | s/he will kiss me

• future (–): tlél ax̱ x̱ʼéide yakg̱was.aa | s/he wonʼt kiss me

√aa ³ (verb root) grow | classification: plant || pour forth | classification: water

ka-∅-√.aa ³ (na act verb – impersonal) grow | for a plant to grow | classification: plant | (KE) táakw eeteedé yaa ḵunahéin: kayaaní kei kana.éin →  springtime is coming; the leaves are coming out/the plants are growing (SN) daa sá i táayi gèixʼ ka.éix̱? →  what is growing in your garden? (SN) || flow; pour forth | for a stream of water to flow, pour forth | classification: water | gílʼ yaadáx̱ héen diyéet kaawa.áa →  a small waterfall is flowing over the cliffand hitting a certain place down below

• imperfective (+): ka.éix̱ | it grows; itʼs growing; it flows; itʼs flowing

• imperfective (–): tlél koo.éix̱ | it doesnʼt grow; itʼs not growing; it doesnʼt flow; it isnʼt flowing

• progressive imperfective: yaa kana.éin | itʼs growing; itʼs flowing

• perfective (+): kaawa.aa | it grew; it flowed

• perfective (–): tlél kawu.aa | it didnʼt grow; it didnʼt flow

• future (+): kei kakg̱wa.áa | it will grow; it will flow

• future (–): tlél kei kakg̱wa.aa | it wonʼt grow; it wonʼt flow

yóo + aan + ka-∅-√.aa ³ (na event verb – impersonal) quake; earthquake | for the earth to quake | (SN)

• progressive imperfective: yóo aan yoo kaya.éik | the earth is quaking (right now)

• perfective (+): yóo aan kaawa.áa | the earth quaked

ka-s-√.aa ³ (na act verb – impersonal) grow | for a plant to grow | classification: plant | In classical Tlingit, this verb meant specifically for a plant with a long stalk to grow (the length of the plant indicated by the s- classifier), however this meaning has been lost for most current speakers, and now just means for a plant in general to grow. | (KE)

• imperfective (+): kasa.éix̱ | it grows; itʼs growing

• imperfective (–): tlél koos.éix̱ | it doesnʼt grow; itʼs not growing

• progressive imperfective: kei kanas.éin | itʼs growing

• perfective (+): kawsi.aa | it grew

• perfective (–): tlél kawus.aa | it didnʼt grow

• future (+): kagux̱sa.áa | it will grow

• future (–): tlél kagux̱sa.aa | it wonʼt grow

O-ka-S-s-√.aa ³ (na act verb – subject intransitive) grow | for S to cause O (plant) to grow | classification: plant | (KE) séew ḵa g̱agaan kagaaních áwé kei kanas.éin →  the rain and sunshine are making them (plants) grow (SN) i shax̱aawú kei kasa.á! →  let your hair grow (implying it has been cut short before)! (SN) || turn it on (hose) | for S to turn on O (hose), cause O to flow | héen tʼáa kát akawsi.áa →  he turned the hose on the floor (caused the water to pour out over the floor) (SN)

• imperative: kanas.á! | grow it!

• prohibitive: líl keesa.éix̱iḵ! | donʼt grow it!

• imperfective (+): aksa.éix̱ | s/he grows it; s/heʼs growing it

• imperfective (–): tlél akoos.éix̱ | s/he isnʼt growing it; s/he doesnʼt grow it

• perfective (+): akawsi.aa | s/he grew it

• perfective (–): tlél akawus.aa | s/he didnʼt grow it

• future (+): akagux̱sa.áa | s/he will grow it

• future (–): tlél akagux̱sa.aa | s/he wonʼt grow it

ḵei-∅-√.aa ³ (na event verb – impersonal) daylight; daybreak; dawn | for it to become daylight, dawn | (KE)

• progressive imperfective: yaa ḵeina.éin | itʼs getting to be daylight

• perfective (+): ḵeiwa.aa | itʼs daylight

• perfective (–): tlél ḵeiwu.aa | itʼs not daylight

• future (+): ḵeikg̱wa.áa | it will be daylight

• future (–): tlél ḵeikg̱wa.aa | it wonʼt be daylight

O-ḵei-S-s-√.aa ³ (na event verb – transitive) celebrate; set apart | for S to celebrate O, set apart O (a particular day) | (KE)

• imperative: ḵeinas.á! | celebrate it!

• prohibitive: líl yoo ḵeesa.éigiḵ! | donʼt celebrate it!

• progressive imperfective: yaa aḵeinas.éin | s/he is celebrating it

• perfective (+): aḵeiwsi.aa | s/he celebrated it

• perfective (–): tlél aḵeiwus.aa | s/he didnʼt celebrate it

• future (+): aḵeigux̱sa.áa | s/he will celebrate it

• future (–): tlél aḵeigux̱sa.aa | s/he wonʼt celebrate it

√aa ⁴ (verb root) migrate (of fish)

{na motion preverb} + ya-∅-√.aa ⁴ (na motion verb – impersonal) run (of fish); migrate (of fish) | for fish to run, migrate

• progressive imperfective: yaa yana.éin | the fish are running

• perfective (+): yaawa.aa | the fish are running; the fish ran

• perfective (–): tlél yawu.aa | the fish arenʼt running; the fish didnʼt run

• future (+): yakg̱wa.áa | the fish will run

• future (–): tlél yakg̱wa.aa | the fish wonʼt run

{∅ motion preverb} + ya-∅-√.aa ⁴ (∅ motion verb – impersonal) | for fish to run

• progressive imperfective: aadé yaa yana.éin | the fish are running there

• perfective (+): át yaawa.áa | the fish ran there

• perfective (–): tlél át yawu.á | the fish didnʼt run there

• future (+): aadé yakg̱wa.áa | the fish will run there

• future (–): tlél aadé yakg̱wa.aa | the fish wonʼt run there

aa ee- (postpositional pronoun) one: (to) one; some: (to) some | partitive postpositional (part.PP) used in certain verbs where something is going towards the object (literally or figuratively) a special type of pronoun that combines three things: possessive pronoun, empty base, and relational suffix other possessive pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

ax̱ ee- ⁓ x̱aan | (to) me →  first person singular postpositional (1s.PP)

haa ee- ⁓ haan | (to) us →  first person plural postpositional (1p.PP)

i ee- | (to) you →  second person singular postpositional (2s.PP)

yee ee- | (to) you all →  second person plural postpositional (2p.PP)

du ee- ⁓ u- | (to) her/him →  third person human singular postpositional (3s.PP)

has du ee- ⁓ s du ee- | (to) them →  third person plural postpositional (3p.PP)

a ee- ⁓ aan | (to) it →  third person nonhuman postpositional (3p.PP)

ash ee- | (to) this gal/guy →  third person proximal postpositional (3prx.PP)

a ee- ⁓ a- | (to) that other gal/guy →  third person obviate postpositional (3obv.PP)

ḵaa ee- ⁓ ḵu ee- ⁓ ḵoon | (to) someone →  fourth person human postpositional (4h.PP)

at ee- | (to) something →  fourth person nonhuman postpositional (4n.PP)

aa ee- | (to) one, some →  partitive postpositional (part.PP)

chush | (to) -selfʼs →  reflexive postpositional (rflx.PP)

woosh, wooch | (to) each other →  reciprocal postpositional (recip.PP)

aa sá (question particle) • variants: aadóo sá • who; someone; somebody | when asking who is the subject of a verb, the ergative «-ch» often attaches to create «aadóoch» determiners may be added to «sá» as in «aadóo sáyá» (who is this?), «aadóo sáwé?» (who is that?) question particles combine most commonly to form questions, but can also be used to create statements like «jánwu alʼóon, sʼaax̱, daa sáyá át wu.aadí» (he hunts mountain goats, marmots, whatever went around there) (David Kadashan 6) | aadóo sá du jeewú? →  who has it? aadóoch sá aawax̱áa? →  who ate it? (JC,KE)

aaa (particle) yes | it is unclear whether the form used is dialect or personal preference; some forms may be influenced by the English "uh-huh" • variants: aáa, áaa, aaá •

aadáx̱ (particle) from it; after it (that time) | áa-dáx̱ →  it.from (KE) • variants: aax̱ • || (preverb) | for motion verbs, creates a na-conjugation motion verb (unbounded) | (JC) || | for carrying motion verbs, refers to lifting an object off of something, creating a ga-conjugation motion verb (upwards)

aadé (preverb) towards it | this particle has special functions when used as a preverb that is not denoting direction for a motion verb; it can direct one verb concept to another, or change the function of the verb in combination with other preverbs, suffixes, and postverbs, as in the examples below | áa-dé →  it-towards aadé awux̱aayi yé →  the way s/he ate it tlél aadé ag̱waax̱aayi yé →  thereʼs no way s/he can eat it x̱wasikóo aadé awux̱á →  i know s/he ate it || | for motion verbs, creates a na-conjugation motion verb (unbounded) | aadé woogoot →  s/he walked towards it (JC)

aadé kdulxesʼ yé (verbal noun) garbage dump; dump: garbage dump | "place where people dump" | aa-dé + ka-du-l-√xáa-sʼ + yé →  there.towards + hsf.someone.cl-(+d,l,–i).√dump/pour.[in series] + place (JL)

aadé [verb]-i yé (particle) | "the way the verb happened"; "how the verb happened"

aadóo sá (question particle) • variants: aa sá • who; someone; somebody | when asking who is the subject of a verb, the ergative «-ch» often attaches to create «aadóoch» determiners may be added to «sá» as in «aadóo sáyá» (who is this?), «aadóo sáwé?» (who is that?) question particles combine most commonly to form questions, but can also be used to create statements like «jánwu alʼóon, sʼaax̱, daa sáyá át wu.aadí» (he hunts mountain goats, marmots, whatever went around there) (David Kadashan 6) | aadóo sá du jeewú? →  who has it? aadóoch sá aawax̱áa? →  who ate it? (JC,KE)

aag̱áa (conjunction) then; after; following | at that time; after that; following that | used in speech to bridge events over time, or to move time forward in a narrative | (KE)

aag̱áa [verb]-i yé (particle) | "the time the verb happened"; "when the verb happened"

aahá (interjection) yes (emphatic agreement) | (JL)

√aak ¹ (verb root) | classification: tree bark or roots weave bark or roots

O-S-∅-√.aak ¹ (∅ act verb – transitive) weave basket or mat | for S to weave O (using tree roots or bark) | tèey woodee a.áak g̱áach sákw →  sheʼs weaving yellow cedar bark for a mat (SN) ḵákw wuduwa.ák →  baskets are woven (SN)

• imperfective (+): a.áak | s/he is weaving it (a basket or mat, using tree roots or bark)

• perfective (+): aawa.ák | s/he wove it (a basket or mat, using tree roots or bark)

S-d+∅-√.aak ¹ (∅ act verb – object intransitive) weave basket or mat | for S to weave (using tree roots or bark)

• imperfective (+): da.áak | s/he is weaving (with tree roots or bark)

• perfective (+): da.ák | s/he wove (with tree roots or bark)

√aak ² (verb root) | classification: fire fire: build fire

shóo-t⁓ + a-S-d+∅-√.aak ² (∅ event verb – subject intransitive) fire: build a fire | for S to build a fire (using wood) | classification: wood, fire | (KE) a tóot ax̱waa.ák →  I fixed the fire in it (SN) dei át ágé awduwa.ák? →  have they already made a fire? (SN)

• imperative: shóot eeda.ák! | build a fire!

• prohibitive: líl shóox̱ eeda.aagíḵ! | donʼt build a fire!

• perfective (+): shóot awdi.ák | s/he built a fire

• perfective (–): tlél shóot awda.aak | s/he didnʼt build a fire

• future (+): shóode agux̱da.áak | s/he will build a fire

• future (–): tlél shóode agux̱da.aak | s/he wonʼt build a fire

aakʼé– (adjective) good; fine | prenominal adjective: appears immediately before the noun it modifies | aa-√kʼé →  one(s)-(part.O).√good/fine (JC)

√aaḵw ¹ (verb root) attempt; try

ka-S-∅-√aaḵw ˟ ¹ (na act verb – subject intransitive) try; attempt | for S to try, attempt | kax̱waa.aaḵw ee yái ax̱walg̱eeni →  i tried to look at your face (that is, to get a response from you) (SN)

• imperative: kana.aaḵw! | try!

• perfective (+): kaawa.aaḵw | s/he tried, attempted

• perfective (–): tlél kawu.aaḵw | s/he didnʼt try

• perfective (–): tlél kawu.aaḵw | s/he didnʼt try

• future (+): kakg̱wa.aaḵw | s/he will try

• future (–): tlél kakg̱wa.aaḵw | s/he wonʼt try

O-ka-u-S-∅-√.aaḵw ˟ ¹ (na act verb – object intransitive) test; try out | for S to try out, test O | note that in classical tlingit, this verb had a thematic prefix (u-) which seems to be falling out of modern day speech, especially in the imperative form for this verb. this is indicated in the theme as (u)-. alternate forms given here show one form with the thematic (u)- and one without, both of which are acceptable in modern speech | chʼa akaawa.aaḵw áwé, wáa sá yakwg̱aḵaayí →  he tested him to see what he would say (SN) ḵukaawa.aaḵw →  he tried out the people (SN) akoo.aaḵw wé yéi jiné →  heʼs giving the job a try (JL) (KE)

• imperative: kana.aaḵw! / kuna.aaḵw! | try it!

• prohibitive: líl kee.aag̱úḵ! | donʼt try it!

• imperfective (+): akoo.aaḵw | s/he is trying it

• imperfective (–): tlél akoo.aaḵw | s/he isnʼt trying it

• progressive imperfective: yaa akuna.áḵw | s/he is starting to try it

• perfective (+): akaawa.aaḵw | s/he tried it

• perfective (–): tlél akawu.aaḵw | s/he didnʼt try it

• future (+): akakg̱wa.aaḵw | s/he will try it

• future (–): tlél akakg̱wa.aaḵw | s/he wonʼt try it

O-x̱ʼa-ka-(u)-S-∅-√.aaḵw ˟ ¹ (na act verb – transitive) speak: give the opportunity to speak; speak: give directions on what to say; direct: give directions on what to say | for S to give O an opportunity to speak; for S to give O directions as to what to say | (KE)

• imperative: x̱ʼakuna.aaḵw! / x̱ʼakana.aaḵw | give her/him an opportunity to speak!

• prohibitive: líl yoo x̱ʼakee.aag̱úḵ! | donʼt give her/him an opportunity to speak!

• imperfective (+): ax̱ʼakoo.aaḵw | s/he is giving her/him an opportunity to speak

• perfective (+): ax̱ʼakaawa.aaḵw | s/he gave her/him an opportunity to speak

• perfective (–): tlél ax̱ʼakawu.aaḵw | s/he didnʼt give her/him an opportunity to speak

• future (+): ax̱ʼakakg̱wa.aaḵw | s/he will give her/him an opportunity to speak

• future (–): tlél ax̱ʼakakg̱wa.aaḵw | s/he wonʼt give her/him an opportunity to speak

√aaḵw ² (verb root) plan; order; command; instruct

át + O-ka-S-∅-√.aaḵw ² (na event verb – transitive) orders: give her/him orders; command her/him; instruct her/him | for S to give orders to, command, instruct O | át akaawa.aaḵw wé yéi jiné →  heʼs directing/supervising the job (JL) (KE)

• imperative: át kana.aaḵw! | give her/him orders!

• prohibitive: líl át kayi.aag̱úḵ! | donʼt give her/him orders!

• perfective (+): át akaawa.aaḵw | s/he gave her/him orders

• perfective (–): tlél át akawu.aaḵw | s/he didnʼt give her/him orders

• future (+): át akakg̱wa.áaḵw | s/he will give her/him orders

• future (–): tlél át akakg̱wa.aaḵw | s/he wonʼt give her/him orders

yan⁓ + O-ka-S-∅-.aaḵw ² (∅ motion verb – transitive) decide about it; plan it | for S to make a decision about O; for S to finish planning O | (KE)

• imperative: yan ka.áḵw (dé)! | make a decision (now)!

• prohibitive: líl yan kayi.aag̱úḵ (tsá)! | donʼt make a decision (yet)!

• progressive imperfective: yánde yaa kana.áḵw | s/he is making a decision

• perfective (+): yan akaawa.áḵw | s/he made a decision

• perfective (–): tlél yan akaawa.aaḵw | s/he didnʼt make a decision

• future (+): yánde akakg̱wa.áaḵw | s/he will make a decision

• future (–): tlél yánde akakg̱wa.aaḵw | s/he wonʼt make a decision

O-ka-S-∅-√.aaḵw ² (∅ act verb – transitive) plan | for S to plan O | (GD, LA, KE) has du ḵu.éexʼi has akaawa.áḵw. →  they have all the plans set for their party (JL) ldakát yan akaawa.áḵw →  it has been planned out (SN) yéi kawtuwa.aaḵw →  we planned thus (SN)

• imperative: ka.áḵw! | plan it!

• prohibitive: líl kayi.aag̱úḵ! | donʼt plan it!

• imperfective (+): akoo.aaḵw | s/he is planning it

• progressive imperfective: yaa akana.áḵw | s/he is starting to plan it

• perfective (+): akaawa.áḵw | s/he planned it

• perfective (–): tlél akawu.aaḵw | s/he didnʼt plan it

• future (+): akakg̱wa.áaḵw | s/he will plan it

• future (–): tlél akakg̱wa.aaḵw | s/he wonʼt plan it

át + O-ji-ka-u-S-∅-√.aaḵw ² (na act verb – transitive) order; instruct | for S to give O orders, instructions (esp. concerning work) | (KE)

• imperative: át jikuna.aaḵw! | give her/him things to do!

• prohibitive: líl át jikayi.aag̱úḵ! | donʼt give her/him things to do!

• imperfective (+): át ajikoo.aaḵw | s/he is giving her/him things to do; s/he gives her/him things to do

• progressive imperfective: át yaa ajikuna.áḵw | s/he is starting to give her/him things to do

• perfective (+): át ajikaawa.aaḵw | s/he gave her/him things to do

• perfective (–): tlél át ajikawu.aaḵw | s/he didnʼt give her/him things to do

• future (+): át ajikakg̱wa.áaḵw | s/he will give her/him things to do

• future (–): tlél át ajikakg̱wa.aaḵw | s/he wonʼt give her/him things to do

át + sh + ji-ka-S-d+∅-√.aaḵw ² (na event verb – subject intransitive) make self do something | for S to make oneself do something | (KE)

• imperative: át sh jikanida.aaḵw! | make yourself do it!

• prohibitive: líl át sh jikayida.aag̱úḵ! | donʼt make yourself do it!

• perfective (+): át sh jikawdi.aaḵw | s/he made herself/himself do it

• perfective (–): tlél át sh jikawda.aaḵw | s/he didnʼt make herself/himself do it

• future (+): át sh jikagux̱da.áaḵw | s/he will make herself/himself do it

• future (–): tlél át sh jikagux̱da.aaḵw | s/he wonʼt make herself/himself do it

aan 1 (noun) land ¹; town; village; settlement | inhabited or owned land | (KE) || ship | large boats were originally referred to as floating towns, but not any longer

aan 2 (postpositional pronoun) with; means | with it; by means of it; taking it along | postpositional pronoun: a + een ⁓ aan (KE)

√aan ¹ (verb root) sit quietly; meditate; observe while seated

a-S-∅-√.aan ˀ ¹ (? act verb – subject intransitive) sit quietly; meditate; observe weather (while sitting quietly) | for S to sit quietly (esp. while watching signs of the weather at sundown); for S to meditate (esp. while watching signs of the weather at sundown); for S to observe the weather while sitting quietly | classification: weather | gáant oodu.ánjeen →  they used to sit outside, quietly watching the clouds (SN) x̱ʼawool dzeit kán a.án →  heʼs sitting quietly on the steps of his porch meditating (SN)

• imperfective (+): a.án | heʼs sitting quietly and meditating

√aan ² (verb root) kind; gentle; pleasant; good looking

O-tu-l-√.aan ˟ ² (ga state verb – object intransitive) kind; gentle | for O to be kind; for O to be gentle | (KE)

• imperative: itukla.aan! | be kind!

• imperfective (+): tuli.aan | s/he is kind

• imperfective (–): tlél tool.aan | s/he isnʼt kind

• future (+): kei tugux̱la.aan | s/he will be kind

• future (–): tlél kei tugux̱la.aan | s/he wonʼt be kind

O-ka-s-√.aan ˟ ² (ga state verb – object intransitive) | classification: inanimate attractive; good-looking | for O to be attractive, good-looking | (KE)

• imperfective (+): kasi.aan | it is good-looking

• imperfective (–): tlél koos.aan | it isnʼt good-looking

• progressive imperfective: kei kanas.aan | it is starting to become good-looking

• perfective (+): kawsi.aan | it became good-looking

• perfective (–): tlél kawus.aan | it didnʼt become good-looking

• future (+): kei kagux̱sa.aan | it will be good-looking

• future (–): tlél kei kagux̱sa.aan | it wonʼt be good-looking

O-ya-ka-s-√.aan ˟ ² (ga state verb – object intransitive) attractive; good-looking; pleasant-faced | for O to be attractive, good-looking, pleasant-faced | classification: animate | yakwsi.aan aadé yeeliyéx̱i yé →  the way youʼve made it (totem pole), it has a pleasant face (SN) xíxchʼ tléil yakoos.aan →  a frog isnʼt pleasant-faced; it is kind of ugly (SN) (KE)

• imperfective (+): yaksi.aan | s/he is good-looking

• imperfective (–): tlél yakoos.aan | s/he isnʼt good-looking

• progressive imperfective: kei yakanas.aan | s/he is starting to become good-looking

• perfective (+): yakawsi.aan | s/he became good-looking

• perfective (–): tlél yakawus.aan | s/he didnʼt become good-looking

• future (+): kei yakagux̱sa.aan | s/he will be good-looking

• future (–): tlél kei yakagux̱sa.aan | s/he wonʼt be good-looking

√aan ³ (verb root) village: make village

N-xʼ + S-d+s-√.aan ˀ ³ (? act verb – subject intransitive) settle; village: make village | for S to make village at N; for S to settle at N | áa wutudzi.aan →  we settled there/we made it our village (SN) Jilḵáatdáx̱ áwé has wuligáasʼ; tlei Aangóonxʼ has wudzi.aan →  they moved from Chilkat and settled in Angoon/made Angoon their village (SN)

• perfective (+): áa woodzi.aan | s/he settled there; s/he made a village there

aan ⁓ a ee- (postpositional pronoun) it: (to) it | third person nonhuman postpositional (3p.PP) used in certain verbs where something is going towards the object (literally or figuratively) a special type of pronoun that combines three things: possessive pronoun, empty base, and relational suffix other possessive pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

ax̱ ee- ⁓ x̱aan | (to) me →  first person singular postpositional (1s.PP)

haa ee- ⁓ haan | (to) us →  first person plural postpositional (1p.PP)

i ee- | (to) you →  second person singular postpositional (2s.PP)

yee ee- | (to) you all →  second person plural postpositional (2p.PP)

du ee- ⁓ u- | (to) her/him →  third person human singular postpositional (3s.PP)

has du ee- ⁓ s du ee- | (to) them →  third person plural postpositional (3p.PP)

a ee- ⁓ aan | (to) it →  third person nonhuman postpositional (3p.PP)

ash ee- | (to) this gal/guy →  third person proximal postpositional (3prx.PP)

a ee- ⁓ a- | (to) that other gal/guy →  third person obviate postpositional (3obv.PP)

ḵaa ee- ⁓ ḵu ee- ⁓ ḵoon | (to) someone →  fourth person human postpositional (4h.PP)

at ee- | (to) something →  fourth person nonhuman postpositional (4n.PP)

aa ee- | (to) one, some →  partitive postpositional (part.PP)

chush | (to) -selfʼs →  reflexive postpositional (rflx.PP)

woosh, wooch | (to) each other →  reciprocal postpositional (recip.PP)

aan at dusx̱a át (compound noun) fork | “thing a person eats with” | (KE) a-ee-n + at + du-s-√x̱a + át →  its-(4n.P).[empty base].with + something-(4n.O) + someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,s,–i).√eat + thing-(4n.i) • variants: ách at dusx̱a át •

aan da.usʼgu át (compound noun) • variants: aan du.usʼ aa washéen • machine | washer; washing machine; "thing to wash with" | a-ee-n + da-√.usʼ-kw-u + át →  its-(3n.p).[empty base].with + cl-(+d,∅,–i).√wash.[repetitive].[relative] + thing-(4n.i) (JL)

aan duskʼix̱ʼti át (compound noun) hook ² | crochet hook | a-ee-n + du-s-√kʼix̱ʼ-t-i + át →  its-(3n.p).[empty-base].with + someone.cl-(+d,s,–i).√hook/gaff.[repeatedly].[relational] + thing-(4n.i) (JL)

aan dutasʼ át (compound noun) pestle | pestle or stone used for pulverizing bark; "the thing to pulverize bark with | a-ee-n + du-∅-√tasʼ + át →  its-(3n.p).[empty-base].with + someone-(4h.S).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√pulverize-tree-bark + thing-(4n.i) (JL)

aan duxasʼ át (compound noun) scraper | "the thing to scrape with" | a-ee-n + du-√xasʼ + át →  its-(3n.p).[empty-base].with + someone.√scrape + thing-(4n.i) (JL)

aan galaḵú (verbal noun) • variants: aan galḵú • flood ² | (KE) aan + ga-la-√ḵú →  land-(inhabited) + con-pre.cl-(–d,l,–i).√flood

aan eeg̱ayáak (landform) beach | the beach, shore below the town | aan + eeg̱ayáak →  land-(inhabited) + downshore-from (JL)

aan kaduskʼíx̱ʼti át (compound noun) | (A), aan duskʼíx̱ʼti át (T) hook ² | crochet hook; "thing a person hooks/gaffs with" | a-een + ka-du-s-√kʼíx̱ʼ-t-i + át →  it.with + hsf.someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,s,–i).√hook/gaff.[repetitive].[relational] + thing-(4n.i) (JL)

aan kadusne át (compound noun) • variants: aan kedusne ét (C) • hook; needle ² | knitting needle; crocheting needle | a-ee-n + ka-du-s-√ne + át →  its-(3n.p).[empty-base].with + ksf.someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,s,–i).√knit/weave + thing-(4n.ind) (JL)

aan kadusxitgu át (compound noun) brush ² | hairbrush; "thing to furrow with" | a-ee-n + ka-du-s-√xit-kw-u + át →  its-(3n.p).[empty-base].with + hsf.someone-(4n.S).cl-(+d,s,–i).√furrow/write.[repetitive].[relational] + thing-(4n.i) (JL)

aan kadusʼíxʼw át (compound noun) glue | "thing something is glued with" | →  a-ee-n + ka-du-√sʼíxʼw + át its-(4n.P].[empty base].with + hsf.someone.√adhere-to + thing (SE)

aan kadutʼix̱ʼ át (compound noun) • variants: aan kedutʼex̱ʼ át • pestle | pestle (for pounding); "thing to smash on" | a-ee-n + ka-du-∅-√tix̱ʼ + át →  its-(3n.p).[empty-base].with + hsf.someone-(4n.S).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√smash/pound + thing-(4n.i) (JL)

aan kanáagu (compound noun) avens | largeleaf avens; large-leaved avens; “medicine on the land" | WARNING: arnica increases body temperature when taken internally, externally it acts as an antiseptic possibly arnica species, especially A. amplexicaulus, A. latifolia, A. gracilis | aan + ka-náakw-u →  land + on.medicine.[relational] (KE, JL) ° Geum macrophyllum °

aan kayéx̱aa (compound noun) • variants: tʼáa keyéx̱aa • plane ² | plane for woodworking; "the one to whitlle with" | a-ee-n + ka-∅-√yéx̱-aa →  its-(3n.p).[empty-base].with + hsf.cl-(+–d,∅,–i).√make/construct/whittle.one(s)-(part.i) (JL)

aan kwéiyi (compound noun) flag | “land marker" | (KE) aan + √kwéi-yi →  land-(inhabited) + √mark.[relational]

aan kwéiyi tugáasʼi (compound noun) flagpole | “housepost in the flag” | (KE) aan + √kwéi-yi + tu-gáasʼ-i →  land + √mark.[relational] + inside.housepost.[relational]

aan lingídi (compound noun) rich ²; person | rich woman; city person; "human of the land" | for example, the wife or sister of an «aanḵáawu» (rich man, king) | aan + lingít-i →  land-(inhabited) + human.[relational]

aan sʼaatí (compound noun) mayor | “master of the land” | aan + sʼaatí →  land + master (KE)

aan shadux̱ishdi dzaas (compound noun) spear ² | spear for clubbing; "clubbing on the head with thonging" | (JL) a-ee-n + sha-du-∅-√x̱ish-t-i + dzaas →  its-(4n.P].[empty base].with + head.someone-(4n.S).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√club.[repeatedly].[relational] + thonging

aan x̱ʼayee (landform) town; in | in a town; on the streets of a town; “beneath the mouth of town” | (KE) aan + x̱ʼa-yee →  land + mouth/opening.beneath

aan yaduxasʼ át (verbal noun) • variants: aan yeduxesʼ ét; aan yaduxasʼ lítaa; aan yatxasʼ at; ḵaayaxásʼaa • razor | “thing a person shaves with” | (KE) a-ee-n + ya-du-∅-√xasʼ + át →  somethingʼs-(4n.P).[empty base].with + vsf.someone-(4h.S).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√scrape + thing-(4n.i) • variants: aan yatxasʼ át •

aan yadu.usʼgu jig̱wéinaa (compound noun) cloth; face; rag; wash; towel | washcloth, washrag for washing the face; "handtowel to wash the face with" | a-ee-n + ya-du-∅-√.usʼ-kw-u + ji-√g̱óo-n-aa →  its-[empty-base].with +vsf.someone-(4n.S).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√wash.[repeatedly].[relative] + hand.√wipe.(progressive).one(s)-(part.i)

aan yax̱ʼáak (landform) water | area on the open water in front of the town, village || between | between towns | aan + ya-x̱ʼáak →  land-(inhabited) + vsf.between

aan yádi (compound noun) • variants: aanyédi (C) • person | high class person; “child of the land” | used to refer to the high-caste people of a clan, often while visiting their territory | (KE) aan + yát-i →  [land + child.pos]

aan yátxʼi sáani (compound noun) • variants: aan yátxʼi, aan yétxʼi (C) • people | “little children of the land”; high class people; aristocrat | term of respect, often said to the people of a land where the speaker is visiting as a guest | (KE) aan + yát-xʼi + sáani →  [land + child.plr.pos + little (used in plural diminutive)] • variants: aan yátxʼu sáani •

aanáx̱ tléiḵw (compound noun) • variants: tlaḵwtlénxʼ; wasʼxʼaan tléig̱u • salmonberry | aa-náx̱ + tléiḵw →  there.through/along + berry (JL) ° rubus spectabilis °

aandaat kanahík (verbal noun) • variants: aandaat kanaheek; aandaat kanahígi; aandaat kanahík; aandaat keneheek • monkey | "goes all over on the ship" | (KE, JL) aan-daat + ka-na-∅-√hík →  land-(inhabited).about + hsf.ns-cp.[classifier].√run/jump(?) • variants: aandaat kanahígi (T), aandaat kanaheek (At), aandaat keneheek (C) • ° family cebidae and family cercopithecidae °

aandaat kanahík atx̱aayí (compound noun) banana | "monkey food" | aan-daat + ka-na-∅-√hík + at-√x̱á-yí →  land-(inhabited).about + hsf.ns-cp.[classifier].√run/jump(?) + something-(4n.O)-√eat.[relational]

aandaatóox (compound noun) bedbug | "stomps around the land" | aan-daa-√tóox →  land-(inhabited).around.√stamp-feet (JL)

aandaayaagú (compound noun) rowboat | “boat around the land” | (KE) aan-daa-yaakw-u →  land-(inhabited).around.canoe/boat.[relational]

Aangóon (placename) Angoon | “village isthmus” | aan + góon →  land/village + portage/passage-across-it/isthmus (KE, TT) (KE, TT)

aankadushxit át (verbal noun) camera | “thing a person writes/photos/x-rays with” | a-ee-n + ka-du-sh-√xit + át →  somethingʼs-(4n.P).[empty base].with + hsf.someone-(4h.S).[classifier].√write thing-(4n.i) (KE)

aanká (landform) town | downtown; in town | aan-ká →  land-(inhabited).on (JL)

Aanḵáawu (compound noun) • variants: Dikee Aanḵáawu, Haa Aanḵáawu • Deity: God, Lord, Creator; God; Lord; Creator | "person of the land above" | a post-contact term from Christianity | (KE) (dikee) + aan-ḵáa-wu →  (above) + land-(inhabited).person.[relational]

aanḵáawu (compound noun) rich ²; chief; king | rich person; person of wealth; “person of the land” | plural form: aanḵáaxʼu | aan + ḵáa-wu →  [land + person.rel] (KE)

aansaganeit (compound noun) firecracker | "thing that burns with it" | a-een-sa-√gan-i-át →  its-(3n.p).with.cl-(–d,s,–i).√burn/light.[relational].thing-(4n.i) (JL)

Aanshookahíttaan (clan name) Clan: Brown Bear (Eagle/Wolf Moiety) | "People of the House on the End of Town"; Origin: Prince of Wales | Teiḵweidí Migration Teiḵweidí Group | aan-shú-ká-hít-taan →  land-(inhabited).end.on.house.people-(of house) (TT, AH, NR, JC, JL, HJ)

Heinyaa Ḵwáan

Aanshooká Hít | End of Town House

aantḵeení (compound noun) people; crowd ² | townspeople; crowd or large group of people; “seated on the land” | (KE) aan-t + √ḵee-n-i →  [land-(inhabited).at-(arrived) + √seated/situated.(stem-var).[relational]]

Aanx̱ʼaakhíttaan (clan name) Clan: Dog Salmon (Raven/Crow Moiety) | "People of the House in the Middle of the Village"; Origin: Angoon | Lʼeeneidí Mirgration Primary Crest: Dog Salmon Secondary Crests: Raven, Eagle, Gull | aan-x̱ʼaak-hít-taan →  land-(inhabited).ravine.house.people-(of house) (TT, AH, NR, JC, JL, HJ)

Xutsnoowú Ḵwáan

Aanx̱ʼaak Hít | Middle of Town House

Yanxoon Hít | Logjam House

aas (noun) tree | in Sitka, «shéiyi» is often used for “tree” | (KE)

aas daax̱eeshí (compound noun) lichen | lichen which grows on spruce bark; "foam around the tree" | aas + daa-x̱eesh-í →  tree + around.foam.[relational] (JL) ° Stricta pulmonaria (L.) Bir. °

aas dlágwaa (compound noun) • variants: dlágwaa • peavy | aas + √dlákw-aa →  tree + √scratch.one(s)-(part.i) (JL)

aas hít (compound noun) cabin | log cabin | aas + hít →  tree + house (JL)

aas jiseiyí (compound noun) • variants: aas seiyí (At) • tree; shelter | “in the shelter of the treeʼs arms”; the shelter of a tree | aas + ji-seiyí →  tree + hand/arm.shelter/area-below (KE)

aas katláx̱di (plant part) branch; tree | dry tree branches (still on the tree); "moldy tree" | aas + ka-∅-√tláx̱-t-i →  tree + hsf.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√moldy.[relational] (JL)

aas keg̱ítaa (plant part) needle ¹; pine; spruce | conifer needle (spruce, pine) | needles of conifer tree | aas + ka-g̱ítaa →  tree + on.tree-needles (JL)

aas kʼóox̱ʼu (plant part) • variants: aasdaakʼóox̱ʼu • pitch | tree pitch | specifically tree pitch and not the metal lead or chewing gum | (JL)

aas kʼwátʼi rot ² | small red ball nested inside dry rot | looks like kidney pills; is kept for good luck

Aas Ḵwáani (compound noun) Tree People; forest; woods | "People of the Trees" | this term is used ceremonially, often when speaking to the spirits of the trees | (KE) aas + ḵwáan-i →  [tree + people-of.rel]

aas ḵʼaluká (landform) timberline | "mouth of the ridge trees" | aas + ḵʼa-lu-ká →  tree + mouth.nose/point.on (JL)

aas ḵʼíshaa (compound noun) knot ¹; puck | tree knot used for making puck; "tree bat (for hitting)" | aas + √ḵʼísh-aa →  tree + bat/hit-(with bat) (JL)

aas seiyí (compound noun) • variants: aas jiseiyí • shelter; tree | the shelter of a tree | aas + seiyí →  tree + shelter (JL)

aas tutlʼúkʼx̱u (compound noun) • variants: gantutlʼúkʼx̱u • worm | woodworm; "worm inside the tree" | aas + tu-tlʼúkʼx̱-u →  tree + inside.worm.[relational]

aas yádi (compound noun) • variants: aas yédi • tree; sapling | “tree child” | (KE) aas + yát-i →  [tree + child.pos]

aas yík (compound noun) tree | in the tree | aas + yík →  tree + in-(shallow container) (JL)

aasdaacháni (compound noun) mistletoe | "odor around the tree" | ? | aas-daa-√chán-i →  tree.around.√stink/odor.[relational] (JL)

aasdaag̱áadli (compound noun) fungus | bracket fungus; conks; tree fungus; “cracker around the tree” | originally just «g̱áatl», which now means "pilot bread" | (KE, JL) aas + –daa + g̱áatl-i →  tree + around + cracker.[relational] ° Polyporus applanatus °

aasdaag̱oodlí (plant part) • variants: aasdaag̱údli • burl; tumor | burl, tumor in a tree | aas-daa-g̱ootl-í →  tree.around.bump.[relational] (JL)

aasdaakʼóox̱ʼu (plant part) pitch | “pitch around the tree” | (KE) aas + –daa + kʼóox̱ʼ-u →  [tree + around + pitch.rel]

aasdaakʼwátʼi mitten; ball; glove | decorative fur balls on mitten strings; "eggs around the tree" | aas-daa-kʼwátʼ-i →  tree.around.egg.[relational] (JL)

aasdaasʼóosʼani (plant part)

aasdaasheeyí • variants: sheey • branch; limb | limb, primary branch; "limb around a tree" | aas-daa-sheey-í →  tree.around.limb.[relational]

aasdaaxʼéesʼi (compound noun) tree: tumor in a tree, with branches growing from it; tumor in a tree, with branches growing from it | “tangled mound around the tree” | (KE) aas-daa-√xʼéesʼ-i →  tree.around.√tangle.[relational]

aasgutug̱ayḵí (noun) owl without ear tufts | "you all sit in the woods!" | a spiritually powerful animal that is connected to the «kóoshdaa» (land otter) and is known by multiple names seeing one can be a sign of something to come, and killing one has been known to drive one to suicide the name «aasgutug̱ayḵí» (you all sit in the woods!) comes from the call of the owl some speakers translate this, especially in the Yéil Ḵutláakw (Raven Cycles) as "hawk" the name «kóoshdaa yéigi» (land otterʼs spirit helper) comes from a Kooshdaaḵáa story | (KE, GD, IdC, IC) aasgutu-g̱a-yi-√ḵí →  forest.[g̱a conj-pre].you-all-(2p.S).√sit-(plural) • variants: kʼákw, aasgutuyikhéix̱waa, kóoshdaa yéig̱i •

aasgutuyikhéix̱waa (noun) owl without ear tufts | "magic in the woods" | a spiritually powerful animal that is connected to the «kóoshdaa» (land otter) and is known by multiple names seeing one can be a sign of something to come, and killing one has been known to drive one to suicide the name «aasgutug̱ayḵí» (you all sit in the woods!) comes from the call of the owl some speakers translate this, especially in the Yéil Ḵutláakw (Raven Cycles) as "hawk" the name «kóoshdaa yéigi» (land otterʼs spirit helper) comes from a Kooshdaaḵáa story | (KE, GD, IdC, IC) aasgutu-yík-√héix̱waa →  forest.[g̱a conj-pre].in-(shallow container).magic • variants: kʼákw, aasgutug̱ayḵí, kóoshdaa yéig̱i •

aasgutuyiksháa (compound noun) spider | "women in the woods" | aas-gutú-yík-sháa →  tree.forest.in-(shallow container).women

aasgutuyik.ádi (compound noun) spider | "thing in the woods" | aas-gutú-yík-át-i →  tree.forest.in-(shallow container).thing-(4n.i).[relational] DRJ

aasgutú (landform) forest; wilderness; woods | "inside the base of the tree(s)"; wilderness; timbered area | (KE) aas + gú-tú →  tree + base.inside

aashát (noun) trout | steelhead trout | (KE)

–aat (kinship term) aunt | paternal aunt (opposite clan) | in Tlingit kinship, the term for a paternal aunt is used for all females of a fatherʼs clan who is in the same generation as the father. This term can also extend to any women of the opposite moiety who are of the fatherʼs generation as an expression of personal closeness. can be used to show personal closeness with a female member of the opposite clan who is not necessarily the fatherʼs same clan | (KE)

√aat ¹ (verb root) | classification: plural subject walk; go | singular form: √goot ¹

{∅ preverb} + S-∅-√.aat ¹ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) walk; go | for (plural) S to walk, go (by walking or as a general term) | (KE, JC) áxʼ áwé woosh kaanáx̱ kei s da.átch →  that is where they assemble (SN) woosh kaanáx̱ has gux̱da.átch →  they are coming together/ assembling for a meeting

• imperative: {∅ preverb} yi.á! | you all go {____}!

• prohibitive: líl {∅ preverb} yeey.aadíḵ! | you all donʼt go {____}!

• repetitive imperfective prohibitive: líl {∅ repetitive preverb} yi.átjiḵ!! | you all donʼt ever go {____}!

• progressive imperfective: {∅ preverb} yaa (ha)s na.át | they are going {____}

• progressive imperfective (–): tlél {∅ preverb} (ha)s una.át | theyʼre not going {____}

• perfective (+): {∅ preverb} (ha)s uwa.át | they went {____}

• perfective (–): tlél {∅ preverb} (ha)s wu.aat | they didnʼt go {____}

• future (+): {∅ preverb} (ha)s gug̱a.áat | they will go {____}

• future (–): tlél {∅ preverb} (ha)s gug̱a.aat | they wonʼt go {____}

{∅ preverb} + S-d+∅-√.aat ¹ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) walk; go | for (plural) S to walk, go (by walking or as a general term) | (KE, JC)

• imperative: {∅ preverb} yida.á! | you all go {____}

• prohibitive: líl {∅ preverb} yida.aadíḵ! | donʼt you all go {____}

• repetitive imperfective prohibitive: líl {∅ repetitive preverb} yida.átjiḵ!! | you all donʼt ever go {____}!

• progressive imperfective: {∅ preverb) yaa (ha)s nada.át | they are going {____}

• perfective (+): {∅ preverb} (ha)s wudi.át | they went {____}

• perfective (–): tlél {∅ preverb} (ha)s wuda.aat | they didnʼt go {____}

• future (+): {∅ preverb} has gux̱da.áat | they will go {____}

• future (–): tlél {∅ preverb} has gux̱da.aat | they wonʼt go {____}

woosh + x̱oo-t⁓ + S-d+∅-√.aat ¹ (∅ event verb – subject intransitive) assemble; congregate; gather together; meet | for (plural) S to assemble, congregate, gather together (for meetings) | áxʼ áwé woosh kaanáx̱ kei s da.átch →  that is where they assemble (SN) woosh has gux̱da.átch →  they are coming together/ assembling for a meeting (SN) (KE)

• imperative: woosh x̱oot yida.á! | you all come together!

• prohibitive: líl woosh x̱oox̱ yida.aadíḵ! | donʼt you all come together!

• progressive imperfective: woosh x̱oodé yaa (ha)s nada.át | they are coming together

• perfective (+): woosh x̱oot has wudi.át | they came together

• perfective (–): tlél woosh x̱oot has wuda.aat | they didnʼt come together

• future (+): woosh x̱oodé has gux̱da.áat | they will come together

• future (–): tlél woosh x̱oodé has gux̱da.aat | they wonʼt come together

N + jikaadáx̱ + ya-u-S-∅-√.aat ¹ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) get out of way | for (plural) S to get out of Nʼs way | (KE, JC)

• imperative: du jikaadáx̱ yay.á! | you all get out of her/his way!

• repetitive imperfective prohibitive: líl du jikaadáx̱ yaa yi.átjiḵ! | donʼt you all ever get out of her/his way!

• progressive imperfective: du jikaadáx̱ yaa (ha)s na.át | they are getting out of her/his way

• perfective (+): du jikaadáx̱ has yaawa.át | they got out of her/his way

• perfective (–): tlél du jikaadáx̱ has yawu.aat | they didnʼt get out of her/his way

• future (+): du jikaadáx̱ has yakg̱wa.áat | they will get out of her/his way

• future (–): tlél du jikaadáx̱ has yakg̱wa.aat | they wonʼt get out of her/his way

ji-S-d+∅-√.aat ¹ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) attack; assault | for (plural) s to attack, assault, fall upon | to indicate who is being attacked, use –éet (to –). for example: haa éet has jiwdi.át. ʼthey attacked usʼ. it is also acceptable to use this verb without specifying who was attacked | has du aanít jiwduwa.át →  their town was attacked (and captured) (KE)

• imperative: ḵaa éet jeeyda.á! | you all attack someone!

• prohibitive: líl ḵaa éex̱ jeeyda.aadíḵ! | donʼt you all attack anyone!

• progressive imperfective: ḵaa éede yaa (ha)s jinda.át | theyʼre attacking people

• perfective (+): ḵaa éet has jiwdi.át | they attacked someone

• perfective (–): tlél ḵaa éet has jiwda.aat | they didnʼt attack anyone

• future (+): ḵaa eedé has jigux̱da.áat | they will attack someone

• future (–): tlél ḵaa eedé (ha)s jigux̱da.aat | they wonʼt attack anyone

a-ya-u-S-d+∅-√.aat ¹ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) turn back; go back | for (plural) S to turn back, go back (by walking or as general term) | (KE, JC)

• imperative: ayeeda.á! | you all turn back!

• repetitive imperfective prohibitive: líl ayeeda.átx̱iḵ | donʼt you all ever turn back!

• progressive imperfective: yaa (ha)s ayanda.át | they are turning back

• perfective (+): has ayawdi.át | they turned back

• perfective (–): tlél has ayawda.aat | they didnʼt turn back

• future (+): has ayagux̱da.áat | they will turn back

• future (–): tlél has ayagux̱da.aat | they wonʼt turn back

neil⁓ + O-S-s-√.aat ¹ (∅ motion verb – transitive) let in; welcome | for S to let in, welcome in (plural) O | keitlxʼ neil wududzi.át →  they let the dogs in (SN) (KE)

• imperative: neil has sa.á! | let them in!

• prohibitive: líl neilx̱ has isa.aadíḵ! | donʼt let them in!

• perfective (+): neil has awsi.át | s/he let them in

• perfective (–): tlél neil has awus.aat | s/he didnʼt let them in

• future (+): neildé has agux̱sa.áat | s/he will let them in

• future (–): tlél neildé has agux̱sa.aat | s/he wonʼt let them in

a + tóo + daak + O-S-s-√.aat ¹ (∅ motion verb – transitive) appoint; choose | for S to appoint (plural) O, choose (plural) O for a certain position | objects in this verb are always plural, while subject may be singular or plural | a tóo daak has wududzi.át →  they were appointed (SN) (KE)

• imperative: a tóo daak has sa.á! | appoint them!

• prohibitive: líl a tóo daak has isa.átjiḵ! | donʼt appoint them!

• perfective (+): a tóo daak has awsi.át | s/he appointed them

• perfective (–): tlél a tóo daak has awus.aat | s/he didnʼt appoint them

• future (+): a tóo daak has agux̱sa.áat | s/he will appoint them

• future (–): tlél a tóo daak has agux̱sa.aat | s/he wonʼt appoint them

{na preverb} + S-∅-√.aat ¹ (na motion verb – subject intransitive) walk; go | for (plural) S to walk, go (by walking or as a general term) | (KE, JC) i x̱ánde gax̱too.áat →  we ʼre coming to your place (SN) gáande s woo.aat →  they went outside (SN) du een woo.aat →  he accompanied him/went with him (SN)

• imperative: {na preverb} nay.á! | you all go {____}!

• prohibitive: líl {na preverb} yeey.aadíḵ! | donʼt you all go {____}!

• repetitive imperfective prohibitive: líl {na repetitive preverb} yoo yi.átgiḵ! | donʼt you all ever go {____}!

• progressive imperfective: {na preverb} yaa (ha)s na.át | they are going {____}

• progressive imperfective (–): tlél {na preverb} yaa (ha)s una.át | theyʼre not going {____}

• perfective (+): {na preverb} (ha)s woo.aat | they went {____}

• perfective (–): tlél {na preverb} (ha)s wu.aat | they didnʼt go {____}

• future (+): {na preverb} (ha)s gug̱a.áat | they will go {____}

• future (–): tlél {na preverb} (ha)s gug̱a.aat | they wonʼt go {____}

gánde + S-∅-√.aat ¹ (na motion verb – subject intransitive) go to the bathroom; bathroom: go to the bathroom; pee: go pee; urinate: go urinate; poop: go poop; defecate: go defecate | for (plural) S to go to the bathroom | a euphemism that literally means "go outside" although the indepdendent base «gáan» contracts to «gán». learners should be careful to keep the vowel long if the intended meaning is "going outside".

yínde + sh + ka-S-l-√.aat ¹ (na motion verb – subject intransitive) bend over; lean down | for (plural) s to bend over, lean down | (KE)

• imperative: yínde sh kanayil.á! | you all bend over!

• repetitive imperfective prohibitive: líl yínde yoo sh kayil.átgiḵ! | donʼt you all bend over!

• progressive imperfective: yínde yaa has sh kanal.át | they are bending over slowly

• perfective (+): yínde has sh kawdli.aat | they bent over

• perfective (–): tlél yínde has sh kawul.aat | they didnʼt bend over

• future (+): yínde has sh kakg̱wal.áat | they will bend over

• future (–): tlél yínde has sh kakg̱wal.aat | they wonʼt bend over

{ga preverb} + S-∅-√.aat ¹ (ga motion verb – subject intransitive) walk; go | for (plural) S to walk, go | (KE, JC) aan ká kei átch g̱uwakaan →  the deer climb up to the mountain pastures (in July) (SN)

• repetitive imperfective prohibitive: líl {ga preverb} kei yi.átjiḵ! | donʼt you all (ever) go {____}!

• progressive imperfective: {ga preverb} kei (ha)s na.át | they are going {____}

• perfective (+): {ga preverb} has woo.aat | they went {____}

• perfective (–): tlél {ga preverb} has wu.aat | they didnʼt go {____}

• future (+): {ga preverb} kei (ha)s gug̱a.áat | they will go {____}

• future (–): tlél {ga preverb} kei (ha)s gug̱a.aat | they wonʼt go {____}

N-x̱ + yaa + S-∅-√.aat ¹ (ga motion verb – subject intransitive) walking along | for (plural) s to be walking, going (by foot or as general term) along N (basically plural; see √goot ¹ for singular) | this is an example of a progressive epiaspectual paradigm (leer, 91), which basically means that all forms are based on the progressive aspect. the progressive epiaspect is characterized by: 1)having the yaa preverb in all forms, 2)having no perfective form, and 3)denotes semantically a continuous transition from one location or state to another | (KE)

• imperative: áx̱ yaa gay.á! | you all be walking along there!

• repetitive imperfective prohibitive: líl áx̱ yaa yi.átjiḵ | donʼt you all be walking along there!

• progressive imperfective: áx̱ yaa (ha)s na.át | they are walking along there

• future (+): áx̱ yaa (ha)s gug̱a.áat | they will be walking along there

• future (–): tlél áx̱ yaa (ha)s gug̱a.aat | they wonʼt be walking along there

woosh + kaanáx̱ + S-d+∅-√.aat ¹ (ga event verb – subject intransitive) assemble; congregate; gather together; meet | for (plural) S to assemble, congregate, gather together (for meetings) | áxʼ áwé woosh kaanáx̱ kei s da.átch →  that is where they assemble (SN) woosh has gux̱da.átch →  they are coming together/ assembling for a meeting (SN) (KE)

• imperative: woosh kaanáx̱ gayda.á! | you all gather together!

• repetitive imperfective prohibitive: líl woosh kaanáx̱ kei yda.átjiḵ! | donʼt you all gather together!

• progressive imperfective: woosh kaanáx̱ kei (ha)s nada.át | they are beginning to gather together

• perfective (+): woosh kaanáx̱ has wudi.aat | they gathered together

• perfective (–): tlél woosh kaanáx̱ has wuda.aat | they didnʼt gather together

• future (+): woosh kaanáx̱ kei (ha)s gug̱a.áat | they will gather together

• future (–): tlél woosh kaanáx̱ kei (ha)s gug̱a.aat | they wonʼt gather together

yaa + O-shu-S-∅-√.aat ¹ (ga event verb – transitive) lead ² | for S to lead (plural) O (especially by walking ahead) | classification: plural objects | objects in this verb are always plural, while subject may be singular or plural | (KE, JC) wanadóo yaa ashuna.át →  he ʼs leading the sheep (SN) du yátxʼi át ashoowa.aat →  she leads her children around (SN)

• imperative: yaa (ha)s shuga.á! | lead them!

• prohibitive: líl has shuyi.aadíḵ! | donʼt lead them!

• progressive imperfective: yaa (ha)s ashuna.át | s/he is leading them

• perfective (+): has ashoowa.aat | s/he led them

• perfective (–): tlél has ashuwu.aat | s/he didnʼt lead them

• future (+): yaa (ha)s ashukg̱wa.áat | s/he will lead them

• future (–): tlél yaa (ha)s ashukg̱wa.aat | s/he wonʼt lead them

{g̱a preverb} + S-∅-√.aat ¹ (g̱a motion verb – subject intransitive) walk; go | for (plural) S to walk, go (by walking or as a general term) | (KE, JC) shaa kaadáx̱ yei has na.át kal.átḵ →  theyʼre coming down the mountain without anything (that is, having hunted unsuccessfully) (SN)

• imperative: {g̱a preverb} yaa g̱ay.á! | you all go {___}

• repetitive imperfective prohibitive: líl {g̱a preverb} yei yi.átjiḵ! | donʼt you all go {____}

• progressive imperfective: {g̱a preverb} yei (ha)s na.át | they are going {____}

• progressive imperfective (–): tlél {g̱a preverb} yei (ha)s una.át | theyʼre not going {____}

• perfective (+): {g̱a preverb} (ha)s woo.aat | they went {____}

• perfective (–): tlél {g̱a preverb} (ha)s wu.aat | they didnʼt go {____}

• future (+): {g̱a preverb} yei has gug̱a.áat | they will go {____}

• future (–): tlél {g̱a preverb} yei (ha)s gug̱a.aat | they wonʼt go {____}

√aat ² (verb root) | classification: baggage and personal items carry

{∅ preverb} + O-S-l-√.aat ² (∅ motion verb – transitive) carry; take; give | for S to carry, take plural O (esp. baggage) | a common use for this verb is N + jee-t⁓ + O-S-l-√.aat⁓ ² (∅ motion), such as «du jeet la.át!» (give them to her/him!) | (KE, JC) yei at gux̱la.áat →  heʼs going to unload/bring stuff up from the boat (SN)

• imperative: {∅ preverb} la.át! | carry them {____}!

• prohibitive: Líl {∅ preverb} ila.aadíḵ! | donʼt carry them {____}_!

• perfective (+): {∅ preverb} awli.át | s/he carried them {____}

• perfective (–): tlél {∅ preverb} awul.aat | s/he didnʼt carry them {____}

• future (+): {∅ preverb} agux̱la.áat | s/he will carry them {____}

• future (–): tlél {∅ preverb} agux̱la.aat | s/he wonʼt carry them {____}

{na preverb} + O-S-l-√.aat ² (na motion verb – transitive) carry; take; give | for S to carry, take plural O (esp. baggage) | (KE, JC) ḵóok yaakw yíkde gax̱toola.áat →  weʼre going to load the boxes on the boat (SN)

• imperative: {na preverb} nal.aat! | carry them {____}!

• prohibitive: líl {na preverb} yoo ila.átgiḵ! | donʼt carry them {____}!

• progressive imperfective: {na preverb} yaa anal.át | s/he is carrying them {____}

• perfective (+): {na preverb} awli.aat | s/he carried them {____}

• perfective (–): tlél {na preverb} awul.aat | s/he didnʼt carry them {____}

• future (+): {na preverb} agux̱la.áat | s/he will carry them {____}

• future (–): tlél {na preverb} agux̱la.aat | s/he wonʼt carry them {____}

√aat ³ (verb root) | classification: small round or hooplike objects carry

{∅ motion preverb} + O-ka-S-l-√.aat ³ (∅ event verb – transitive) carry; take; give | for S to carry O (small, round or hoop-like objects) | (KE, JC) kasʼéet nadáakw ká yan akawli.át →  he put the screws on the table (SN) guk.ádi du jeet akawli.át →  he gave her earrings (SN)

• imperative: {∅ preverb} kala.á! | carry them {____}!

• prohibitive: líl {∅ preverb} keela.aadíḵ! | donʼt carry them {____}

• perfective (+): {∅ preverb} akawli.át | s/he carried them {____}

• perfective (–): tlél {∅ preverb} akawul.aat | s/he didnʼt {____}

• future (+): {∅ preverb} akagux̱la.áat | s/he will carry them {____}

• future (–): tlél du jeedé akagux̱la.aat | s/he wonʼt carry them {___}

{na motion preverb} + O-ka-S-l-√.aat ³ (∅ event verb – transitive) carry; take; give | for S to carry O (small, round or hoop-like objects) | (KE, JC) kasʼéet nadáakw ká yan akawli.át →  he put the screws on the table (SN) guk.ádi du jeet akawli.át →  he gave her earrings (SN) i kʼoodásʼi anax̱ kala.á! →  button up your shirt! (SN) anax̱ akawli.át →  he buttoned it up (SN)

• imperative: {∅ preverb} kala.á! | carry them {____}!

• prohibitive: líl {∅ preverb} keela.aadíḵ! | donʼt carry them {____}

• perfective (+): {∅ preverb} akawli.át | s/he carried them {____}

• perfective (–): tlél {∅ preverb} akawul.aat | s/he didnʼt {____}

• future (+): {∅ preverb} akagux̱la.áat | s/he will carry them {____}

• future (–): tlél du jeedé akagux̱la.aat | s/he wonʼt carry them {___}

aanáx̱ + O-ka-S-l-√.aat ³ (∅ act verb – transitive) button up | for S to button up O | i kʼoodásʼi aanax̱ kala.á! →  button up your shirt! (SN) aanax̱ akawli.át →  he buttoned it up (SN) (KE)

• imperative: aanáx̱ kala.á! | button it up!

• repetitive imperfective prohibitive: líl aanáx̱ keela.átx̱iḵ! | donʼt button it up!

• imperfective (+): aanáx̱ akla.aat | s/he is buttoning it up

• imperfective (–): tlél aanáx̱ akool.aat | s/he isnʼt buttoning it up

• perfective (+): aanáx̱ akawli.át | s/he buttoned it up

• perfective (–): tlél aanáx̱ akawul.aat | s/he didnʼt button it up

• future (+): aanáx̱ akagux̱la.áat | s/he will button it up

• future (–): tlél aanáx̱ akagux̱la.aat | s/he wonʼt button it up

N-t + ka-l-√.át ³ (* positional verb – impersonal) lie there | for small, round or hoop-like objects to lie at N | (KE) kasʼéet nadáakw kát kala.át →  the screws are (lying) on the table (SN)

• imperfective (+): át kala.át | they are lying there

• imperfective (–): tlél át kool.át | theyʼre not lying there

N-t + O-ka-S-l-√.át ³ (* positional verb – transitive) lying there | for S to have O  (small, round or hoop-like objects) lying at N

• imperfective (+): át akla.át | s/he has them lying there

• imperfective (–): tlél át akool.át | s/he doesnʼt have them lying there

kei + O-ya-S-l-√.aat ³ (∅ motion verb – transitive) turn (boat or car) | for S to turn O (boat, car) | héide kei yala.á! →  turn (your boat) this way! (SN) kei ayagux̱la.áat, át ḵuwuhaayí →  heʼs going to turn, when the time comes (SN) (KE)

• imperative: kei yala.á! | turn the wheel!

• repetitive imperfective prohibitive: líl kei yeela.átjiḵ! | donʼt turn the wheel!

• progressive imperfective: kei yaa ayanal.át | s/he is turning the wheel

• perfective (+): kei ayawli.át | s/he turned the wheel

• perfective (–): tlél kei ayawul.aat | s/he didnʼt turn the wheel

• future (+): kei ayagux̱la.áat | s/he will turn the wheel

• future (–): tlél kei ayagux̱la.aat | s/he wonʼt turn the wheel

√aat ⁴ (verb root) | classification: human lie down | singular form: √taa

N-t + l-√.át ⁴ (* positional verb – impersonal) lie there | for several things to lie at N; for several persons or animals to lie dead, unconscious, or incapacitated at N | (KE)

• imperfective (+): át la.át | theyʼre lying there

• imperfective (–): tlél át ul.át | theyʼre not lying there

sh + S-d+l-√.át ⁴ (* positional verb – subject intransitive) lying down | for (plural) s to be lying down | (KE) dei s sh il.át →  they are already lying down (SN)

• imperfective (+): has sh il.át | they are lying down

• imperfective (–): tlél has sh ul.át | they arenʼt lying down

yan⁓ + sh + S-d+l-√.aat ⁴ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) lie down | for (plural) S to lie down | (KE)

• imperative: yan sh yil.á! | you all lie down!

• prohibitive: líl yax̱ sh yil.aadíḵ! | donʼt you all lie down!

• perfective (+): yan has sh wudli.át | they lay down

• perfective (–): tlél yan has sh wul.aat | they didnʼt lie down

• future (+): yánde has sh gug̱wal.áat | they will lie down

• future (–): tlél yánde has sh gug̱wal.aat | they wonʼt lie down

√aat ⁵ (verb root) communicate; think; talk | classification: plural subject | singular form: √taan ⁵

x̱ʼa-S-l-√.aat ⁵ (na event verb – subject intransitive) speak; talk; speech: make speech | for (plural) S to speak, talk, make a speech | haa een yoo x̱ʼawli.átk →  he talked to us / conversed with us (SN)

• imperative: x̱ʼanayil.á! | you all speak!

• repetitive imperfective prohibitive: líl yoo x̱ʼayla.átgiḵ! | donʼt you all speak!

• imperfective (+): yaa (ha)s x̱ʼanal.át | they are speaking

• perfective (+): has x̱ʼawli.aat | they spoke

• perfective (–): tlél has x̱ʼawul.aat | they didnʼt speak

• future (+): has x̱ʼagux̱la.áat | they will speak

• future (–): tlél has x̱ʼagux̱la.aat | they wonʼt speak

yan⁓ + x̱ʼa-S-l-√.aat ⁵ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) stop talking | for (plural) S to stop talking | (KE)

• imperative: yan x̱ʼayla.á! | you all stop talking!

• prohibitive: líl yan x̱ʼayla.aadíḵ! | donʼt you all stop talking!

• perfective (+): yan has x̱ʼawli.át | they stopped talking

• perfective (–): tlél yan has x̱ʼawul.aat | they didnʼt stop talking

• future (+): yánde has x̱ʼagux̱la.áat | they will stop talking

• future (–): tlél yánde has x̱ʼagux̱la.aat | they wonʼt stop talking

yoo + x̱ʼa-S-l-.aat ⁵ (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) speak; talk; converse | for (plural) S to speak, talk, converse | (KE)

• imperative: yoo x̱ʼayla.á! | you all converse!

• repetitive imperfective prohibitive: líl yoo x̱ʼayla.átgiḵ! | donʼt you all converse!

• imperfective (+): yoo (ha)s x̱ʼali.átk | they converse; they are conversing

• imperfective (–): tlél yoo (ha)s x̱ʼeil.átk | they donʼt converse; theyʼre not conversing

• progressive imperfective: (yeisú) yaa (ha)s x̱ʼanal.át | they are (still) conversing

• perfective (+): yoo (ha)s x̱ʼawli.át | they conversed

• perfective (–): tlél yoo (ha)s x̱ʼawul.aat | they didnʼt converse

• future (+): yoo (ha)s x̱ʼagux̱la.áat | they will converse

• future (–): tlél yoo (ha)s x̱ʼagux̱la.aat | they wonʼt converse

N + daa + yoo + tu-S-l-√.aat ⁵ (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) think over; consider; make up mind | for (plural) s to think over, consider, make up oneʼs mind about N | a daa yoo tugax̱tula.áat →  weʼre going to think it over (SN) (KE)

• imperative: a daa yoo teeyla.át! | you all think about it!

• repetitive imperfective prohibitive: líl a daa yoo tuyla.átgiḵ! | donʼt you all think about it!

• imperfective (+): a daa yoo (ha)s tuli.átk | they think about it; they are thinking about it

• imperfective (–): tlél a daa yoo (ha)s tool.átk | they donʼt think about it; they arenʼt thinking about it

• perfective (+): a daa yoo (ha)s tuwli.át | they thought about it

• perfective (–): tlél a daa yoo (ha)s tuwul.aat | they didnʼt think about it

• future (+): a doo yoo (ha)s tugux̱la.áat | they will think about it

• future (–): tlél a daa yoo (ha)s tugux̱la.aat | they wonʼt think about it

N + daatx̱ + ḵux̱ + tu-S-d+l-√.aat ⁵ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) reconsider; change mind | for (plural) S to change mind about N; for (plural) S to think over and reconsider N | ḵux̱ has toowdli.át →  they were converted (changed their thinking) (SN) (KE)

• imperative: a daatx̱ ḵux̱ tuyil.át! | change your minds about it!

• repetitive imperfective prohibitive: líl a daatx̱ ḵux̱ tuyil.átjiḵ! | donʼt change your minds about it!

• perfective (+): a daatx̱ ḵux̱ has tuwdli.át | they changed their minds about it

• perfective (–): tlél a daatx̱ ḵux̱ has tuwul.aat | they didnʼt change their minds about it

• future (+): a daatx̱ ḵúx̱de has tukg̱wal.áat | they will change their minds about it

• future (–): tlél a daatx̱ ḵúx̱de has tukg̱wal.aat | they wonʼt change their minds about it

N + ée-t⁓ + x̱ʼa-S-l-√.aat ⁵ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) speak; talk to | for (plural) s to speak, talk to N | in classical tlingit, the verb stem √taan ⁵ refered to a singular subject and the verb stem √.aat ⁵ was used to indicate a plural subject. in modern tlingit however, this distinction is being lost. many speakers use the verb stem √taan ⁵ for both singular and plural subject | (KE)

• imperative: du éet x̱ʼayla.á! | you all speak to her/him!

• prohibitive: líl du éex̱ x̱ʼayla.aadíḵ! | donʼt you all speak to her/him!

• perfective (+): du éet has x̱ʼawli.át | they spoke to her/him

• perfective (–): tlél du éet has x̱ʼawul.aat | they didnʼt speak to her/him

• future (+): du eedé (ha)s x̱ʼagux̱la.áat | they will speak to her/him

• future (–): tlél du eedé (ha)s x̱ʼagux̱la.aat | they wonʼt speak to her/him

√aat ⁶ (verb root) | classification: plural, hinged objects open; close ¹

aatagwéixʼi (compound noun) lily; pond | pond lily; "pokes out of the lake bottom" | áa-táa(k)-√góo-xʼ-i →  lake.bottom.√penetrate-(by poking).repetitive.[relational] (JL) ° (Nuphar polysepalum) °

√aatʼ (verb root) cold

O-S-s-√.áatʼ (∅ act verb – transitive) cold; cool; chill | for S to make O cold, cool | the form «as.átʼx̱» gives both a basic imperfective meaning "s/he is chilling it" and a repetitive imperfective meaning "s/he chills it (regularly)" | héen awsi.átʼ →  he cooled the water (SN) ax̱ x̱ʼoos oos.átʼch →  my feet are always cold (SN) (KE)

• imperative: sa.átʼ! | chill it!

• repetitive imperfective prohibitive: líl isa.átʼx̱iḵ! | donʼt chill it!

• imperfective (+): as.átʼx̱ | s/he is chilling it

• imperfective (–): tlél oos.átʼx̱ | s/heʼs not chilling it

• progressive imperfective: yaa ana.úsʼ | s/he is (in the process of) chilling it

• perfective (+): awsi.átʼ | s/he chilled it

• perfective (–): tlél awus.áatʼ | s/he didnʼt chill it

• future (+): agux̱sa.áatʼ | s/he will chill it

• future (–): tlél agux̱sa.áatʼ | s/he wonʼt chill it

s-√.áatʼ (∅ state verb – impersonal) cold | for an inanimate object to be cold | (KE)

• imperfective (+): si.áatʼ | itʼs cold

• imperfective (–): tlél us.áatʼ | it isnʼt cold

• progressive imperfective: yaa nas.átʼ | it is getting cold

• progressive imperfective (–): tlél yaa unas.átʼ | itʼs not getting cold

• perfective (+): wusi.áatʼ | it got cold

• perfective (–): tlél wus.áatʼ | it didnʼt get cold

• future (+): gug̱as.áatʼ | it will be cold

• future (–): tlél gug̱as.áatʼ | it wonʼt be cold

ḵu-s-√.áatʼ (ga state verb – impersonal) cold (weather) | for the weather to be cold | classification: weather | yá táakw kei ḵugux̱sa.áatʼ shákdéi →  maybe itʼs going to be cold this winter (SN) (KE)

• imperfective (+): ḵusi.áatʼ | the weather is cold

• imperfective (–): tlél ḵoos.áatʼ | the weather isnʼt cold

• progressive imperfective: kei ḵunas.áatʼ | the weather is getting cold

• perfective (+): ḵuwsi.áatʼ | the weather got cold

• perfective (–): tlél ḵuwus.áatʼ | the weather didnʼt get cold

• future (+): kei ḵugux̱sa.áatʼ | the weather will be cold

• future (–): tlél kei ḵugux̱sa.áatʼ | the weather wonʼt be cold

O-sa-∅-.áatʼ (∅ event verb – object intransitive) cold | for O (person) to feel cold | classification: animate | haa seiwa.átʼ →  we feel cold (SN) (KE)

• admonitive: i sa.átʼ tsáa! see | that you donʼt get cold!

• progressive imperfective: yaa sana.átʼ | s/he is starting to get cold

• perfective (+): seiwa.átʼ | s/he is cold

• perfective (–): tlél sawu.áatʼ | s/he isnʼt cold

• future (+): sakg̱wa.áatʼ | s/he will be cold

• future (–): tlél sakg̱wa.áatʼ | s/he wonʼt be cold

O-ya-d+s-√.áatʼ (∅ event verb – object intransitive) cold | for Oʼs face to be cold | x̱at yawdzi.átʼ →  my face is cold (SN) (KE)

• admonitive: i yas.átʼ tsáa! | see that your face doesnʼt get cold!

• progressive imperfective: yaa yanas.átʼ | her/his face is getting cold

• perfective (+): yawdzi.átʼ | her/his face is cold

• perfective (–): tlél yawus.áatʼ | her/his face isnʼt cold

• future (+): yakg̱was.áatʼ | her/his face will be cold

• future (–): tlél yakg̱was.áatʼ | her/his face wonʼt be cold

O-d+s-√.áatʼ (∅ – object intransitive) chilled; cold | for O to be chilled, cold | used to talk about a body part being cold, or an inanimate object that has been made cold | (JL)

• perfective (+): wudzi.átʼ | it is chilled

–aatʼasháa (kinship term) sibling in-law | opposite moiety & opposite gender in Tlingit kinship, this would be the sisters of a maleʼs wife or the brothers of a femaleʼs husband the proper respect and treatment of in-laws, especially in public, is a vital part of Tlingit culture | (JL, JC)

aatlein– (adjective) much; lots of | prenominal adjective: appears immediately before the noun that it affects | (KE, JC)

√aatlʼ (verb root) insufficient • variants: √aatsʼ, √aachʼ •

ya-ka-u-∅-√.áatlʼ (na state verb – impersonal) insufficient | for something to be insufficient, not enough | i toowúch ágé yakakg̱wa.áatlʼ? →  do you think itʼs going to be insufficient? (SN) yá atx̱á yagoo.áatlʼ →  this food is not enough (SN) (KE)

• imperfective (+): yakoo.áatlʼ | itʼs insufficient

• perfective (+): yakaawa.áatlʼ | it was insufficient

• future (+): yakakg̱wa.áatlʼ | it will be insufficient

√aaw (verb root) strap

O-ya-S-s-√.áaw (∅ event verb – transitive) strap; tie up with string | for S put a strap on O; for S to tie up O with a string | yax̱wsi.áaw →  i strapped it (JL) ayasa.áwx̱ →  he is putting a strap on it (JL) (KE)

• imperative: yasa.áw! | tie it up with a string!

• repetitive imperfective prohibitive: líl yeesa.áwx̱uḵ! | donʼt tie it up with a string!

• progressive imperfective: yaa ayanas.áw | s/he is tying it up with a string

• perfective (+): ayawsi.áw | s/he tied it up with a string

• perfective (–): tlél ayawus.áaw | s/he didnʼt tie it up with a string

• future (+): ayagux̱sa.áaw | s/he will tie it up with a string

• future (–): tlél ayagux̱sa.áaw | s/he wonʼt tie it up with a string

√aaxʼw ¹ (verb root) fracture; crack

√aaxʼw ² (verb root) bitter

O-s-√.áaxʼw ² ˟ (ga state verb – object intransitive) bitter; spicy | for O to be bitter; for O to be spicy hot | at danoogú ágé si.áaxʼw? →  does it have a bitter taste? (SN) kei gux̱sa.áaxʼw, yéi isa.éeni →  it will be bitter if you cook it that way (SN) (KE)

• imperfective (+): si.áaxʼw | itʼs bitter

• imperfective (–): tlél us.áaxʼw | itʼs not bitter

• progressive imperfective: kei nas.áaxʼw | itʼs getting bitter

• perfective (+): wusi.áaxʼw | it got bitter

• perfective (–): tlél wus.áaxʼw | it didnʼt get bitter

• future (+): kei gux̱sa.áaxʼw | it will be bitter

• future (–): tlél kei gux̱sa.áaxʼw | it wonʼt be bitter

aax̱ • variants: aadáx̱ • (particle) after | after it (that time) | áa-dáx̱ →  it.from (KE) || (preverb) from | from it | for motion verbs, creates a na-conjugation motion verb (unbounded) | (JC) || off | off of it | for carrying motion verbs, refers to lifting on object off of something, creating a ga-conjugation motion verb (upwards)

√aax̱ ¹ (verb root) hear; listen; sound off

O-S-∅-√.aax̱ ¹ (∅ event verb – transitive) hear | for S to hear O | this verb could be used to talk about hearing the sound of someone, like their footsteps or other commotion, but hearing someoneʼs voice is «O-sa-S-∅-√.aax̱ ¹» | gaaw tléil x̱wa.aax̱ →  I didnʼt hear the bell/drum (SN) a x̱ʼéide aawa.áx̱ →  he heard the message (SN) (KE)

• imperative: .áx̱! | hear it!

• perfective (+): aawa.áx̱ | s/he heard it

• perfective (–): tlél awu.aax̱ | s/he didnʼt hear it

• future (+): akg̱wa.áax̱ | s/he will hear it

• future (–): tlél akg̱wa.aax̱ | s/he wonʼt hear it

N-t⁓ + S-s-√.aax̱ ¹ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) listen | for S to listen to N | (KE)

• imperative: át sa.áx̱! | listen to it!

• prohibitive: líl áx̱ isa.aax̱íḵ! | donʼt listen to it!

• perfective (+): át wusi.áx̱ | s/heʼs listening to it; s/he listened to it

• perfective (–): tlél át wus.aax̱ | s/heʼs not listening to it; s/he didnʼt listen to it

• future (+): aadé gux̱sa.áax̱ | s/he will listen to it

• future (–): tlél aadé gux̱sa.aax̱ | s/he wonʼt listen to it

N + x̱ʼéi-t⁓ + S-s-√.aax̱ ¹ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) listen to; obey; give heed | for S to listen to, obey, give heed to N | du tláa x̱ʼéit awes.áx̱ →  he obeys his mother (SN) (KE)

• imperative: du x̱ʼéit sa.áx̱! | listen to her/him!

• prohibitive: líl du x̱ʼéix̱ isa.aax̱íḵ! | donʼt listen to her/him!

• perfective (+): du x̱ʼéit wusi.áx̱ | s/heʼs listening to her/him; s/he listens to her/him

• perfective (–): tlél du x̱ʼéit wus.aax̱ | s/heʼs not listening to her/him; s/he doesnʼt listen to her/him

• future (+): du x̱ʼéide gux̱sa.áax̱ | s/he will listen to her/him

• future (–): tlél du x̱ʼéide gux̱sa.aax̱ | s/he wonʼt listen to her/him

O-S-∅-.áx̱ch ¹ ˟ (ga state verb – transitive) hear | for S to be able to hear O | for the forms that do not occur with this verb, see the ∅-conjugation eventive verb «aawa.áx̱» ʼs/he heard itʼ, which occurs in all modes except the imperfective | núkt duwa.áx̱ch →  a grouse can be heard (drumming) (SN) wasóos duwa.áx̱ch →  a cow can be heard lowing, mooing (SN) nadáakw duwa.áx̱ch →  a table can be heard creaking, squeaking (SN) (KE)

• repetitive imperfective prohibitive: líl ee.áx̱jiḵ! | donʼt hear it!

• imperfective (+): aya.áx̱ch | s/he can hear it

• imperfective (–): tlél oo.áx̱ch | s/he canʼt hear it

• future (+): kei akg̱wa.áx̱ch | s/he will be able to hear it

• future (–): tlél kei akg̱wa.áx̱ch | s/he wonʼt be able to hear it

N-g̱aa+ ḵu-S-s-√.aax̱ ¹ (na motion verb – subject intransitive) listen for | for S to listen for N | (KE)

• imperative: a kayéikg̱aa ḵunees.aax̱! | listen for the sound of it!

• perfective (+): a kayéikg̱aa ḵoowdzi.aax̱ | s/he listened for the sound of it

• perfective (–): tlél a kayéikg̱aa ḵuwus.aax̱ | s/he didnʼt listen for the sound of it

• future (+): a kayéikg̱aa ḵukg̱was.áax̱ | s/he will listen for the sound of it

• future (–): tlél a kayéikg̱aa ḵukg̱was.aax̱ | s/he wonʼt listen for the sound of it

O-sa-S-∅-√.aax̱ ¹ (∅ event verb – transitive) hear | for S to hear O (a voice, esp. singing) | x̱at seiwa.áx̱ he heard my voice (SN) xóots shákdéi sax̱waa.áx̱ →  maybe I heard a bearʼs voice (SN) (KE)

• perfective (+): aseiwa.áx̱ | s/he heard a voice

• perfective (–): tlél asawu.aax̱ | s/he didnʼt hear a voice

• future (+): asakg̱wa.áax̱ | s/he will hear a voice

• future (–): tlél asakg̱wa.aax̱ | s/he wonʼt hear a voice

O-x̱ʼa-S-∅-.aax̱ ¹ (∅ event verb – transitive) hear; understand; comprehend | for S to hear O with understanding; for S to understand, comprehend O | Lingít age x̱ʼeeya.áx̱ch do you understand Tlingit? (SN) tléil ḵaa x̱ʼei.áx̱ch →  he doesnʼt understand people (that is, the language) (KE)

• perfective (+): ax̱ʼeiwa.áx̱ | s/he understood her/him

• perfective (–): tlél ax̱ʼawu.aax̱ | s/he didnʼt understand her/him

• future (+): ax̱ʼakg̱wa.áax̱ | s/he will understand her/him

• future (–): tlél ax̱ʼakg̱wa.aax̱ | s/he wonʼt understand her/him

N + x̱ʼéide + ḵu-S-d+s-√.aax̱ ¹ (na motion verb – subject intransitive) listen | for S to (take time to) listen to N | one fluent speaker suggests the finer meaning "take time to listen" for this verb, thus distinguishing it slightly from the related verb «du x̱ʼéit wusi.áx̱» "s/he listened to, obeyed her/him" | i x̱ʼéit x̱wasi.áx̱ →  iʼm listening to you (SN) (KE)

• imperative: du x̱ʼéide ḵunees.aax̱! | listen to her/him!

• repetitive imperfective prohibitive: líl du x̱ʼéide yoo ḵees.áx̱giḵ! | donʼt listen to her/him!

• perfective (+): du x̱ʼéide ḵuwdzi.aax̱ | s/he listened to her/him

• perfective (–): tlél du x̱ʼéide ḵuwus.aax̱ | s/he didnʼt listen to her/him

• future (+): du x̱ʼéide ḵukg̱was.áax̱ | s/he will listen to her/him

• future (–): tlél du x̱ʼéide ḵukg̱was.aax̱ | s/he wonʼt listen to her/him

O-S-l-√.aax̱ ¹ (∅ act verb – transitive) play (instrument) | for S to play O (musical instrument) | the form «ali.áx̱ch» gives both a basic imperfective meaning "s/he is playing it" and a repetitive imperfective meaning "s/he plays it (regularly)" | tu.óoxsʼ yeit ali.áx̱ch →  heʼs playing a wind instrument (SN) (KE)

• imperative: la.áx̱! | play it!

• repetitive imperfective prohibitive: líl ila.áx̱jiḵ! | donʼt play it!

• imperfective (+): ali.áx̱ch | s/he is playing it

• imperfective (–): tlél ool.áx̱ch | s/he isnʼt playing it

• perfective (+): awli.áx̱ | s/he played it

• perfective (–): tlél awul.aax̱ | s/he didnʼt play it

• future (+): agux̱la.áax̱ | s/he will play it

• future (–): tlél agux̱la.aax̱ | s/he wonʼt play it

√aax̱ ² (verb root) | classification: textile-like object carry

{na preverb} + O-S-∅-√.aax̱ ² (na motion verb – transitive) carry; give; take | for S to carry O (textile-like object) | du kinaak.ádi yaa ana.áx̱ →  heʼs carrying his coat (SN) (KE)

• imperative: {na preverb} na.aax̱! | carry it {____}!

• prohibitive: líl {na preverb} yi.aax̱íḵ! | donʼt carry it {____}!

• perfective (+): {na preverb} aawa.aax̱ | s/heʼs carrying it {____}; s/he carried it {____}

• perfective (–): tlél {na preverb} awu.aax̱ | s/he didnʼt carry it {____}

• future (+): {na preverb} akg̱wa.áax̱ | s/he will carry it {____}

• future (–): tlél {na preverb} akg̱wa.aax̱ | s/he wonʼt carry it {____}

{∅ preverb} + O-S-∅-.aax̱ ² (∅ motion verb – transitive) carry; give; take | for S to carry O (textile-like object) | sʼísaa haat áx̱! →  bring the cloth! (SN) lʼaak ax̱ jeet aaa.áx̱ →  she gave me a dress (SN) (KE)

• imperative: {∅ preverb} .áx̱! | carry it {____}!

• prohibitive: líl {∅ preverb} ee.aax̱íḵ! | donʼt carry it {____}!

• progressive imperfective: {∅ preverb} yaa ana.áx̱ | s/he is carrying it {∅ preverb}

• perfective (+): {∅ preverb} aawa.áx̱ | s/he carried it {____}

• perfective (–): tlél {∅ preverb} awu.aax̱ | s/he didnʼt carry it {____}

• future (+): {∅ preverb} akg̱wa.áax̱ | s/he will carry it {____}

• future (–): tlél {∅ preverb} akg̱wa.aax̱ | s/he wonʼt carry it {____}

N-t + ∅-√.áx̱ ² (* positional verb – impersonal) lie there | for a textile-like object to lie at N | i kʼoodásii yóot áx̱ →  your shirt is lying over there (SN) (KE)

• imperfective (+): át .áx̱ | itʼs lying there

• imperfective (–): tlél át u.áx̱ | itʼs not lying there

kaax̱ + kei + O-S-d+∅-√.aax̱ ² (∅ motion verb – transitive) take off | for S to take off O (shirt, dress, coat, etc.) | for taking off oneʼs hat, replace «kaax̱» with «sháatx̱» “off the head” throughout the paradigm, as in «sháatx̱ kei awdi.áx̱» “s/he took off her/his hat” note that this verb is not used for taking off pants, shoes, socks, etc. for these, use: «x̱ʼoosdáx̱ awdiyíḵ» "s/he took them off (pants, socks, shoes)" | i kʼoodásʼi kaax̱ kei idatí →  take off your shirt! (SN) (KE)

• imperative: kaax̱ kei ida.áx̱! | take it off!

• repetitive imperfective prohibitive: líl kaax̱ kei ida.áx̱jíḵ! | donʼt take it off!

• progressive imperfective: kaax̱ kei anda.áx̱ | s/he is taking it off

• perfective (+): kaax̱ kei awdi.áx̱ | s/he took it off

• perfective (–): tlél kaax̱ kei awda.aax̱ | s/he didnʼt take it off

• future (+): kaax̱ kei agux̱da.áax̱ | s/he will take it off

• future (–): tlél kaax̱ kei agux̱da.aax̱ | s/he wonʼt take it off

√aax̱w (verb root) tie up; tie together; bind; bundle; wrap

O-x̱ʼa-S-s-√.aax̱w (∅ act verb – transitive) tie up | for S to tie up the mouth of O (esp. a sack) | yá gwéil x̱ʼakḵwas.áax̱w →  Iʼm going to tie up this sack (SN)

• imperative: x̱ʼasa.áx̱w! | tie the mouth of it up!

• prohibitive: líl x̱ʼa.ees.aax̱úḵ! | donʼt tie the mouth of it up!

• imperfective (+): ax̱ʼasa.áax̱w | s/heʼs tying the mouth of it up

• imperfective (–): tlél ax̱ʼeiws.aax̱w | s/heʼs not tying the mouth of it up

• perfective (+): ax̱ʼeiwsi.áx̱w | s/he tied the mouth of it up

• perfective (–): tlél ax̱ʼawus.aax̱w | s/he didnʼt tie the mouth of it up

• future (+): ax̱ʼagux̱sa.áax̱w | s/he will tie the mouth of it up

• future (–): tlél ax̱ʼagux̱sa.aax̱w | s/he wonʼt tie the mouth of it up

yánde + O-S-∅-√.aax̱w (∅ act verb – transitive) tie up; secure | for S to tie up, secure O (esp. a boat to shore) | (KE)

• imperative: yánde .áx̱w! | tie it up!

• prohibitive: líl yánde yi.áx̱uḵ! | donʼt tie it up!

• imperfective (+): yánde a.aax̱w | s/heʼs tying it up; s/he ties it up

• imperfective (–): tlél yánde oo.aax̱w | s/he isnʼt tying it up; s/he doesnʼt tie it up

• perfective (+): yánde aawa.áx̱w | s/he tied it up

• perfective (–): tlél yánde awu.aax̱w | s/he didnʼt tie it up

• future (+): yánde akg̱wa.áax̱w | s/he will tie it up

• future (–): tlél yánde akg̱wa.aax̱w | s/he wonʼt tie it up

O-daa-S-s-√.aax̱w (∅ act verb – transitive) tie together; bundle; wrap up | for S to tie O together in a bundle; for S to wrap O up | xʼúxʼ daasa.áx̱w! →  tie up the hooks in a bundle! (SN) (KE)

• imperative: daasa.áx̱w! | wrap it up!

• prohibitive: líl daa.ees.aax̱úḵ! | donʼt wrap it up!

• imperfective (+): adaasa.áax̱w | s/heʼs wrapping it up

• imperfective (–): tlél adaa.us.aax̱w | s/heʼs not wrapping it up

• perfective (+): adaawsi.áx̱w | s/he wrapped it up

• perfective (–): tlél adaawus.aax̱w | s/he didnʼt wrap it up

• future (+): adaagux̱sa.áax̱w | s/he will wrap it up

• future (–): tlél adaagux̱sa.aax̱w | s/he wonʼt wrap it up

O-kʼi-ka-S-s-√.aax̱w (∅ act verb – transitive) tie together; wrap up | for S to tie O together by the stems; for S to wrap the stems of O | kʼeikaxwéin akʼikawsi.áx̱w →  he tied up the stems of the flowers (SN)

• imperative: kʼikasa.áx̱w! | wrap its stems up!

• prohibitive: líl kʼikees.aax̱úḵ! | donʼt wrap its stems up!

• imperfective (+): akʼikasa.áax̱w | s/heʼs wrapping its stems up

• imperfective (–): tlél akʼikoos.aax̱w | s/heʼs not wrapping its stems up

• perfective (+): akʼikawsi.áx̱w | s/he wrapped its stems up

• perfective (–): tlél akʼikawus.aax̱w | s/he didnʼt wrap its stems up

• future (+): akʼikagux̱sa.áax̱w | s/he will wrap its stems up

• future (–): tlél akʼikagux̱sa.aax̱w | s/he wonʼt wrap its stems up

O-sʼaan-S-∅-√.aax̱w (∅ act verb – transitive) tie together | for S to tie hands of O (a captive) | (SN)

• imperative: sʼaansa.áx̱w! | tie her/his hands together!

• prohibitive: líl sʼaanees.aax̱úḵ! | donʼt tie her/his hands together!

• imperfective (+): asʼaansa.áax̱w | s/heʼs tying her/his hands together

• imperfective (–): tlél asʼaanus.aax̱w | s/heʼs not tying her/his hands together

• perfective (+): asʼaanwusi.áx̱w | s/he tied her/his hands together

• perfective (–): tlél asʼaanwus.aax̱w | s/he didnʼt tied her/his hands together

• future (+): asʼaangux̱sa.áax̱w | s/he will tied her/his hands together

• future (–): tlél asʼaangux̱sa.aax̱w | s/he wonʼt tied her/his hands together

áa 1 (landform) lake | (KE)

áa 2 (noun) it; there; place | that thing, time, or place | refers to something that is already known or has recently been communicated || then; reason; fact | common suffix combinations are listed below. take note of the ways that suffixes affect tone and vowel length | (KE)

ách [áa-ch] | because of it; with it

aag̱áa [áa-g̱áa] | after it; following it

aadáx̱ / aax̱ [áa-dáx̱] | from it; after it [that time]

aadé [áa-dé] | towards it

aan [áa-n] | with it

anax̱ [áa-náx̱] | through it; along it

át [áa-t] | arriving at it; at it

áwu [áa-wu] | located at it

áxʼ [áa-xʼ] | residing at it; located at it

áx̱ [áa-x̱] | moving along it; repeatedly at it

áa ash kadulyádi yé (compound noun) park | park; playground; "place where people play" | áa + a-ch + ka-du-l-√yát-i + yé →  there + its-(3n.i).[instrumental] + hsf.someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,l,–i).√child + place (SE)

áa kagáaxu (compound noun) duck: goldeneye duck | "duck on the lake" | identification as goldeneye duck is uncertain | áa + ka-gáaxw-u →  lake + on.duck.[relational] (JL)

áa ká (landform) lake | on the lake | áa + ká →  lake + on (JL)

áa ḵuyadujee yé (verbal noun) jail | “the punishing people place” | (KE) áa + ḵu-ya-du-∅-√jee + yé →  [there + someone-(4h.O).vsf.someone-(4h.S).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√awful/terrible + place]

áa sháak (landform) lake | head of a lake | áa + sháak →  lake + head-(of body of water) (JL)

áa shú (landform) lake | lower end of the lake | especially but not necessarily the end of the head of the lake | áa + shú →  lake + end (JL)

áa táak (landform) lake | bottom of lake | áa + táak →  lake + bottom-of/submerged-in (JL)

áa tug̱úḵlʼi (compound noun) whitefish | mountain whitefish | (JL) áa + tu-g̱úḵlʼ-i →  lake + inside.swan.[relational] ° Prosopium williamsoni °

Áa Tlein (region name) Atlin | "Big Lake" | (KE, TT)

Áa Tlein Ḵwáan (region name) people | People of the Atlin Area; "People of the Big Lake" | Included Communities: Atlin | (TT, AH, NR, JC, JL, HJ)

Wolf/Eagle Clans

Yanyeidí | People of Hemlock House; People of the Mainland

Daḵlʼaweidí | People of the Inland Sandbar

Raven/Crow Clans

Ishkeetaan | People of Deep Pool in the River House

Kooḵhittaan | People of Cellar House

Deisheetaan | People of the End of the Trail House

áa wát (landform) lake | mouth of lake | (JL) áa + wát →  lake + mouth-(of body of water)

áa x̱ʼayaax̱ (landform) lake | lake side; lake shore; around the shore of the lake | áa + x̱ʼa-yaax̱ →  lake + mouth.along-edge (JL)

áa yax̱ (preverb) turning over | for motion verbs, creates a ∅-conjugation motion verb (towards a terminus) | áa + ÿax̱ →  there + turning-over (JC)

áa yaax̱ (landform) lake | lake side; lake shore; around the shore of the lake | áa + yaax̱ →  lake + along-edge (JL)

áabíns (borrowed noun) • variants: áagúns, xʼáaxʼ • apple | from English "apple" | (JL)

áadaa (noun) spear ² | spear for fish and seal; "one that attacks" | (KE) √.aat⁷-aa →  √attack.one(s)

áagadi (compound noun) basket: unfinished basket | "woven thing (out of bark)" | √.áak-át-i →  √weave-(bark).thing-(4n.i).[relational] (JL)

Áakʼw (placename) Auke Lake | áa-kʼw →  lake.[diminutive] (TT)

áakʼw (landform) lake | little lake | áa-kʼw →  lake.[diminutive] (KE)

Áakʼw Ḵwáan (region name) people | People of the Áakʼw Area; "People of the Little Lake" | Included Communities: Auke Bay, southern Lynn Canal, Juneau area, and northern Admiralty Island | áa-kʼw + ḵwáan →  lake.[diminutive] + people-of (AH (TT, AH, NR, JC, JL, HJ)

Wolf/Eagle Clans

Wooshkeetaan | People of the Houses Facing Each Other

Raven/Crow Clans

Yax̱tehittaan | People of the Big Dipper House

Lʼeeneidí | People of Dog Salmon Creek

Lʼuknax̱.ádi | People of Coho Community Bay

G̱aanax̱.ádi | People of Sheltered Harbor (Port Stewart in northern Behm Canal)

–áali (kinship term) grandparent | used in Southern Tlingit instead of –léelkʼw | (JL)

áan (noun) trap ² | type of small fish trap | fish trap, smaller than «noow» | (JL)

áanjís (borrowed noun) • variants: áanjís daayí • oranges | from English “oranges”; áanjís daayí ("the peel is orange") | (KE)

áanjís kahéeni (compound noun) orange juice | áanjís + ka-héen-i →  orange(s) + hsf.water.[relational] (KE) • variants: áanj kahéeni •

Áankich (borrowed noun) Anchorage | (KE) borrowed placename, from English "Anchorage"

áatʼl (noun) pit lined with skunk cabbage used for food storage | likely related to verb root √áatʼ (cold) | (JL)

-ch 1 (suffix) because | often appears as «ách áwé» (because of that) or «ách áyá» (because of this) | (KE)

-ch 2 (suffix) | ergative marker | marks the subject of a transitive verb | (JC)

-ch 3 (suffix) | instrumental marker | used to mark a noun that is used as an instrument to perform the verb | tíx’x’i sáani x̱aat ách daa wdudzi.ax̱u wé yáanaa →  small strings of spruce roots tying the pack (Shaadaaxʼ, Haa Shuká 76–77) (JC)

chál (noun) platform cache; house cache; shed | compare Eyak «jił» (platform cache; bunkbed) | (KE, JC) • variants: chíl (S, T) •

chán (noun) smell: bad smell, odor; stench; odor: strong odor

√chán ˟ (verb root) stink; odor: have strong odor

O-l-√chán ˟ (ga state verb – object intransitive) stink; smell bad; odor: have strong odor | for O to stink, have unpleasant odor, smell bad; for O to smell strongly | gishóo áyá lachán nooch →  pigs always stink (SN) lichán awé wé eex̱! →  that oil smells bad (SN) (KE)

• prohibitive: líl eelchániḵ | donʼt be stinky!

• imperfective (+): lichán | she/he/it stinks

• imperfective (–): tlél ulchán | she/he/it doesnʼt stink

• progressive imperfective: kei nalchán | she/he/it is starting to stink

• perfective (+): wulichán | she/he/it stank

• perfective (–): tlél wulchán | she/he/it didnʼt stink

• future (+): kei gux̱lachán | she/he/it will stink

• future (–): tlél kei gux̱lachán | she/he/it wonʼt stink

√chaa (verb root) strain; filter; drain off

O-ka-S-l-√chaa (∅ act verb – transitive) strain; filter; drain off | for S to strain, filter, drain off O | tax̱héeni kalachá →  strain the broth! (that is, pour it out, leaving all the solids behind)! (SN) tléiḵw kahéeni kax̱wlicháa →  I strained the fruit juice (SN) (KE)

• imperative: kalachá! | strain it!

• repetitive imperfective prohibitive: líl keelachéix̱iḵ! | donʼt strain it!

• imperfective (+): aklachéix̱ | s/he is straining it

• imperfective (–): tlél akoolcheix̱ | s/he isnʼt straining it

• progressive imperfective: yaa akanalchéin | s/heʼs (in the process of) straining it

• perfective (+): akawlicháa | s/he strained it

• perfective (–): tlél akawulchá | s/he didnʼt strain it

• future (+): akagux̱lacháa | s/he will strain it

• future (–): tlél akagux̱lachaa | s/he wonʼt strain it

√chaak (verb root) pile; stack; fill

O-ka-S-∅-√cháak (∅ act verb – transitive) pile; stack; pack | for S to pile, stack away neatly, pack O (food, clothing, firewood, etc.) | ḵaa shukát yan kawdichák →  he was through packing before the others (SN) dzeit tayee akaawachák →  he piled it (firewood) under the stairs (SN) (KE)

• imperative: kachák! | pack it!

• prohibitive: líl kayeecháagiḵ! | donʼt pack it!

• imperfective (+): akacháak | s/heʼs packing it

• imperfective (–): tlél akoocháak | s/he isnʼt packing it

• perfective (+): akaawachák | s/he packed it

• perfective (–): tlél akawucháak | s/he didnʼt pack it

• future (+): akakg̱wacháak | s/he will pack it

• future (–): tlél akakg̱wacháak | s/he wonʼt pack it

O-sha-ka-S-∅-√cháak (∅ act verb – transitive) stack; pack; fill | for S to fill, pack to the top neatly, stack up (food, clothing, etc.) | shakx̱waachák →  I filled it (a suitcase) (SN)

• imperative: shakachák! | pack it!

• prohibitive: líl shakayeecháagiḵ! | donʼt pack it!

• imperfective (+): ashakacháak | s/heʼs packing it

• imperfective (–): tlél ashakoocháak | s/he isnʼt packing it

• perfective (+): ashakaawachák | s/he packed it

• perfective (–): tlél ashakawucháak | s/he didnʼt pack it

• future (+): ashakakg̱wacháak | s/he will pack it

• future (–): tlél ashakakg̱wacháak | s/he wonʼt pack it

O-ka-S-l-√cháak (∅ act verb – transitive) pile; stack | for S to pile, stack O | classification: stick-like objects | chʼa wé cháash kax̱toolacháak yee.át sákw →  weʼll pile up those branches for bedding (SN)

• imperative: kalachák! | pile it!

• prohibitive: líl keelacháagiḵ! | donʼt pile it!

• imperfective (+): akalacháak | s/heʼs piling it

• imperfective (–): tlél akoolcháak | s/he isnʼt piling it

• perfective (+): akawlichák | s/he piled it

• perfective (–): tlél akawulcháak | s/he didnʼt pile it

• future (+): akakg̱walacháak | s/he will pile it

• future (–): tlél akakg̱walacháak | s/he wonʼt pile it

–chaan (kinship term) mother-in-law | (KE)

Cháanwaan (borrowed noun) Chinese | from "China man" | (KE)

Cháanwaan héeni (compound noun) soy sauce | "Chinese personʼs water" • variants: kóoshdaa lóoxʼu •

cháasʼ (noun) salmon: pink salmon; humpy; salmon: humpback salmon | (KE)

cháash (noun) brush ¹; bough; branch | bough or branch with needles on it (especially of spruce) | (KE)

cháash hít (compound noun) house; hut | brush house | temporary shelter, often built while traveling or hunting, or for women in isolation for first menstruation or the birth of a child | (JL) • variants: (T), chashhít (At, T) •

cháashgaa (verbal noun) cup; can | from Russian "чашка" | (KE, JC) • variants: (Y), gúxʼaa •

cháatl (noun) halibut | (KE)

cháatl astʼeix̱í (compound noun) halibut fisher | cháatl + a-s-√tʼeix̱-í →  halibut + [a-theme].cl-(–d,s,–i).√fish-with-hook.[relational] (KE)

cháax̱ (noun) grebe: horned grebe; grebe: red-necked grebe | (KE)

cháayoo (borrowed noun) tea | from Russian "чаю" (chayu) • variants: dée (T) •

chéx̱ʼi (noun) • variants: chéix̱ʼaa (C), chíx̱ʼi (T), chéex̱ʼi (At), chéex̱ʼaa (At) • shade; shadow(s) cast by landforms, etc. | (KE)

chéiwís (borrowed noun) cherries | from English "cherries" | (JC)

chichuyaa (compound noun) shark (porpoise-like) | "looks like a porpoise" | cheech-ÿu-ÿa-√yaa →  porpoise.pfv.cl-(–d,∅,+i).√look-like/resemble (KE)

chíl xook (compound noun) fish air-dried in cold weather and allowed to freeze | "cache dried" | chíl + √xook →  cache + √dried (KE)

chíx̱ʼi (noun) • variants: (T), chéex̱ʼi (At), chéex̱ʼaa (At), chéx̱ʼi, chéix̱ʼaa (C) • shade; shadow(s) cast by landforms, etc. | (KE)

cheech (noun) porpoise | (KE)

chkʼw (particle) | term of endearment, especially made to grandchildren | (DK) • variants: shkʼw •

chudéi (noun) cod: tomcod | (KE)

chush (postpositional pronoun) self: (to) -selfʼs | reflexive postpositional (rflx.PP) used in certain verbs where something is going towards the object (literally or figuratively) a special type of pronoun that combines three things: possessive pronoun, empty base, and relational suffix other possessive pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

ax̱ ee- ⁓ x̱aan | (to) me →  first person singular postpositional (1s.PP)

haa ee- ⁓ haan | (to) us →  first person plural postpositional (1p.PP)

i ee- | (to) you →  second person singular postpositional (2s.PP)

yee ee- | (to) you all →  second person plural postpositional (2p.PP)

du ee- ⁓ u- | (to) her/him →  third person human singular postpositional (3s.PP)

has du ee- ⁓ s du ee- | (to) them →  third person plural postpositional (3p.PP)

a ee- ⁓ aan | (to) it →  third person nonhuman postpositional (3p.PP)

ash ee- | (to) this gal/guy →  third person proximal postpositional (3prx.PP)

a ee- ⁓ a- | (to) that other gal/guy →  third person obviate postpositional (3obv.PP)

ḵaa ee- ⁓ ḵu ee- ⁓ ḵoon | (to) someone →  fourth person human postpositional (4h.PP)

at ee- | (to) something →  fourth person nonhuman postpositional (4n.PP)

aa ee- | (to) one, some →  partitive postpositional (part.PP)

chush | (to) -selfʼs →  reflexive postpositional (rflx.PP)

woosh, wooch | (to) each other →  reciprocal postpositional (recip.PP)

chush ⁓ sh- (possessive pronoun) -selfʼs | reflexive possessive (rflx.P) used to show a relationship between things, including ownership («haa aaní» – “our land”), kinship term origination («du éesh» – “her/his father”), the link to a relational base («ax̱ x̱áni» – “next to me”), and conjugation of certain verbs («du toowú sigóo» – “s/he is happy”) other possessive pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

ax̱ | my →  first person singular possessive (1s.P)

haa | our →  first person plural possessive (1p.P)

i | your →  second person singular possessive (2s.P)

yee | you allʼs →  second person plural possessive (2p.P)

du | her/his →  third person human singular possessive (3Hs.P)

has du ⁓ s du | their →  third person plural possessive (3p.P)

a | its →  third person nonhuman possessive (3N.P)

ash | this galʼs/guyʼs →  third person proximal possessive (3prx.P)

a | that other galʼs/guyʼs →  third person obviate possessive (3obv.P)

ḵaa | someoneʼs →  fourth person human possessive (4h.P)

at | somethingʼs →  fourth person nonhuman possessive (4n.P)

aa | oneʼs, someʼs →  partitive possessive (part.P)

chush ⁓ sh- | -selfʼs →  reflexive possessive (rflx.P)

woosh, wooch | each otherʼs →  reciprocal possessive (recip.P)

chúsh (independent pronoun) -self | reflexive independent (rflx.i) independent pronouns are not linked to anything grammatically, and are most often used in phrases like «yáadu x̱át» (here i am) and «uháan áyá» (it is us) signals reflexive properties, meaning that something is occuring to the self. In verbs, it occurs outside of the verb itself and is used in addition to other pronouns. When you study verbs more, you will see that this pushes verbs into middle voice (+D), which will make sense at a later date. For now, consider it as something like “to the self”, which makes more sense when seen with examples, such as: chush gudachx̱án (oneʼs own grandparent – achieved through clan lineage), sh tóog̱aa ditee (s/he is grateful; literally “s/he is okay inside”), and sh tóo altóow (s/he is studying it; literally “s/he is teaching inside herself/himself”). other independent pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

x̱át | me →  first person singular independent (1s.i)

uháan | us →  first person plural independent (1p.i)

wa.é | you →  second person singular independent (2s.i)

yeewháan | you all →  second person plural independent (2p.i)

hú | s/he →  third person human singular independent (3Hs.i)

hás | them →  third person plural independent (3p.i)

á | it →  third person nonhuman independent (3N.i)

ash | this gal/guy →  third person proximal independent (3prx.i)

á | that other gal/guy →  third person obviate independent (3obv.i)

ḵáa | someone →  fourth person human independent (4h.i)

át | something →  fourth person nonhuman independent (4n.i)

aa | one, some →  partitive independent (part.i)

chúsh | -self →  reflexive independent (rflx.i)

wóosh, wóoch | each other, together →  reciprocal independent (recip.i)

Chookaneidí (clan name) Clan: Brown Bear (Eagle/Wolf Moiety) | "People of Grass River"; Origin: Glacier Bay | Teiḵweidí Migration, Xakwnoowkeidí Branch Chookaneidí Group Primary Crest: Brown Bear, Porpoise, Spirit Bear Secondary Crests: Wolf, Eagle, Murrelet, Glacier, Iceberg, Lady in the Ice, Killer Whale | chookán-héen-át-í →  grass.river/water.thing-(4n.i).[relational] (TT, AH, NR, JC, JL, HJ)

Xunaa Ḵáawu

Naanaa Hít | Upriver House

Xáatl Hít | Iceberg House

Xóots Sʼaag̱í Hít | Brown Bear Bones House

Yan Wuliháshi Hít | Drifted Ashore House

Aan Eeg̱ayaak Hít | On the Beach Below Town House

Shuxʼaa X̱áay Hít | First Yellow-cedar House

Sheetʼká Ḵwáan

Xáatl Hít | Iceberg House

Aan Eeg̱ayaak Hít | On the Beach Below Town House

chookán (noun) • variants: chookén (C), chookwán (T) • grass | (KE)

choon (noun) wound ² | (JL)

√choon ¹ (verb root) wound ¹; injure

O-d+∅-√choon ¹ (∅ event verb – object intransitive) wounded; injured; hurt; bruised | for O to be wounded, injured, bruised; for O to be hurt (emotionally) | the most common use of this verb is in the perfective form—other forms are very rare note that it can also refer to a mental state, as in «ḵúnáx̱ haa wdichún» "weʼre really hurting (emotionally)" (after the loss of a family member, e.g.) | wáang̱aneens ḵaa oodachúnch →  once in a while a person is wounded (by octopus) (SN) ax̱ tláa wudichún →  my mother was injured (SN) (KE)

• perfective (+): wudichún | s/he got injured

• perfective (–): tlél wudachoon | s/he didnʼt get injured

O-S-l-√choon ¹ (∅ event verb – transitive) injure; hurt; wound ¹; bruise | for S to injure, hurt, wound, bruise O | g̱uwakaan wududlichún →  a deer was wounded (SN) gandaasʼaají x̱at wulichún →  a bee wounded me (that is, stung me) (SN)

• imperative: lachún! | injure her/him/it!

• repetitive imperfective prohibitive: líl ilachúnx̱iḵ! | donʼt injure her/him/it

• perfective (+): awlichún | s/he injured her/him/it

• perfective (–): tlél awulchoon | s/he didnʼt injure her/him/it

• future (+): agux̱lachóon | s/he will injure her/him/it

• future (–): tlél agux̱lachoon | s/he wonʼt injure her/him/it

√choon ² (verb root) twist (to make limber)

chooneit (compound noun) arrow | "wounding thing" | √choon-át →  √wounded.thing-(4n.i) (KE)

√choox (verb root) knead; massage; roll; pat

O-ka-S-∅-√choox (∅ act verb – transitive) knead; press; pat | for S to knead, press, pat O with palm of hand | sakwnéin akaawachúx →  he kneaded the bread (SN) dleey kaxákwlʼi kax̱waachúx →  i patted out the ground meat in to patties (SN) kawduwachúx →  people press it (mud) with their hands (SN)

• imperative: kachúx! | knead it!

• prohibitive: líl keechooxúḵ! | donʼt knead it!

• imperfective (+): akachóox | s/he kneads it; s/he is kneading it

• imperfective (–): tlél akoochoox | s/he doesnʼt knead it; s/he isnʼt kneading it

• perfective (+): akaawachúx | s/he kneaded it

• perfective (–): tléil akawuchoox | s/he didnʼt knead it

• future (+): akakg̱wachóox | s/he will knead it

• future (–): tlél akakg̱wachoox | s/he wonʼt knead it

√choox̱ (verb root) mooch; cadge; sponge off of; freeload

at + u-S-∅-√choox̱ ˟ (g̱a act verb – subject intransitive) mooch; freeload | for S to mooch, freeload; for S to obtain things often without payment | (KE)

• imperative: at g̱achoox̱! | freeload!

• prohibitive: líl at eechoox̱úḵ! | donʼt freeload!

• imperfective (+): at uchoox̱ | s/he is freeloading; s/he freeloads

• imperfective (–): tlél at uchoox̱ | s/he isnʼt freeloading; s/he doesnʼt freeload

• perfective (+): at woochoox̱ | s/he freeloaded

• perfective (–): tlél at wuchoox̱ | s/he didnʼt freeload

• future (+): yei at gug̱wachoox̱ | s/he will freeload

• future (–): tlél yei at gug̱wachoox̱ | s/he wonʼt freeload

O-u-S-∅-√choox̱ ˟ (g̱a – transitive) mooch; bum; sponge; cadge | for S to mooch, bum, scrounge O (off of N); for S to obtain O (from N) often without payment | add «–eex̱» in the preverb to indicate who is being mooched off of NS and JL both recorded examples of this verb without the irrealis • more research may be needed | chʼa tlákw áwé achoox̱ nooch →  heʼs always sponging / getting what he can for nothing (SN) gán achoox̱! →  heʼs cadging firewood (SN) du eex̱ yei kḵwachoox̱ →  iʼm going to sponge it off of him JL (KE)

• imperative: (du eex̱) g̱achoox̱! | mooch it (off of her/him)!

• prohibitive: líl (du eex̱) eechoox̱úḵ! | donʼt mooch it (off of her/him)!

• imperfective (+): (du eex̱) oochoox̱ | s/he is mooching it (off of her/him); s/he mooches it (off of her/him)

• imperfective (–): tlél (du eex̱) oochoox̱ | s/he isnʼt mooching it (off of her/him); s/he doesnʼt mooch it (off of her/him)

• imperfective (–): tlél (du eex̱) awuchoox̱ | s/he didnʼt mooch it (off of her/him)

• perfective (+): (du eex̱) aawachoox̱ | s/he mooched it (off of her/him)

• future (+): (du eex̱) yei akg̱wachoox̱ | s/he will mooch it (off of her/him)

• future (–): tlél (du eex̱) yei akg̱wachoox̱ | s/he wonʼt mooch it (off of her/him)

chx̱ánkʼ (kinship term) grandchild | in Tlingit kinship, this term is used for biological grandchildren as well as people who are grandchildren of a clan endearing term used when speaking directly to oneʼs grandchild | (KE)

chʼa (particle) very: the very; just | this particle rarely appears on its own, but instead often interacts with other particles | (KE)

chʼa aadóo sá (particle) • variants: chʼa aa sá • whoever; anybody; anyone | chʼa + aadóo + sá →  just + who + voice/name (KE)

chʼa aan 1 (particle) although; even though; however; nonetheless; yet | there are two particles that create a shift in an argument: «ḵu.aa» makes more of a gradual shift in thinking, and «chʼa aan» is more of an abrubt shift in argument | (KE)

chʼa aan 2 (particle) with: just with it | chʼa + a-ee-n →  just + its-(4n.i).[empty base].with

chʼa aanínáx̱ (particle) • variants: chʼa aanídáx̱, chʼa aan ḵúnáx̱ • kind: do it with kindess!; gentle: do it gently! | (DK)

chʼa daa sá (particle) whatever; anything | chʼa + daa + sá →  just + what + voice/name (NR, JL)

chʼa daaḵw.aa sá (particle) any (certain) one; whichever one | chʼa + daaḵw-aa + sá →  just + which.one(s)-(part.i) + voice/name (NR, JL)

chʼa gútgeen sá (Y) (particle) whenever (in the future); time: any time (in the future) | (DA) • variants: chʼa gwátgeen sá •

chʼa gootʼá sá (particle) wherever; anywhere; anyplace | chʼa + goo-t-aa + sá →  just + where.at-(arrived).one(s)-(part.i) + voice/name (KE) • variants: chʼa gootʼé sá (C) •

chʼa gooxʼ sá (particle) wherever; anywhere; anyplace | chʼa + goo-xʼ + sá →  just + where.at-(residing).one(s)-(part.i) + voice/name (KE)

chʼa gwátgeen sá (particle) whenever (in the future); time: any time (in the future) | (KE) • variants: chʼa gútgeen sá (Y) •

chʼa g̱ég̱aa (adverb) in vain; for nothing; without success | "the one that just swings back" | chʼa + √g̱éḵ.aa →  just √swing.one(s)-(part.i) (JM, KE)

chʼa g̱óot (particle) different; other | chʼa + g̱óo-t →  just + different.at-(arrived) (KE, JL)

chʼa g̱óot yéide (adverb) different: going in different directions; differently | chʼa + g̱óo-t + yé-de →  just + different.at-(arrived) + way/manner.towards (SaJ)

chʼa keetáanáx̱! (interjection) Cool it!; Calm down! | (KE) chʼa + kee-√táa-náx̱ →  just + upwards.√sleep(?).through

chʼa koogéiyi (adverb) any old way (carelessly); however (thoughtlessly); carelessly | (KE) chʼa + ka-ÿu-ÿa-√géi-yi →  just + hsf.pfv.cl-(–d,∅,+i).√against/oppossing.[relational]

chʼa kʼát (particle) at least; once in a while | "just at the base of it" | chʼa + kʼí-ká-t →  just + base.on.at-(arrived) (KE) • variants: chʼa kʼikát, chʼa kʼeekát (At,T) •

chʼa kʼikát (particle) at least; once in a while | "just on the base of it" | chʼa + kʼí-ká-t →  just + base.on.at-(arrived) (KE) • variants: chʼa kʼát, chʼa kʼeekát (At,T) •

chʼa ldakát át (particle) everything | every single thing | chʼa + ldakát + át →  just + all + thing-(4n.i) (KE)

chʼa ldakát ḵáa (particle) everybody | every single person | (KE) chʼa + ldakát + ḵáa →  just + all + person-(4h.i)

chʼa ldakát yé (particle) everywhere | every single place | chʼa + ldakát + yé →  just + all + place (KE)

chʼa neechx̱ (adverb) for nothing; in vain; without success | "just along the beach" | chʼa + neech-x̱ →  just + beach.along/at-(repeatedly) (SE)

chʼa tlákw (particle) always; all the time; constantly | often used before repetitive forms of verbs to create "always {verb}" | (KE)

chʼa wáa kugei sá (particle) however many; any amount | | chʼa + wáa + ka-u-∅-√gei + sá →  just + how + [comparitive].irr.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√big/lots + voice/name (NR, JL)

chʼa wáa sá (particle) however; any (old) way | | chʼa + wáa + sá →  just + how + voice/name (NR, JL)

chʼa wáa yateeyi aa sá (particle) any kind (of); whichever kind | | chʼa + wáa + ya-√tee-yi + sá →  just + how + [comparitive].irr.√big/lots + voice/name (NR, JL)

chʼa yákʼw (adverb) suddenly; immediately; right away | (KE) • variants: chʼa yáakʼw, chʼa yóokʼ •

chʼa yéi (particle) ordinary ; usual | (KE)

chʼa yéi yigoowáatlʼ (particle) time: short time; while: a short while | can be used before a phrase to indicate that it occured for a short time | Chʼa yéi yigoowáatlʼ áwé chʼas xíxchʼ yáx̱ yoo x̱ʼayatánk. →  She could only speak like a frog for a while. (GD, MD)

chʼa yóokʼ (particle) suddenly; immediately; right away | (KE) • variants: chʼa yákʼw, chʼa yáakʼw •

chʼakʼyéisʼ (compound noun) eagle: immature eagle | "discolored eagle" | chʼáakʼ-√yéisʼ →  eagle.discolored/bruised (KE)

chʼas (particle) just; only

√chʼaachʼ (verb root) spotted

O-ka-d+∅-√chʼáachʼ (∅ – object intransitive) spotted | for O to be spotted, have spots | sʼíxʼ kawdichʼáchʼ →  the dish is spotted (SN) (JL)

• perfective (+): kawdichʼáchʼ | it is spotted; it got spotted

ka-d+l-√chʼáchʼx̱ ˟ (ga state verb – impersonal) spotted | for a natural object (wood, rock, etc.) to be spotted | this verb only occurs in the imperfective | kadlichʼáchx̱i yáx̱ yatèe du keenáanáx̱ →  it (a flicker) is spotted on top (SN) tsaa doogú kadlichʼáchʼx̱ áwé yakʼéi →  a sealskin that is spotted is real good (KE)

• imperfective (+): kadlichʼáchʼx̱ | itʼs spotted

• imperfective (–): tlél koolchʼáchʼx̱ | itʼs not spotted

√chʼaakʼw (verb root) carve; carve design; incise

O-ka-S-∅-√chʼáakʼw (∅ act verb – transitive) carve | for S to carve O (usually smaller, detailed work) using a knife | eex̱ sʼíxʼi akaawachʼákʼw →  he carved an oil dish (SN) shál sáxwti kadachʼáakʼw ashigóok →  he knows how to carve spoon handles (SN) (KE)

• imperative: kachʼákʼw! | carve it!

• repetitive imperfective prohibitive: líl keechʼákʼx̱uḵ! | donʼt carve it!

• imperfective (+): akachʼáakʼw | s/he is carving it

• imperfective (–): tlél akoochʼáakʼw | s/he isnʼt carving it

• perfective (+): akaawachʼákʼw | s/he carved it

• perfective (–): tlél akawuchʼáakʼw | s/he didnʼt carve it

• future (+): akakg̱wachʼáakʼw | s/he will carve it

• future (–): tlél akakg̱wachʼáakʼw | s/he wonʼt carve it

chʼáagu– (adjective) old; ancient | prenominal adjective: appears immediately before the noun that it affects | (KE, JC)

chʼáakw (adverb) long ago; back then; in the old days | (KE) • variants: chʼákw • || time: for a long time

chʼáakʼ (noun) eagle: bald eagle

chʼáakʼ loowú (compound noun) eagleʼs beak (alienated) || (color) yellow: dark yellow

chʼáalʼ (noun) willow | (KE) || (color) white | used to describe someoneʼs face when the color has gone out | (JM)

–chʼáatwu (body part) skin | surface of skin | (KE)

chʼeix̱ʼ (noun) berry: thimbleberry | (KE) • variants: chʼeex̱ʼ •

√chʼeix̱ʼw ¹ (verb root) dirty

O-S-l-√chʼéix̱ʼw ¹ (∅ event verb – transitive) dirty; soil | for S to dirty, soil O (esp. clothing or person) | ilí! i lʼaagí gag̱eelachʼéix̱ʼw →  donʼt! you will dirty your dress (SN) (KE)

• imperative: lachʼéx̱ʼw! | get it dirty!

• repetitive imperfective prohibitive: líl ilachʼéx̱ʼwx̱uḵ! | donʼt get it dirty!

• progressive imperfective: yaa analchʼéx̱ʼw | s/heʼs getting it dirty

• perfective (+): awlichʼéx̱ʼw | s/he got it dirty

• perfective (–): tlél awulchʼéix̱ʼw | s/he didnʼt get it dirty

• future (+): agux̱lachʼéix̱ʼw | s/he will get it dirty

• future (–): tlél agux̱lachʼéix̱ʼw | s/he wonʼt get it dirty

O-l-√chʼéix̱ʼw ¹ (∅ event verb – object intransitive) dirty | for O to be dirty

• imperative: ilachʼéx̱ʼw! | get dirty!

• repetitive imperfective prohibitive: líl ilchʼéx̱ʼx̱uḵ! | donʼt get dirty!

• progressive imperfective: yaa nalchʼéx̱ʼw | she/he/it is getting dirty

• perfective (+): wulichʼéx̱ʼw | she/he/it is dirty

• perfective (–): tlél wulchʼéix̱ʼw | s/heʼs not dirty

• future (+): gux̱lachʼéix̱ʼw | s/he will get dirty

• future (–): tlél gux̱lachʼéix̱ʼw | s/he wonʼt get dirty

√chʼeix̱ʼw ² (verb root) tire (of eating it)

chʼéix̱ʼw (noun) dirt; dirtiness; dust | (KE, JL)

chʼiyáash canoe: sea otter hunting canoe with an angular prow for breaking the waves

√chʼeesh (verb root) splash

ka-d+∅-√chʼeesh (∅ act verb – impersonal) splash | for a liquid to splash, be splashed | té héent yeeg̱éexʼi, kei kdachʼíshch →  when you throw rocks in the water, it splashes up (SN) wáa ḵusa.áatʼi sáyú, héen kei kandachʼíshi, iltʼíxʼx̱ →  when it is very cold, the water freezes as it splashes (as spray or droplets) (SN) (KE)

• imperfective (+): kadachʼéesh | it is splashing

• perfective (+): kawdichʼísh | it splashed

• perfective (–): tlél kawdachʼeesh | it didnʼt splash

• future (+): kagux̱dachʼéesh | it will splash

• future (–): tlél kagux̱dachʼeesh | it wonʼt splash

O-ka-S-l-√chʼeesh (∅ act verb – transitive) splash | for S to splash O (on N) | add «N daadé» in the preverb for "splash on N" | yá héen ax̱ daat kaylichʼísh →  you splashed some water on me (SN)

• imperative: (du daadé) kalachʼísh! | splash it (on her/him)!

• repetitive imperfective prohibitive: líl (du daadé) keelachʼíshx̱iḵ! | donʼt splash it (on her/him)!

• imperfective (+): (du daadé) aklachʼéesh | s/he is splashing it (on her/him)

• imperfective (–): tlél (du daadé) akoolchʼéesh | s/he isnʼt splashing it (on her/him)

• perfective (+): (du daadé) akawlichʼísh | s/he splashed it (on her/him)

• perfective (–): tlél (du daadé) akawulchʼeesh | s/he didnʼt splash it (on her/him)

• future (+): (du daadé) akagux̱lachʼéesh | s/he will splash it (on her/him)

• future (–): tlél (du daadé) akagux̱lachʼeesh | s/he wonʼt splash it (on her/him)

chʼeet (noun) murrelet; auklet | (KE)

√chʼeex̱ʼ • variants: √chʼeix̱ʼ • push point; poke

O-S-∅-√chʼéix̱ʼ (∅ event verb – transitive) point | for S to point at, point out O | yaakw aawachʼéx̱ʼ →  he pointed at the boat (SN) (KE)

• imperative: chʼéx̱ʼ! | point at it!

• repetitive imperfective prohibitive: líl eechʼéx̱ʼx̱iḵ! | donʼt point at it!

• perfective (+): aawachʼéx̱ʼ | s/he pointed at it

• perfective (–): tlél awuchʼéix̱ʼ | s/he didnʼt point at it

• future (+): akg̱wachʼéix̱ʼ | s/he will point at it

• future (–): tlél akg̱wachʼéix̱ʼ | s/he wonʼt point at it

N-t⁓ + S-∅-√chʼéex̱ʼ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) point | for S to point in the direction of N | át x̱waachʼéx̱ʼ →  i pointed over there (SN)

• imperative: át eechʼíx̱ʼ! | point there!

• prohibitive: líl át yichʼéex̱ʼiḵ! | donʼt point there!

• progressive imperfective: aadé yaa nachʼíx̱ʼ | s/heʼs pointing there

• perfective (+): át uwachʼíx̱ʼ | s/he pointed there

• perfective (–): tlél át woochʼéex̱ʼ | s/he didnʼt point there

• future (+): aadé kg̱wachʼéex̱ʼ | s/he will point there

• future (–): tlél aadé kg̱wachʼéex̱ʼ | s/he wonʼt point there

O-ya-S-∅-√chʼéex̱ʼ (∅ act verb – transitive) point | for S to point at O (a person) | x̱at yaawachʼéx̱ʼ →  he pointed his finger at me (SN) (KE)

• imperative: yachʼíx̱ʼ! | point at her/him!

• prohibitive: líl yeechʼíx̱ʼx̱iḵ! | donʼt point at her/him!

• imperfective (+): ayachʼíx̱ʼt | s/he is pointing at her/him

• imperfective (–): tlél awoochʼíx̱ʼt | s/he isnʼt pointing at her/him

• perfective (+): ayaawachʼíx̱ʼ | s/he pointed at her/him

• perfective (–): tlél ayawuchʼéex̱ʼ | s/he didnʼt point at her/him

• future (+): ayakg̱wachʼéex̱ʼ | s/he will point at her/him

• future (–): tlél ayakg̱wachʼéex̱ʼ | s/he wonʼt point at her/him

chʼéen (noun) ribbon; bow (ribbon); hair tie | (JL)

chʼéetg̱aa (noun) skate (ocean creature related to the shark and the ray) | (KE)

–chʼéex̱ʼi (body part) finger: –ʼs first finger | (KE)

√chʼéeyáḵw ˟ slow

O-l-√chʼéeyáḵw ˟ (ga state verb – object intransitive) slow | for O to be slow | neilyeexʼ yéi jiné aan x̱at lichʼéeyaḵw →  iʼm slow at housework (SN) a yáanáx̱ lichʼéeyaḵw: yasátgi shí áwé →  itʼs too slow (that is, you are singing it too slowly): itʼs a fast song (SN) tlax̱ ḵútx̱ wulichʼéeyáḵw →  he was entirely too slow (JL) (KE)

• imperfective (+): lichʼéeyáḵw | s/he is slow

• imperfective (–): tlél ulchʼéeyáḵw | s/he isnʼt slow

• progressive imperfective: kei nalchʼéeyáḵw | s/he is starting to slow down; s/he is getting slow

• perfective (+): wulichʼéeyáḵw | s/he got slow

• perfective (–): tlél wulchʼéeyáḵw | s/he didnʼt get slow

O-x̱ʼa-l-chʼéeyáḵw ˟ (ga state verb – object intransitive) slow | for O to be slow in eating or talking | this verb has been documented with and without the «ya-» thematic prefix (x̱ʼayawlichʼéeyáḵw / x̱ʼawlichʼéeyáḵw); both forms are acceptable and do not seem to change the meaning | atx̱á teen x̱at x̱ʼalichʼéeyáḵw →  iʼm slow in eating/I eat slowly (SN) (KE)

• imperfective (+): x̱ʼalichʼéeyáḵw | s/he is a slow eater/talker

• imperfective (–): tlél x̱ʼeilchʼéeyáḵw | s/he isnʼt a slow eater/talker

• progressive imperfective: kei x̱ʼanalchʼéeyáḵw | s/he is getting to be a slow eater/talker

• perfective (+): x̱ʼawlichʼéeyáḵw | s/he became a slow eater/talker

• perfective (–): tlél x̱ʼawulchʼéeyáḵw | s/he didnʼt become a slow eater/talker

• future (+): x̱ʼagux̱lachʼéeyáḵw | s/he will be a slow eater/talker

• future (–): tlél x̱ʼagux̱lachʼéeyáḵw | s/he wonʼt be a slow eater/talker

chʼu even; still | this particle rarely appears on its own, but instead often interacts with other particles | (JL, KE) • variants: chʼoo •

chʼu déix̱ (particle) both | (KE)

chʼu shóogu (particle) same | (KE)

chʼu tle (particle) then: just then; time: just at that time | used before a verb to create "when {verb}" or "while {verb}" will be used often to tie a series of actions together | use varies from speaker to speaker, and it can appear multiple times in one sentence, often to show the immediacy of a string of actions (KE) • variants: chʼu tlei •

chʼu tleix̱ (particle) forever

chʼu wooch yáx̱ (phrase) same | the same way each time | the verb that follows should be in the perfective habitual form | chʼu + wooch + yáx̱ →  just + together-(recip.i) + similar (MD)

da- (classifier) | ∅ group classifier; (+d,∅,–i) | Tlingit classifiers combine with verb roots and optional thematic prefixes to form a verb the verb root contains meaning, and the classifier communicates what the verb does classifiers change group and become a different verb when the activity the verb describes changes, and examples would be «ayatéen (∅, "seeing") and «altín» (l, "watching") which have the same root but a different classifier a Tlingit classifier is –i for incomplete activity and +i for complete activity a Tlingit classifier is –d by default and +d for middle voice (subject is also object, which includes reflexive and reciprocal forms), antipassives that remove the embedded object pronoun, and fourth person human («4H») subjects for l, s, & sh classifiers it helps to think of default form as –d & –i, and the classifier changes from there to move into certain modes ∅ group is the default group, and then s group, and then l group, and then the rare sh group

–i verb modes

act imperfective (+) | s/he is doing it; s/he does it

imperfective (–) | s/he is not doing it; s/he does not do it

progressive imperfective (+) | s/he is in the process of doing it

perfective (–) | s/he didnʼt do it

imperative | do it!

perfective habitual (+) | s/he does it (every time)

perfective habitual (–) | s/he hasnʼt done it yet

future (+) | s/he will do it; it will happen

future (–) | s/he wonʼt do it; s/he is not going to do it; it wonʼt happen

hortative | let her/him do it; let us do it

repetitive imperfective | s/he does it (regularly)

potential decessive | s/he would have done it

conditional | if/when s/he does it

+i verb modes

state imperfective (+) | s/he is doing it; s/he does it

perfective (+) | s/he did it

potential (+) | s/he might do it

potential (–) | s/he might not do it

potential attributive | no way s/he can do it

∅ group

∅- | (–d,∅,–i)

ÿa- | (–d,∅,+i)

da- | (+d,∅,–i)

di- | (+d,∅,+i)

s group

sa- | (–d,∅,–i)

si- | (–d,∅,+i)

s- | (+d,∅,–i)

dzi- | (+d,∅,+i)

l group

la- | (–d,∅,–i)

li- | (–d,∅,+i)

l- | (+d,∅,–i)

dli- | (+d,∅,+i)

sh group

sha- | (–d,∅,–i)

shi- | (–d,∅,+i)

sh- | (+d,∅,–i)

ji- | (+d,∅,+i)

–dachóon (relational base) straight towards –; directly towards – | (KE)

–dachx̱án (kinship term) grandchild | in Tlingit kinship, this term is used for biological grandchildren as well as people who are grandchildren of a clan | (KE)

dagatgiyáa (noun) hummingbird | possibly a borrowed noun or a verbal noun | (KE) • variants: digitgiyáa •

–dagiygé (relational base) middle of – | dagi-ÿá-gé →  into-open.vsf.against/opposing (KE) • variants: –dagikyé, –dagiyigé •

dag̱a- (verb prefix) each of them | pluralizes the subject of a subject intransitive verb or the object or a transitive or object intransitive verb • variants: dax̱-, daḵ- •

dag̱anḵú (compound noun) afterlife | "in the area of the interior land" | daaḵ-aan-ḵu →  inland.land-(inhabited).areal • variants: dax̱anḵú •

dag̱asáa (verbal noun) squid | dag̱a-∅-√sáa →  distr.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√narrow [?]

Dag̱istinaa (clan name) Clan: Thunderbird (Eagle/Wolf Moiety) | "Inland Channel Clan"; Origin: Blake Channel, Wrangell Island | Teiḵweidí Migration Dag̱istinaa Group Primary Crest: Thunderbird Secondary Crests: Wolf, Eagle, Shark, Sun | daaḵ-séet-i-naa →  inland.channel.[peg vowel].clan/tribe/nation (TT, AH, NR, JC, JL, HJ)

Jilḵáat Ḵwáan

Xeitl Hít | Thunderbird House

Shísʼg̱i Hít | Sapling House

G̱unaax̱oo Ḵwáan

Yaakwdáat Ḵwáan

Xeitl Hít | Thunderbird House

-dahéen (suffix) number of times | (JL)

dahooní (verbal noun) salesperson; shopkeeper; clerk | "seller" | da-√hoon-í →  cl-(+d,∅,–i).√sell.[relational] (KE)

–dakán (relational base) facing away from –

dakínde (independent base) • variants: dikínde, kínde • up; above | upward | kín-de →  upwards.towards (KE)

daḵéisʼ (verbal noun) sewing | da-√ḵáa-sʼ →  cl-(+d,∅,–i).√sew (KE)

daḵka.ádi (compound noun) • variants: daaḵ ka.ádi • animal | "inland thing" | daaḵ-ká-át-i →  inland.on.thing-(4n.i).[relational] (JL)

daḵká (compound noun) inland; interior; up in the woods; back (away from the open); back (away from the waterʼs edge); back (inside) | daaḵ-ká →  inland.on (KE)

Daḵlʼaweidí (clan name) Clan: Killer Whale (Eagle/Wolf Moiety) | "People of the Inland Sandbar"; Origin: Stikine River | Killerwhale Migration, Daḵlʼaweidí Group Primary Crests: Killerwhale, Eagle Secondary Crests: Wolf, Dog Spirit, Octopus, Seal, Glacier, Iceberg, Flicker, Shark, Moth | daaḵ-lʼéiw-át-i →  inland.sand.thing.[possession] (TT, AH, NR, JC, JL, HJ)

Taantʼá Ḵwáan

Kéet Hít | Killerwhale House

G̱ooch Hít | Wolf House

Yasku Hít | Wasgo(?) House [from Haida]

Kóon Hít | Flicker (Woodpecker) House

Xutsnoowú Ḵwáan

Kéet Hít | Killerwhale House

Yaa Ayanasnaḵ Kéet Hít | Killerwhale Chasing after It (Seal) House

Kéet Oox̱ú Hít | Killerwhale Tooth House

Jilḵáat Ḵwáan

Chʼeet Hít | Murrelet House

Tleilú Hít | Moth House

Kéet Gooshí Hít | Killerwhale Dorsal Fin House

Kéet Ḵwáani Hít | Killerwhale People House

Kéet Lʼóotʼi Hít | Killerwhale Tongue House

Kéet Déx̱ʼi Hít | Killerwhale Backbone House

Áatlein Ḵwáan

Deisleen Ḵwáan

Taagish Ḵwáan

Kéet Hít | Killerwhale House

daleiyí (noun) trout | lake trout | (KE)

daneit (compound noun) box: large box for storing grease, oil | daa-∅-√né-át [?] →  around/about.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√do/work-on.thing-(4n.i) (KE)

daséikw (verbal noun) breath; life | x̱ʼa-√sáa-kw →  mouth.√breathe/rest (KE) • variants: x̱ʼaséikw •

datóow xʼúxʼ (compound noun) book | "paper/book to read" | da-√tóow + xʼúxʼ →  cl-(+d,∅,–i).√read/count + membrane

datóow xʼúxʼ daakahídi (compound noun) library | "building around reading paper/book" | datóow + xʼúxʼ + daaka-hít-i →  cl-(+d,∅,–i).√read/count + membrane + around-outside.house.[relational]

daxadooshóonáx̱ (number) seven | seven people | used for counting people only | (KE)

dax̱adooshú (number) seven | "someone extends [their hand] to the second one" | déix̱-aa-du-w-ÿa-√shú →  two.one(s)-(part.i)..someone.[perfective].[classifer].√extends (CG)

dax̱áchxʼi (verbal noun) boat: tugboat | towers (from tow) | da-√x̱ách-xʼ-i →  cl-(+d,∅,–i).√tow.[plural].[relational] (JL)

dax̱dahéen two | twice; two times | (KE)

dax̱yeekaadé two | two different kinds, types; two different ways, directions | déix̱-yee-ká-dé →  two.below.on.towards (KE)

dayínde (preverb) • variants: diyínde, yínde • down; below | downward | (JL)

–dayéen (relational base) facing – | (KE)

dágáa (particle) sure: for sure | (KE) • variants: sdágáa •

dákde át (compound noun) thing heading offshore, esp. wind | daak-de + át →  seaward-towards + thing-(4n.i) (KE)

dákdesaxʼaak (compound noun) mackerel | "swims underwater out to sea" | daak-de-sa-√xʼaak →  seaward.towards.cl-(–d,s,–i).√swim-(underwater) (KE)

dákwtasi (compound noun) • variants: dákwx̱utasi • cracklings of rendered fat || grease unfit for consumption || fertilizer | "fat rendering sinew" | √dákw-tasi →  √render-fat.sinew

–dáli (relational noun) weight: –ʼs weight (usually in pounds) | –√dál-i →  √be-heavy.[relational] (JL)

√dáskw ˟ (verb root) quick-tempered

O-tu-ka-u-∅-√dáskw ˟ (ga state verb – object intransitive) quick-tempered | for O to be quick-tempered

• prohibitive: líl itukoodásguḵ! | donʼt be quick-tempered!

• imperfective (+): tukuwadáskw | s/he is quick-tempered

• imperfective (–): tlél tukoodáskw | s/he isnʼt quick-tempered

• progressive imperfective: kei tukunadáskw | s/he is getting to be quick-tempered

• perfective (+): tukaawadáskw | s/he was quick-tempered

• perfective (–): tlél tukawudáskw | s/he wasnʼt quick-tempered

• future (+): kei tukakg̱wadáskw | s/he will be quick-tempered

• future (–): tlél kei tukakg̱wadáskw | s/he wonʼt be quick-tempered

dáxw (noun) cranberry: lowbush cranberry; Lingonberry

-dáx̱ (relational suffix) • variants: -tx̱, -x̱ • from; out of; since (that time) | contraction from «-dáx̱» to «-tx̱» is optional when the suffix attaches to an open noun contraction to «-x̱» occurs when attaching to «áa» (that place), which creates «aax̱» (from there) closed monosyllable Tlingit suffixes are high tone, and open monosyllable suffixes are opposite of the tone of the preceding vowel | (KE, JC)

dáx̱g̱aa (number) two | two by two | (KE)

dáx̱g̱aanáx̱ (number) two | people two by two | (KE)

dáx̱náx̱ (number) two | two people | used for counting people only | (KE)

–daa 1 (relational base) around; about; concerning | (KE)

–daa 2 (body part) body: –ʼs body; body: around –ʼs body

√daa ¹ (verb root) | classification: water flow; rise; flood ¹

daaḵ + ∅-√daa ¹ (∅ motion verb – impersonal) tide | for the tide to rise, come in | yan kát oowadáa →  itʼs high tide (that is, the tide has flowed in completely to the shore) (SN) (KE)

• progressive imperfective: daaḵ nadéin | the tide is coming in

• perfective (+): daaḵ uwadáa | the tide is in

• future (+): daaḵ gug̱adáa | the tide will rise

kei + ∅-√daa ¹ (∅ motion verb – impersonal) tide; rise | for water level, tide to rise | (KE)

• progressive imperfective: kei nadéin | itʼs rising

• perfective (+): kei uwadáa | it rose

• perfective (–): tlél kei wudá | it didnʼt rise

• future (+): kei kg̱wadáa | it will rise

• future (–): tlél kei kg̱wadaa | it wonʼt rise

shí + N + lóot⁓ + ∅-√daa ¹ (∅ motion verb – impersonal) bleed; run | for Nʼs nose to bleed | to say "Nʼs nose is running", replace «shí» "blood" with «héen» “water", as in «héen ax̱ lóot uwadáa» “my nose is running | (KE)

• progressive imperfective: shí du lóode yaa nadéin | her/his nose is starting to bleed

• perfective (+): shí du lóot uwadáa | her/his nose is bleeding; her/his nose bled

• perfective (–): tlél shí du lóot wudá | her/his nose isnʼt bleeding; her/his nose didnʼt bleed

• future (+): shí du lóode kg̱wadáa | her/his nose is going to bleed

• future (–): tlél shí du lóode kg̱wadaa | her/his nose isnʼt going to bleed

ka-∅-√daa ¹ (na motion verb – impersonal) flow; run | for water, blood to flow; for a nose to run | haa káx̱ kaawadaa →  the tide caught us (that is, flowed onto us) (SN) shé du jint kaawadáa →  his hand was bleeding (SN) (KE) g̱ílʼ yaadáx̱ héen diyéet kaawa.áa →  a small waterfall is flowing over the cliff and hitting a certain place down below (SN)

• imperfective (+): kanaadaa | itʼs flowing

• progressive imperfective: yaa kanadéin | itʼs starting to flow

• perfective (+): kaawadaa | it flowed; itʼs flowing

• perfective (–): tlél kawudaa | it didnʼt flow; itʼs not flowing

• future (+): kakg̱wadáa | it will flow

• future (–): tlél kakg̱wadaa | it wonʼt flow

N-náx̱ + ya-∅-√daa ¹ (∅ motion verb – impersonal) flow through; flood ¹ | for water, the tide to flow through N; for water, the tide to flood N | héen naadaa →  the creek is flowing (SN) (KE)

• progressive imperfective: anax̱ yaa yanadéin | itʼs flowing there

• perfective (+): anax̱ yaawadáa | it flowed there

• perfective (–): tlél anax̱ yawudá | it didnʼt flow there

• future (+): anax̱ yakg̱wadáa | it will flow there

• future (–): tlél anax̱ yakg̱wadaa | it wonʼt flow there

N-t⁓ + ka-∅-daa (∅ motion verb – impersonal) flow; rise | for water to flow, rise to N | a katʼóott kadéin →  the liquid is half gone / flowed away (SN) (KE)

• progressive imperfective: wé héen aadé yaa kanadéin | the water level is starting to rise to there

• perfective (+): wé héen át kaawadáa | the water level rose to there

• perfective (–): wé héen tlél át kawudá | the water level didnʼt rise to there

• future (+): wé héen aadé kakg̱wadáa | the water level will rise to there

• future (–): wé héen tlél aadé kakg̱wadaa | the water level wonʼt rise to there

√daa ² (verb root) accustomed to; figure out

N + kát⁓ + ya-u-S-∅-√daa ² (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) watch; keep eye on | for S to keep an eye on, watch N | de chʼáakw áyá i kát wux̱adéin →  iʼve been watching you for a long time (to see how you behave) (SN)

• imperative: a kát woodá! | keep an eye on her/him/it!

• prohibitive: líl a káx̱ yeedaayíḵ! | donʼt keep an eye on her/him/it!

• imperfective (+): a kát woodéin | s/he is keeping an eye on her/him/it

• imperfective (–): tlél a kát woodéin | s/he isnʼt keeping an eye on her/him/it

• perfective (+): a kát yaawadáa | s/he kept an eye on her/him/it

• perfective (–): tlél a kát yawudá | s/he didnʼt keep an eye on her/him/it

• future (+): a kaadé yakg̱wadáa | s/he will keep an eye on her/him/it

• future (–): tlél a kaadé yakg̱wadaa | s/he wonʼt keep an eye on her/him/it

N + káa + yan⁓ + ya-u-S-∅-√daa ² (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) watch; keep eye on | for S to keep an eye on, watch N | (KE)

• imperative: a káa yan woodá! | keep an eye on her/him/it!

• prohibitive: líl a káa yax̱ yeedaayíḵ! | donʼt keep an eye on her/him/it!

• perfective (–): tlél a káa yan yawudá | s/he didnʼt keep an eye on her/him/it

• future (+): a káa yan yaawadáa | s/he kept an eye on her/him/it

• future (+): a káa yánde yakg̱wadáa | s/he will keep an eye on her/him/it

• future (–): tlél a káa yánde yakg̱wadaa | s/he wonʼt keep an eye on her/him/it

N + x̱ʼéix̱ + ∅-√daa ² (na event verb – impersonal) accustomed to; used to | for N to become used to, accustomed to it (of manner of speech or flavor of food) | has du x̱ʼéix̱ woodaa →  theyʼve grown accustomed to using certain words all the time (SN)

• imperative: i x̱ʼéix̱ nadá! | get used to it!

• progressive imperfective: du x̱ʼéix̱ yaa nadéin | s/he is getting used to it

• perfective (+): du x̱ʼéix̱ woodaa | s/he got used to it

• perfective (–): tlél du x̱ʼéix̱ wudaa | s/he didnʼt get used to it

• future (+): du x̱ʼéix̱ gug̱adáa | s/he will get used to it

• future (–): tlél du x̱ʼéix̱ gug̱adaa | s/he wonʼt get used to it

–daa ax̱áayi (body part) flippers: –ʼs flippers (of fish) | "–ʼs body paddles" | daa + ax̱áa-yi →  around/about/body + paddle.[relational] (NR)

daa yaa ḵug̱átch (verbal noun) dizziness | daa + yaa + ḵu-∅-√g̱át-ch →  around/about + along + areal.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√disoriented.[habitual] (JL)

–daadleeyí (body part) flesh: –ʼs flesh | "–ʼs body flesh" | daa-dleey-í →  body.flesh.[relational]

daak (independent base) out to sea; out into the open; falling from sky

–daakahídi (compound noun) building: –ʼs building | "builing around –" | daaká-hít-i →  around-outside.house.[relational] (JC)

–daakakʼátsʼi (compound noun) thorn: its thorn(s) | "sharps around it" | daa-ka-√kʼátsʼ-i →  around.hsf.√sharp.[relational] (JL)

–daakanóoxʼu (kinship term) ancestor | ancestor(s) of – (term of respect, usually referring to oneʼs motherʼs motherʼs father); "shell around the outside surface of –" | in Tlingit kinship, this is a clan from the opposite moiety, that is the motherʼs motherʼs fatherʼs clan use of this term signifies a special ancestral relationship, often referred to as "protective outer shell" | daaká-nóoxʼ-u →  around-outside.shell.[relational] (KE)

–daakashú fate: –ʼs fate | "the end around the outside surface of –" | daaká-shú →  around-outisde.end (KE)

–daaká (relational base) around outside of – | (JC)

daakeit (compound noun) container | "thing around the outside" | daaká-át →  around-outside.thing-(4n.i)

√daakw (verb root) render

a-S-∅-√daakw (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) render | for S to render something down (for oil) (esp. seal blubber) | tsaa taayí aawadákw →  he rendered seal oil (SN) agax̱toodáakw →  we are going to render it down (SN) (KE)

• imperative: adákw! | render it!

• repetitive imperfective prohibitive: líl eedákwx̱uḵ! | donʼt render it!

• imperfective (+): adáakw | s/he is rendering it

• perfective (+): aawadákw | s/he rendered it

• perfective (–): tlél awudaakw | s/he didnʼt render it

• future (+): akg̱wadáakw | s/he will render it

• future (–): tlél akg̱wadaakw | s/he wonʼt render it

daaḵ (independent base) up in the woods; inland from shore; back from open; off of fire; away from the waterʼs edge | (JC, KE)

√daaḵ ¹ (verb root) clear up

N + daa + a-∅-√daaḵ ¹ (na event verb – impersonal) conscious; come to; sober | for N to regain consciousness; for N to come to oneʼs senses; for N to sober up | ḵaa daa yaa anadáḵ →  heʼs coming to/coming back to consciousness after drinking (SN) daa akg̱wadáaḵ →  heʼs going to get back to his senses (SN) (KE)

• imperative: i daa anadaaḵ (dé)! | sober up (now)!

• progressive imperfective: du daa yaa anadáḵ | s/he is beginning to sober up

• perfective (+): du daa aawadaaḵ | s/he sobered up

• perfective (–): tlél du daa awudaaḵ | s/he didnʼt sober up

• future (+): du daa akg̱wadáaḵ | s/he will sober up

• future (–): tlél du daa akg̱wadaaḵ | s/he wonʼt sober up

√daaḵ ² (verb root) move residence

kei + O-s-√daaḵ ² (∅ motion verb – object intransitive) move residence; migrate | for O to move household (permanently), migrate | NS and JL record this verb without the mandatory «kei» in the preverb, but it appears to be the same verb | yáadáx̱ haa gux̱sadáaḵ →  weʼre going to move from here/never coming back (SN) ixkéede wsidaaḵ →  he moved south permanently (SN) (KE)

• perfective (+): aax̱ kei wsidáḵ | s/he moved from there

• perfective (–): tlél aax̱ kei wusdaaḵ | s/he didnʼt move from there

• future (+): aax̱ kei gux̱sadáaḵ | s/he will move from there

• future (–): tlél aax̱ kei gux̱sadaaḵ | s/he wonʼt move from there

daaḵw.aa sá (question particle) which one (of a set) | determiners may be added to «sá» as in «daaḵw.aa sáyá» (which one is this?), «daaḵw.aa sáwé?» (which one is that?) question particles combine most commonly to form questions, but can also be used to create statements like «jánwu alʼóon, sʼaax̱, daa sáyá át wu.aadí» (he hunts mountain goats, marmots, whatever went around there) (David Kadashan 6) | daaḵw.aa sá i tuwáa sigóo? →  which one of them do you want? daaḵw.aa naax̱ sá isitee? →  which clan/moiety/tribe are you? (JC,KE)

–daaleilí (body part) skin | "body flab"; wrinkled skin; flabby skin | (JL, KE) daa-√leil-í →  body.√flabby/wrinkled

√daalʼ (verb root) imprint; mark

O-ka-S-l-√dáalʼ (∅ act verb – transitive) type; print | for S to type O | i jiyís kakḵwaladáalʼ →  lʼll type it for you (SN) (KE)

• imperative: kaladálʼ! | type it!

• prohibitive: líl keeldáalʼiḵ! | donʼt type it!

• imperfective (+): akladáalʼ | s/he is typing it; s/he types it

• imperfective (–): tlél akooldáalʼ | s/he isnʼt typing it; s/he doesnʼt type it

• progressive imperfective: yaa akanaldálʼ | s/he is (in the process of) typing it

• perfective (+): akawlidálʼ | s/he typed it

• perfective (–): tlél akawuldáalʼ | s/he didnʼt type it

• future (+): akagux̱ladáalʼ | s/he will type it

• future (–): tlél akagux̱ladáalʼ | s/he wonʼt type it

√daan (verb root) snow heavily

a-ya-ka-∅-√dáan (∅ event verb – impersonal) snow | for it to snow heavily | dleit yakaawadán →  the snow is coming down so heavily, one canʼt see far (SN) yéi x̱wajée haa káa ayakg̱wadáan →  i think itʼs going to snow real heavily on us (SN) (KE)

• progressive imperfective: yaa ayakanadán | itʼs starting to snow heavily

• perfective (+): ayakaawadán | itʼs snowing heavily; it snowed heavily

• perfective (–): tlél ayakawudáan | itʼs not snowing heavily; it didnʼt snow heavily

• future (+): ayakakg̱wadáan | it will snow heavily

• future (–): tlél ayakakg̱wadáan | it wonʼt snow heavily

–daanóogu (verbal noun) feel: –ʼs sense of feel; sense of feel | daa-∅-√nóok-u →  around/body.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√feel/taste.[relational] (JL)

√daasʼ (verb root) wear through (with wire); snare

O-S-d+l-√dáasʼ (∅ event verb – transitive) snare | for S to snare O | xóots x̱wadlidásʼ →  i snared a brown bear (SN) (KE)

• imperative: eeldásʼ! | snare it!

• repetitive imperfective prohibitive: líl eeldásʼx̱iḵ! | donʼt snare it!

• perfective (+): awdlidásʼ | s/he snared it

• perfective (–): tlél awuldáasʼ | s/he didnʼt snare it

• future (+): akg̱waldáasʼ | s/he will snare it

• future (–): tlél akg̱waldáasʼ | s/he wonʼt snare it

–daashagóon (body part) body: –ʼs body parts | daa-shagóon →  body.components/parts (KE)

–daat (relational noun) about; concerning | (JC)

daat g̱aa sá (question particle) for what (purpose) | this often translates to "for what purpose" or "going after what" determiners may be added to «sá» as in «daat g̱aa sáyá» (what is this for?), «daat g̱aa sáwé?» (what is that for?) question particles combine most commonly to form questions, but can also be used to create statements like «jánwu alʼóon, sʼaax̱, daa sáyá át wu.aadí» (he hunts mountain goats, marmots, whatever went around there) (David Kadashan 6) | daat g̱aa sá hóon daakahídidé yaa neegút? →  what are you going to the store for? (JC,KE)

daa(t) sá (question particle) what | the most common form is «daa» determiners may be added to «sá» as in «daa sáyá» (what is this?), «daa sáwé?» (what is that?) question particles combine most commonly to form questions, but can also be used to create statements like «jánwu alʼóon, sʼaax̱, daa sáyá át wu.aadí» (he hunts mountain goats, marmots, whatever went around there) (David Kadashan 6) | daa sá i tuwáa sigóo? →  what do you want? (NR) daat eetéenáx̱ sá iyatee? →  what do you need? (NR) (JC,KE)

daat yís sá (question particle) for what (benefit) | this often translates to "for what benefit" or "for what is it being given" determiners may be added to «sá» as in «daat yís sáyá» (what is this for?), «daat yís sáwé?» (what is that for?) question particles combine most commonly to form questions, but can also be used to create statements like «jánwu alʼóon, sʼaax̱, daa sáyá át wu.aadí» (he hunts mountain goats, marmots, whatever went around there) (David Kadashan 6) | haa, daat yís sáwé a káaxʼ x̱ʼeedagáxʼx̱ ag̱eeshaayít? →  why do you pray to marry? (RZ, Dauenhauer, "Tracking ʼYuwaan Gagéetsʼ") (JC,KE)

–daateedí (relational noun) wake: –ʼs wake (of a boat in water) | daa-teet-í →  around.wave.[relational] (JL)

–daatʼaawú (body part) fin: –ʼs fins (of fish)

daaw (noun) kelp | ribbon kelp ° Alaria marginata ° || kelp | ribbon kelp on which herring have spawned

daaxʼoon (number) four | (KE)

daaxʼoon yakyee (compound noun) Thursday; day: Thursday | "fourth day" • variants: daaxʼoon yagiyee, daaxʼoon yagee •

daaxʼoondahéen (number) four | four times | (KE)

daaxʼoonínáx̱ (number) four | four people | used for counting people only | (KE)

–daayí (plant part) bark: –ʼs bark | (KE)

daa.aax̱w (verbal noun) bundle | "tie around" | daa-∅-√.aax̱w →  around/about.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√.bind/wrap (JL)

–daa.it (body part) body: –ʼs body | (KE)

–daa.it nagóowu (compound noun) actions: –ʼs actions | "–ʼs body extends to it" | daa-it + na-∅-√góo-wu →  body/around.ends + na-md.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√extend.[relational] (JL)

–daa.it x̱ʼáak (body part) joints: –ʼs joints | "between –ʼs body" | daa.it + x̱ʼáak →  body-(ends) + between (JL)

daa.ittunéekw (compound noun) arthritis | "pain at the ends of the body" | daa.it-tú-néekw →  body-(ends).inside.sick/hurt

–daa.itwéisʼi (body part) gland: –ʼs gland | daa.it-wéisʼ-i →  body-(end).gland.[relational] (KE)

dáa (noun) ermine; weasel | (KE)

dáadzi (noun) firestone; iron pyrite | (KE)

–dáadzi (body part) testicles: –ʼs testicles | (JM, JL)

dáag̱i (preverb) shore; beach | out of the water onto the beach, shore | for motion verbs, creates a ∅-conjugation motion verb (towards a terminus) | (KE, JC)

–dáali (body part) rumen: –ʼs rumen (of ruminant); stomach: –ʼs main stomach (of ruminant); tripe: –ʼs tripe (of ruminant) | (JL, KE)

dáanaa (borrowed noun) dollar; silver dollar; silver; money; coin | from Chinook Jargon «dála» || (color) silver | (KE)

dáanaa katʼéex̱ʼi (compound noun) silversmith | "silver pounder" | dáanaa + ka-∅-√tʼéex̱ʼ-i →  silver + hsf.cl-(-d,∅,-i).√smash/pound.[relational] (KE) • variants: dáanaa tʼéex̱ʼi •

dáanaa la.aadí (compound noun) bank teller | "carrier of the money" | dáanaa + la-√.aat-í →  money + cl-(–d,l,–i).√carry-(baggage and personal items).[relational] (JL)

dáanaa sʼaatí (compound noun) rich ² | rich person; "money master" | dáanaa + sʼaatí →  silver + master/boss (KE)

dáanaa shoowú (compound noun) half dollar; fifty cents | dáanaa + shoowú →  dollar + half-of (KE)

dáanaa tʼéex̱ʼi (compound noun) silversmith | "silver pounder" | dáanaa + ka-∅-√tʼéex̱ʼ-i →  silver + hsf.cl-(-d,∅,-i).√smash/pound.[relational] (KE) • variants: dáanaa katʼéex̱ʼi •

dáanaa yélaa (verbal noun) money: counterfit money | dáanaa + √yél-aa →  money/silver + √raven.one(s)-(part.i)

dáasʼaa (verbal noun) snare | "the one that snares" | √dáasʼ-aa →  √snare-one(s)-(part.i) (KE)

dáat (noun) jelly; jam; jello | "jiggle" | (JL)

dáax̱ (noun) canoe under construction | (KE)

de (particle) already; now: (by) now | appears before verbs to create "already [verbed]" or "at the time of [verb]" • variants: dei •

-de (relational suffix) to; toward; until; in the manner of | closed monosyllable Tlingit suffixes are high tone, and open monosyllable suffixes are opposite of the tone of the preceding vowel | (KE, JC)

de x̱waa (adverb) finally | dei x̱waa kut wudiḵeen →  finally he flew away (BC)

desgwách (particle) soon | (JC)

dei (landform) path; trail; road; street | (KE)

dei xʼayaax̱ (landform) trail ¹; path; road; street | side of