aa1 (3) sit seated (to have live creature seated there) P-t O-S-s-.aa~ (position) for S to have O (live creature) seated at P si-.aa This verb only occurs in the imperfective. Note that this verb could be used to indicate that one has a child or animal seated, but would generally not be used to refer to an adult. át as.áa s/he has him/her seated there tlél át oos.áa s/he doesnʼt have him/her seated there [does not occur] [does not occur] situated there (of a building) P-t l-.áa (position) for a building to be situated at P li-.aa This verb only occurs in the imperfective. át la.áa itʼs situated there tlél át ul.aa itʼs not situated there [does not occur] [does not occur] sit (for singular subject to be seated) S-∅-.aa~ (position) for (singlular) S to be seated ya-.aa This verb only occurs in the imperfective. Note that a noun phrase with (-t) postposition is used to indicate where one is sitting, but this noun phrase is not required by the verb. For example, one could say: .áa "s/he is sitting", or: át .áa "s/he is sitting there." The plural verb stem is used when indicating that one person is sitting with another, even though the subject is singular. For example, du een ḵéen "s/he is sitting with him/her" or du een x̱aḵéen "I am sitting with him/her". [does not occur] Líl ee.aayíḵ! Donʼt be sitting! x̱a.áa I sit; I am sitting ee.áa you sit; you are sitting .áa s/he sits; s/he is sitting a.áa someone sits; someone is sitting tlél x̱wa.aa I donʼt sit; I am not sitting tlél ee.aa you donʼt sit; you arenʼt sitting tlél u.aa s/he doesnʼt sit; s/he isnʼt sitting wé aa aa the one who sits; the one who is sitting .aayín s/he was sitting tlél oo.aayín s/he wasnʼt sitting aa2 (2) examine, kiss, consider, think over, come to senses examine, inspect it; judge, assess it N daa ya-S-d-s-.aa~ (na act) for S to examine, inspect, look into, judge, assess N a daa + ya-dzi-.aa A daa yanees.á! Examine it! A daa yanayis.á! You all examine it! Líl a daa yees.éix̱iḵ! Donʼt examine it! Líl a daa yayis.éix̱iḵ! Donʼt you all examine it! a daa yas.éix̱ s/he is examining it tlél a daa yoos.éix̱ s/he isnʼt examining it a daa yawdzi.aa s/he examined it tlél a daa yawus.aa s/he didnʼt examine it a daa yakg̱was.áa s/he will examine it tlél a daa yakg̱was.aa s/he wonʼt examine it a daa yang̱as.aa let him/her examine it a daa yanas.éich s/he examines it (every time) tlél a daa yoonas.éich s/he hasnʼt examined it yet tlél aadé a daa yanax̱dzi.aayi yé no way can s/he examine it a daa yang̱was.aayín s/he would have examined it a daa yanas.éini if/when s/he examines it a daa yas.éix̱ s/he examines it (regularly) kiss him/her N x̱ʼéi-t~ ya-S-d-s-.aa~ (∅ motion) for S to kiss N x̱ʼéi- + ya-dzi-.aa Ax̱ x̱ʼéit yees.á! Kiss me! Ax̱ x̱ʼéit yayis.á! You all kiss me! Líl ax̱ x̱ʼéix̱ yees.aayéeḵ! Donʼt kiss me! Líl ax̱ x̱ʼéix̱ yayis.aayéeḵ! Donʼt you all kiss me! [does not occur] [does not occur] du x̱ʼéit yax̱wdzi.áa I kissed him/her ax̱ x̱ʼéit yaydzi.áa you kissed me ax̱ x̱ʼéit yawdzi.áa s/he kissed me du x̱ʼéit yawtudzi.áa we kissed him/her ax̱ x̱ʼéit yayeeydzi.áa you all kissed me ax̱ x̱ʼéit has yawdzi.áa they kissed me ax̱ x̱ʼéit yawdudzi.áa I was kissed tlél du x̱ʼéit yax̱was.á I didnʼt kiss him/her tlél ax̱ x̱ʼéit yayis.á you didnʼt kiss me tlél ax̱ x̱ʼéit yawus.á s/he didnʼt kiss me tlél du x̱ʼéit yawtoos.á we didnʼt kiss him/her tlél ax̱ x̱ʼéit yayeeys.á you all didnʼt kiss me tlél ax̱ x̱ʼéit has yawus.á they didnʼt kiss me tlél ax̱ x̱ʼéit yawdus.á I wasnʼt kissed ax̱ x̱ʼéit yawus.aayín s/he had kissed me; s/he kissed me (but...) tlél ax̱ x̱ʼéit yawus.aayín s/he hadnʼt kissed me; s/he didnʼt kiss me (at the time, but...) wé ax̱ x̱ʼéit yawdzi.aayi aa the one who kissed me du x̱ʼéide yakḵwas.áa I will kiss him/her ax̱ x̱ʼéide yakg̱ees.áa you will kiss me ax̱ x̱ʼéide yakg̱was.áa s/he will kiss me du x̱ʼéide yagax̱toos.áa we will kiss him/her ax̱ x̱ʼéide yagax̱yis.áa you all will kiss me ax̱ x̱ʼéide has yakg̱was.áa they will kiss me ax̱ x̱ʼéide yagax̱dus.áa I will be kissed tlél du x̱ʼéide yakḵwas.aa I wonʼt kiss him/her tlél ax̱ x̱ʼéide yakg̱is.aa you wonʼt kiss me tlél ax̱ x̱ʼéide yakg̱was.aa s/he wonʼt kiss me tlél du x̱ʼéide yagax̱toos.aa we wonʼt kiss him/her tlél ax̱ x̱ʼéide yagax̱yis.aa you all wonʼt kiss me tlél ax̱ x̱ʼéide has yakg̱was.aa they wonʼt kiss me tlél ax̱ x̱ʼéide yagax̱dus.aa I wonʼt be kissed du x̱ʼéit yaḵas.aa let me kiss him/her ax̱ x̱ʼéit yag̱as.aa let him/her kiss me du x̱ʼéit yax̱toos.aa let us kiss him/her du x̱ʼéit woox̱as.áaych I kiss him/her (every time) ax̱ x̱ʼéit yees.áaych you kiss me (every time) ax̱ x̱ʼéit woos.áaych s/he kisses me (every time) du x̱ʼéit yatoos.áaych we kiss him/her (every time) ax̱ x̱ʼéit yayis.áaych you all kiss me (every time) ax̱ x̱ʼéit has woos.áaych they kiss me (every time) ax̱ x̱ʼéit wudus.áaych I am kissed (every time) tlél du x̱ʼéit woox̱as.áaych I havenʼt kissed him/her yet tlél ax̱ x̱ʼéit yees.áaych you havenʼt kissed me yet tlél ax̱ x̱ʼéit woos.áaych s/he hasnʼt kissed me yet tlél du x̱ʼéit yatoos.áaych we havenʼt kissed him/her yet tlél ax̱ x̱ʼéit yayis.áaych you all havenʼt kissed me yet tlél ax̱ x̱ʼéit has woos.áaych they havenʼt kissed me yet tlél ax̱ x̱ʼéit wudus.áaych I havenʼt been kissed yet tlél aadé ax̱ x̱ʼéit wux̱dzi.aayi yé no way can s/he kiss me ax̱ x̱ʼéit wug̱as.aayín s/he would have kissed me ax̱ x̱ʼéit yas.éini if/when s/he kisses me ax̱ x̱ʼéix̱ yas.aa s/he kisses me (repeatedly) Ax̱ tuwáa sigóo ax̱ x̱ʼéit yawus.aayí. I want somebody to kiss me. Tlél du x̱ʼéit yax̱was.aa, ách áwé g̱áax̱. Sheʼs crying because I didnʼt kiss her. Yaa sh ḵʼanalyél áwé, hél du x̱ʼéit yax̱was.aa! Heʼs lying, I didnʼt kiss him! Ax̱ x̱ʼéit yag̱as.aa x̱ʼax̱waawóosʼ tlei ax̱ náḵ wujixeex. I asked her to kiss me and she ran away from me. aa3 (7) grow, turn on, flow, run (fish), quake, daylight, celebrate grow it (plant); turn it on (hose) O-ka-S-s-.aa~ (na act) for S to cause O (plant) to grow; for S to turn on O (hose), cause O to flow ka-si-.aa Kanas.á! Grow it! Kanaysa.á! You all grow it! Líl keesa.éix̱iḵ! Donʼt grow it! Líl kaysa.éix̱iḵ! Donʼt you all grow it! aksa.éix̱ s/he grows it; s/heʼs growing it tlél akoos.éix̱ s/he doesnʼt grow it; s/he isnʼt growing it akawsi.aa s/he grew it tlél akawus.aa s/he didnʼt grow it akagux̱sa.áa s/he will grow it tlél akagux̱sa.aa s/he wonʼt grow it akanax̱sa.aa let him/her grow it akanas.éich s/he grows it (every time) tlél akoonas.éich s/he hasnʼt grown it yet tlél aadé akunax̱si.aayi yé no way can s/he grow it akunax̱sa.aayín s/he would have grown it akanas.éini if/when s/he grows it yoo aksi.éik s/he grows it (regularly) celebrate, set apart (a particular day) Note that Story & Naish (1973) document this verb with the prefix ḵee- while the speaker consulted here pronounces this ḵei-. Both are acceptable. O-ḵei-S-s-.aa~ (na event) for S to celebrate O, set apart O (a particular day) ḵee-si-.aa O-ḵee-S-s-.aa~ (na event) ḵeinas.á! Celebrate it! ḵeinaysa.á! You all celebrate it! Líl yoo ḵeesa.éigiḵ! Donʼt celebrate it! Líl yoo ḵeeysa.éigiḵ! Donʼt you all celebrate it! [does not occur] yaa aḵeinas.éin s/he is celebrating it ḵeix̱wsi.aa I celebrated it aḵeiwsi.aa s/he celebrated it tlél ḵeix̱wsa.aa I didnʼt celebrate it tlél aḵeiwus.aa s/he didnʼt celebrate it aḵeigux̱sa.áa s/he will celebrate it tlél aḵeigux̱sa.aa s/he wonʼt celebrate it aḵeinax̱sa.aa let him/her celebrate it aḵeinas.éich s/he celebrates it (every time) tlél aḵeinas.éich s/he hasnʼt celebrated it yet tlél aadé aḵeinax̱si.aayi yé no way can s/he celebrate it aḵeinax̱sa.aayín s/he would have celebrated it aḵeinas.éini if/when s/he celebrates it yoo aḵeisi.éik s/he celebrates it (regularly) Du kayageeyí ḵeewdudzi.aa. They celebrated his birthday. [Story & Naish 1973: 44] Christmas has aḵeegux̱sa.áa. They are going to celebrate Christmas. [Story & Naish 1973: 44] Du yagiyeeyí ḵeiwdus.aayí a kaax̱ du toowú yakʼéi. He was real happy that they celebrated his birthday. grow (of plant); flow, pour forth (of water) ka-∅-.aa~ (na act) for a plant to grow; for a stream of water to flow, pour forth ka-ya-.aa ka.éix̱ it grows; itʼs growing tlél koo.éix̱ it doesnʼt grow; itʼs not growing yaa kana.éin itʼs growing kaawa.aa it grew tlél kawu.aa it didnʼt grow kei kakg̱wa.áa it will grow tlél kei kakg̱wa.aa it wonʼt grow kang̱a.aa let it grow kana.éich it grows (every time) tlél koona.éich it hasnʼt grown yet tlél aadé koong̱aa.aayi yé no way can it grow koong̱a.aayín it would have grown kana.éini if/when it grows yoo kaya.éik it grows (regularly) grow (of plant) ka-s-.aa~ (na act) for a plant to grow ka-si-.aa In classical Tlingit, this verb meant specifically for a plant with a long stalk to grow (the length of the plant indicated by the s- classifier), however this meaning has been lost for most current speakers, and now just means for a plant in general to grow. kasa.éix̱ it grows; itʼs growing tlél koos.éix̱ it doesnʼt grow; itʼs not growing kei kanas.éin itʼs growing kawsi.aa it grew tlél kawus.aa it didnʼt grow kagux̱sa.áa it will grow tlél kagux̱sa.aa it wonʼt grow kanax̱sa.aa let it grow kanas.éich it grows (every time) tlél koonas.éich it hasnʼt grown yet tlél aadé kunax̱si.aayi yé no way can it grow kunax̱sa.aayín it would have grown kanas.éini if/when it grows yoo ksi.éik it grows (regularly) daylight (become daylight, dawn) ḵei-∅-.aa (na event) for it to become daylight, dawn ḵee-ya-.aa ḵee-∅-.aa (na event) [does not occur] yaa ḵeina.éin itʼs getting to be daylight ḵeiwa.aa itʼs daylight tlél ḵeiwu.aa itʼs not daylight ḵeikg̱wa.áa it will be daylight tlél ḵeikg̱wa.aa it wonʼt be daylight (chʼa) ḵeing̱a.aa (just) let it be daylight ḵeina.éich itʼs daylight (every time) (at 6:00 for example) tlél ḵeina.éich itʼs not daylight yet ḵeina.éini if/when itʼs daylight Tlél ḵeikg̱wa.aa déix̱ gaaw x̱ʼáanáx̱. It wonʼt be daylight within the next two hours. Gu.aal ḵeiwa.aaḵ. I hope itʼs daylight. Chʼa tlákw tsʼootaat ḵeina.éich tleidooshú gaawxʼ. Every morning itʼs daylight at six. Kʼidéin ḵeiwu.aayí gax̱too.áat. When itʼs daylight, weʼll go. run, migrate (of fish) VII ya-∅-.aa~ (na motion) for fish to run, migrate --- Leer 1973: 02/14 [does not occur] yaa yana.éin the fish are running yaawa.aa the fish are running; the fish ran tlél yawu.aa the fish arenʼt running; the fish didnʼt run yakg̱wa.áa the fish will run tlél yakg̱wa.aa the fish wonʼt run yang̱a.aa let the fish run yana.éich the fish run (every time) tlél woona.éich the fish havenʼt run yet tlél aadé woong̱aa.aayi yé no way can the fish run woong̱a.aayín the fish would have run yana.éini if/when the fish run yoo yaa.éik the fish run (regularly) Tsa yóokʼ yang̱a.aa yá x̱áat yéi has oolx̱éisʼ. Let the salmon run early, this is what theyʼre wishing for. Taakw.eetíxʼ áwé yoo yaya.éik wé g̱aat. The sockeye run in the spring. run, migrate (of fish) II P-t~ ya-∅-.aa~ (∅ motion) for fish to run at P --- Leer 1973: 02/14 [does not occur] aadé yaa yana.éin the fish are running there át yaawa.áa the fish ran there tlél át yawu.á the fish didnʼt run there aadé yakg̱wa.áa the fish will run there tlél aadé yakg̱wa.aa the fish wonʼt run there át yag̱a.aa let the fish run there át yoo.áaych the fish run there (every time) tlél át yoo.áaych the fish havenʼt run there yet tlél aadé át yag̱waa.aayi yé no way can the fish run there át yag̱wa.aayín the fish would have run there át ya.éini if/when the fish run there áx̱ ya.aa the fish run there (regularly) Wé x̱áat tlél át yawu.á a x̱ʼanaa has awsihát. The salmon didnʼt run there, they blocked it off. Haa x̱ánt yaawa.áa. The fish run came to our area. at yana.á fish run at yana.á dísi March (fish run month) aak1 fire build a fire shóo-t~ a-S-d-.aak~ (∅ event) for S to build a fire (using wood) shóo- + a-di-.aak Shóot eeda.ák! Build a fire! Shóot ayda.ák! You all build a fire! Líl shóox̱ eeda.aagíḵ! Donʼt build a fire! Líl shóox̱ ayda.aagíḵ! Donʼt you all build a fire! [does not occur] [does not occur] shóot ax̱wdi.ák I built a fire shóot awdi.ák s/he built a fire tlél shóot ax̱wda.aak I didnʼt build a fire tlél shóot awda.aak s/he didnʼt build a fire shóode akḵwada.áak I will build a fire shóode agux̱da.áak s/he will build a fire tlél shóode akḵwada.aak I wonʼt build a fire tlél shóode agux̱da.aak s/he wonʼt build a fire shóot aḵda.aak let me build a fire shóot ax̱da.aak let him/her build a fire shóot oox̱da.aakch I build a fire (every time) shóot ooda.aakch s/he builds a fire (every time) tlél shóot oox̱da.aakch I havenʼt built a fire yet tlél shóot ooda.aakch s/he hasnʼt built a fire yet tlél aadé shóot oox̱di.aagi yé no way can s/he build a fire shóot oox̱da.aagín s/he would have built a fire shóot ada.ákni if/when s/he builds a fire shóox̱ ada.aak s/he builds a fire (regularly) aak3 paralyzed paralyzed (with fright, shock, or surprise), panic, be incapable of action Note that Story & Naish (1973) document this verb as having the stem: .eik, while the speaker consulted for this project (from Kake) pronounces the verb with the stem: .aak. Leer (1973) documents both stem pronunciations in his notes, indicating that the .aak variant is used in Yakutat. Story & Naish (1973) provide an example sentence of this verb in the perfective form, having a long high vowel in the verb stem, which would indicate that the verb belongs to the na, ga, or g̱a conjugation category. For the speaker consulted here, the verb belongs to the ∅ conjugation category. Leer (1973) documents two perfective forms: wudi.ék (∅ conjugation) and wudi.éik (na, ga, or g̱a conjugation). It appears that this is a dual conjugation verb, however more research is necessary to determine which of the conjugation categories it belongs to. O-d-.áak~ (∅ event; CV́C Hort/Pot) for O to be paralyzed with fright, shock or surprise; for O to panic, be incapable of action di-.eik Leer 1973: 02/210-212 O-d-.éik~ (∅ event; CV́C Hort/Pot) [does not occur] x̱at wudi.ák I was paralyzed with fear wudi.ák s/he was paralyzed with fear tlél x̱at wuda.áak I wasnʼt paralyzed with fear tlél wuda.áak s/he wasnʼt paralyzed with fear gux̱da.áak s/he will be paralyzed with fear tlél gux̱da.áak s/he wonʼt be paralyzed with fear (chʼa) g̱ada.ák (just) let him/her be paralyzed with fear uda.ákch s/he is paralyzed with fear (every time) tlél uda.ákch s/he hasnʼt been paralyzed with fear yet tlél aadé ux̱di.ági yé no way can s/he be paralyzed with fear ux̱da.ágin s/he would have been paralyzed with fear da.ákni if/when s/he is paralyzed with fear da.ákx̱ s/he is paralyzed with fear (regularly) x̱at wudi.éik. It paralyzed me / I was so shocked I couldnʼt act. [Story & Naish 1973: 145] Áa wudi.ék. (While climbing a high ladder, e.g.) he became incapable of going any further. [Leer 1973: 02/211] aaḵw (7) give orders, decide, plan, try try it, attempt it Note that in classical Tlingit, this verb had a thematic prefix (u-) which seems to be falling out of modern day speech, especially in the imperative form for this verb. This is indicated in the theme as (u)-. Alternate forms given here show one form with the thematic (u)- and one without, both of which are acceptable in modern speech. O-ka-(u)-S-∅-.aaḵw (na act) for S to try, attempt O ka-ya-.aaḵw Kana.aaḵw! / Kuna.aaḵw! Try it! Kanay.aaḵw! / Kunay.aaḵw! You all try it! Líl kee.aag̱úḵ! Donʼt try it! Líl keey.aag̱úḵ! Donʼt you all try it! kax̱wa.aaḵw I am trying it akoo.aaḵw s/he is trying it tlél kax̱wa.aaḵw Iʼm not trying it tlél akoo.aaḵw s/he isnʼt trying it yaa akuna.áḵw s/he is starting to try it kax̱waa.aaḵw I tried it akaawa.aaḵw s/he tried it tlél kax̱wa.aaḵw I didnʼt try it tlél akawu.aaḵw s/he didnʼt try it akakg̱wa.aaḵw s/he will try it tlél akakg̱wa.aaḵw s/he wonʼt try it akang̱a.aaḵw let him/her try it akuna.aaḵwch s/he tries it (every time) tlél akuna.aaḵwch s/he hasnʼt tried it yet tlél aadé akoong̱aa.aag̱u yé no way can s/he try it akoong̱a.aag̱ún s/he would have tried it akuna.aaḵwní if/when s/he tries it yoo akuya.aaḵwk s/he tries it (regularly) Akoo.aaḵw wé yéi jiné. Heʼs giving the job a try. [Leer 1976:121.] plan it O-ka-S-∅-.aaḵw~ (∅ act) for S to plan O ka-ya-.aaḵw Ka.áḵw! Plan it! Kay.áḵw! You all plan it! Líl kayi.aag̱úḵ! Donʼt plan it! Líl kayeey.aag̱úḵ! Donʼt you all plan it! kax̱wa.aaḵw I am planning it akoo.aaḵw s/he is planning it yaa akana.áḵw s/he is starting to plan it kax̱waa.áḵw I planned it akaawa.áḵw s/he planned it tlél kax̱wa.aaḵw I didnʼt plan it tlél akawu.aaḵw s/he didnʼt plan it akakg̱wa.áaḵw s/he will plan it tlél akakg̱wa.aaḵw s/he wonʼt plan it akag̱a.aaḵw let him/her plan it akoo.aaḵwch s/he plans it (every time) tlél akoo.aaḵwch s/he hasnʼt planned it yet tlél aadé akoog̱aa.aag̱u yé no way can s/he plan it akoog̱a.aag̱ún s/he would have planned it aka.áḵwni if/when s/he plans it aka.áḵwx̱ s/he plans it Has du ḵu.éexʼi has akaawa.áḵw. They have all the plans set for their party. [Leer 1976:121.] order him/her, give him/her instructions (esp. concerning work) át O-ji-ka-u-S-∅-.aaḵw~ (na act) for S to give O orders, instructions (esp. concerning work) ji-ka-ya-.aaḵw Át jikuna.aaḵw! Give him/her things to do! Át jikunay.aaḵw! You all give him/her things to do! Líl át jikayi.aag̱úḵ! Donʼt give him/her things to do! Líl át jikayeey.aag̱úḵ! Donʼt you all give him/her things to do! át jikoox̱a.aaḵw I am giving him/her things to do; I give him/her things to do át ajikoo.aaḵw s/he is giving him/her things to do; s/he gives him/her things to do át yaa ajikuna.áḵw s/he is starting to give him/her things to do át jikax̱waa.aaḵw I gave him/her things to do át ajikaawa.aaḵw s/he gave him/her things to do tlél át jikax̱wa.aaḵw I didnʼt give him/her things to do tlél át ajikawu.aaḵw s/he didnʼt give him/her things to do át ajikakg̱wa.áaḵw s/he will give him/her things to do tlél át ajikakg̱wa.aaḵw s/he wonʼt give him/her things to do át ajikang̱a.aaḵw let him/her give him/her things to do át ajikuna.áḵwch s/he gives him/her things to do (every time) tlél át ajikoona.áḵwch s/he hasnʼt given him/her things to do yet tlél aadé át ajikung̱aa.aag̱u yé no way can s/he give him/her things to do át ajikung̱a.aag̱ún s/he would have given him/her things to do át ajikuna.áḵwni if/when s/he gives him/her things to do át yoo ajikuya.áḵwk s/he gives him/her things to do (regularly) Át ajikung̱a.aag̱ún tlél ḵwá haat wugoot. She would have given him things to do but he didnʼt come. give him/her orders; command, instruct him/her át O-ka-S-∅-.aaḵw~ (na event) for S to give orders to, command, instruct O át + ka-ya-.aaḵw Át kana.aaḵw! Give him/her orders! Át kanay.aaḵw! You all give him/her orders! Líl át kayi.aag̱úḵ! Donʼt give him/her orders! Líl át kayeey.aag̱úḵ! Donʼt you all give him/her orders! [does not occur] át kax̱waa.aaḵw I gave him/her orders át akaawa.aaḵw s/he gave him/her orders tlél át kax̱wa.aaḵw I didnʼt give him/her orders tlél át akawu.aaḵw s/he didnʼt give him/her orders át kakḵwa.áaḵw I will give him/her orders át akakg̱wa.áaḵw s/he will give him/her orders tlél át kakḵwa.aaḵw I wonʼt give him/her orders tlél át akakg̱wa.aaḵw s/he wonʼt give him/her orders át kanḵa.aaḵw let me give him/her orders át akang̱a.aaḵw let him/her give him/her orders át kanx̱a.áḵwch I give him/her orders (every time) át akana.áḵwch s/he gives him/her orders (every time) tlél át koonx̱a.áḵwch I havenʼt given him/her orders yet tlél át akoona.áḵwch s/he hasnʼt given him/her orders yet tlél aadé át akoong̱aa.aag̱u yé no way can s/he give him/her orders át akoong̱a.aag̱ún s/he would have given him/her orders át akana.áḵwni if/when s/he gives him/her orders át yoo akaya.áḵwk s/he gives him/her orders (regularly) Át akaawa.aaḵw wé yéi jiné. Heʼs directing/supervising the job. [Leer 1976:121.] Át sh kawdi.aaḵw. Heʼs telling himself to do it (being his own boss). give him/her an opportunity to speak; give him/her directions as to what to say This is one of a group of verb themes sharing the stem -.aaḵw which in classical Tlingit had the thematic prefix (u-). This prefix seems to be falling out of modern day speech in some of the forms, and is indicated in the theme as (u)-. Alternate forms given here show one form with the thematic (u)- and one without, both of which are acceptable in modern speech. O-x̱ʼa-ka-(u)-S-∅-.aaḵw (na act) for S to give O an opportunity to speak; for S to give O directions as to what to say --- x̱ʼakuna.aaḵw! / x̱ʼakana.aaḵw Give him/her an opportunity to speak! x̱ʼakunay.aaḵw! / x̱ʼakanay.aaḵw You all give him/her an opportunity to speak! Líl yoo x̱ʼakee.aag̱úḵ! Donʼt give him/her an opportunity to speak! Líl yoo x̱ʼakay.aag̱úḵ! Donʼt you all give him/her an opportunity to speak! ax̱ʼakoo.aaḵw s/he is giving him/her an opportunity to speak x̱ʼakax̱waa.aaḵw I gave him/her an opportunity to speak ax̱ʼakaawa.aaḵw s/he gave him/her an opportunity to speak tlél ax̱ʼakawu.aaḵw s/he didnʼt give him/her an opportunity to speak ax̱ʼakakg̱wa.aaḵw s/he will give him/her an opportunity to speak tlél ax̱ʼakakg̱wa.aaḵw s/he wonʼt give him/her an opportunity to speak ax̱ʼakung̱a.aaḵw / ax̱ʼakang̱a.aaḵw let him/her give him/her an opportunity to speak ax̱ʼakuna.aaḵwch / ax̱ʼakana.aaḵwch s/he gives him/her an opportunity to speak (every time) tlél ax̱ʼakoona.aaḵwch s/he hasnʼt given him/her an opportunity to speak yet tlél aadé ax̱ʼakoong̱aa.aag̱u yé no way can s/he give him/her an opportunity to speak ax̱ʼakoong̱a.aag̱ún s/he would have given him/her an opportunity to speak ax̱ʼakuna.aaḵwní / ax̱ʼakana.aaḵwní if/when s/he gives him/her an opportunity to speak yoo ax̱ʼakaya.aaḵwk s/he gives him/her an opportunity to speak (regularly) Ax̱ʼakaawa.aaḵw yoo x̱ʼatánk ḵóot x̱ʼag̱ataaní. He asked him to say a few words (to the other tribe). decide about it; plan it yan~ O-ka-S-∅-.aaḵw~ (∅ motion) for S to make a decision about O; for S to finish planning O --- Yan ka.áḵw (dé)! Make a decision (now)! Yan kay.áḵw (dé)! You all make a decision (now)! Líl yan kayi.aag̱úḵ (tsá)! Donʼt make a decision (yet)! Líl yan kayeey.aag̱úḵ (tsá)! Donʼt you all make a decision (yet)! [does not occur] yánde yaa kanx̱a.áḵw Iʼm making a decision yánde yaa akana.áḵw s/heʼs making a decision yan kax̱waa.áḵw I made a decision yan akaawa.áḵw s/he made a decision tlél yan kax̱wa.aaḵw I didnʼt make a decision tlél yan akaawa.aaḵw s/he didnʼt make a decision yánde kakḵwa.áaḵw I will make a decision yánde akakg̱wa.áaḵw s/he will make a decision tlél yánde kakḵwa.aaḵw I wonʼt make a decision tlél yánde akakg̱wa.aaḵw s/he wonʼt make a decision yan kaḵa.aaḵw let me make a decision yan akag̱a.aaḵw let him/her make a decision yan koox̱a.aaḵwch I make a decision (every time) yan akoo.aaḵwch s/he makes a decision (every time) tlél yan koox̱a.aaḵwch I havenʼt made a decision yet tlél yan akoo.aaḵwch s/he hasnʼt made a decision yet tlél aadé yan kooḵaa.aag̱u yé no way can I make a decision tlél aadé yan akoog̱aa.aag̱u yé no way can s/he make a decision yan kooḵa.aag̱ún I would have made a decision yan akoog̱a.aag̱ún s/he would have made a decision yan kax̱a.áḵwni if/when I make a decision yan aka.áḵwni if/when s/he makes a decision [does not occur] order oneself to do it; make oneself do it át sh ji-ka-S-d-.aaḵw~ (na event) for S to make oneself do something --- Át sh jikanida.aaḵw! Make yourself do it! Át sh jikanayda.aaḵw! Make yourselves do it! Líl át sh jikayida.aag̱úḵ! Donʼt make yourself do it! Líl át sh jikayeeyda.aag̱úḵ! Donʼt make yourselves do it! [does not occur] át sh jikax̱wdi.aaḵw I made myself do it át sh jikawdi.aaḵw s/he made herself/himself do it tlél át sh jikawda.aaḵw s/he didnʼt make herself/himself do it át sh jikagux̱da.áaḵw s/he will make herself/himself do it tlél át sh jikagux̱da.aaḵw s/he wonʼt make herself/himself do it át sh jikanax̱da.aaḵw let him/her make himself/herself do it át sh jikanda.áḵwch s/he makes herself/himself do it (every time) tlél át sh jikoonda.áḵwch s/he hasnʼt made herself/himself do it yet tlél aadé át sh jikoonax̱di.aag̱u yé no way can s/he make herself/himself do it át sh jikoonax̱da.aag̱ún s/he would have made herself/himself do it át sh jikunda.áḵwní if/when s/he makes herself/himself do it át yoo sh jikadi.áḵwk s/he makes herself/himself do it (regularly) Du ée kei kg̱wakʼéi á́t sh jikunda.áḵwní. It will be good for him if he makes himself do it. aan1 (2) kind, good-looking kind, gentle O-tu-l-.aan (ga state) for O to be kind, gentle tu-li-.aan Itukla.aan! Be kind! Yee tukla.aan! You all be kind! x̱at tuli.aan I am kind tuli.aan s/he is kind tlél x̱at tool.aan Iʼm not kind tlél tool.aan s/he isnʼt kind [does not occur] [does not occur] kei x̱at tugux̱la.aan I will be kind kei tugux̱la.aan s/he will be kind tlél kei x̱at tugux̱la.aan I wonʼt be kind tlél kei tugux̱la.aan s/he wonʼt be kind x̱at tugax̱la.aan let me be kind tugax̱la.aan let him/her be kind [does not occur] [does not occur] [does not occur] [does not occur] tukla.aanní if/when s/he is kind kei tula.aanch s/he is kind (regularly) attractive, good-looking, pleasant-faced To apply this verb to a non-human, remove the ya- thematic prefix, as in: kasi.aan du naa.ádi "his clothes are attractive". O-ya-ka-s-.aan (ga state) for O to be attractive, good-looking, pleasant-faced ya-ka-si-.aan x̱at yaksi.aan I am good-looking yaksi.aan s/he is good-looking tlél x̱at yakoos.aan Iʼm not good-looking tlél yakoos.aan s/he isnʼt good-looking kei yakanas.aan s/he is starting to become good-looking yakawsi.aan s/he became good-looking tlél yakawus.aan s/he didnʼt become good-looking kei yakagux̱sa.aan s/he will be good-looking tlél kei yakagux̱sa.aan s/he wonʼt be good-looking tlél yakagoos.aanch s/he hasnʼt gotten to be good-looking yet yakagoox̱sa.aanín s/he would have been good-looking yakaksa.aanní if/when s/he becomes good-looking Du yáanáx̱ x̱at yaksi.aan. Iʼm better looking than he is. aat1 (18) go, walk, lead, gather together, go to bathroom, attack, appoint, let in, let out appoint, choose for a certain position (plural object) I a tóo daak O-S-s-.aat~ (∅ motion) for S to appoint (plural) O, choose O for a certain position a tóo + daak si-.aat A tóo daak has sa.á! Appoint them! Líl a tóo daak has isa.átjiḵ! Donʼt appoint them! [does not occur] a tóo daak has x̱wasi.át I appointed them a tóo daak has awsi.át s/he appointed them tlél a tóo daak has x̱wasa.aat I didnʼt appoint them tlél a tóo daak has awus.aat s/he didnʼt appoint them a tóo daak has agux̱sa.áat s/he will appoint them tlél a tóo daak has agux̱sa.aat s/he wonʼt appoint them a tóo daak has ax̱sa.aat let him/her appoint them a tóo daak has oos.aatch s/he appoints them (every time) tlél a tóo daak has oos.aatch s/he hasnʼt appointed them yet tlél aadé a tóo daak has oox̱si.aadi yé no way can s/he appoint them a tóo daak has oox̱sa.aadín s/he would have appointed them a tóo daak has as.átni if/when s/he appoints them a tóo daak has as.átch s/he appoints them (regularly) A tóo daak has wududzi.át. They were appointed. [Story & Naish 1973: 21] lead them yaa O-shu-S-∅-.aat~ (ga event) for S to lead (plural) O (especially by walking ahead) shu-ya-.aat Note that yaa occurs in every form except the perfective. This verb has a plural stem, meaning that multiple people or animals are being led. In the paradigm given here, the plural object pronoun has "them" is used. One could also use ḵaa "people", as in: ḵaa shoowa.aat "s/he led people". Another option is the object prefix ḵu- "people", as in: ḵushoowa.aat "s/he led people". For both of these, note that the third person object pronoun a- on the verb is dropped. If you want to indicate that animals are being led, omit the has/ḵaa/ḵu- and use: ashoowa.aat "s/he led them (animals)". Yaa (ha)s shuga.á! Lead them! Yaa (ha)s shugay.á! You all lead them! Líl has shuyi.aadíḵ! Donʼt lead them! Líl has shuyeey.aadíḵ! Donʼt you all lead them! [does not occur] yaa (ha)s shunx̱a.át I am leading them yaa (ha)s ashuna.át s/he is leading them has shux̱waa.aat I led them has ashoowa.aat s/he led them tlél has shux̱wa.aat I didnʼt lead them tlél has ashuwu.aat s/he didnʼt lead them yaa (ha)s shukḵwa.áat I will lead them yaa (ha)s ashukg̱wa.áat s/he will lead them tlél yaa (ha)s shukḵwa.aat I wonʼt lead them tlél yaa (ha)s ahsukg̱wa.aat s/he wonʼt lead them yaa (ha)s shukḵa.aat let me lead them yaa (ha)s ashukg̱a.aat let him/her lead them yaa (ha)s shukx̱a.átch I lead them (every time) yaa (ha)s ashuga.átch s/he leads them (every time) tlél yaa (ha)s shukx̱a.átch I havenʼt led them yet tlél yaa (ha)s ashuga.átch s/he hasnʼt led them yet tlél aadé yaa (ha)s ashukg̱waa.aadi yé no way can s/he lead them yaa (ha)s ashukg̱wa.aadín s/he would have led them yaa (ha)s ashuga.átni if/when s/he leads them kei (ha)s ashu.átch s/he leads them (regularly) go on foot (plural subject) II P-t~ S-∅-.aat~ (∅ motion) for (plural) S to walk, go (by walking or as a general term) to P ya-.aat Direction of Motion - The following are adverbial phrases that can be used with this particular conjugation of the verb ʼgo on footʼ to specify the direction of motion. Replace át/áx̱/aadé ʼarriving at Pʼ in the paradigm below with any of the following adverbs to change the direction of motion. P-t (~x̱~dei) arriving at P, coming to P yan (~yax̱~yándei) moving ashore, coming to rest, to a stop, setting down P-náx̱ yan (~yax̱~yándei) moving across P, to the other side of P neil (~neilx̱~neildéi) moving inside, coming home haat (~haax̱~haa(n)déi) coming here yóot (~yóox̱~yóodei) going away As seen in the paradigm below, forms ending in -x̱ are used in the repetetive imperfective; forms ending in -de are used in the progressive imperfective; and forms ending in -t / -0(plain) are used elsewhere. Át yi.á! You all go there! Líl áx̱ yi.aadíḵ! Donʼt you all go there! Líl át yeey.aadíḵ! Donʼt you all go there! [does not occur] aadé yaa ntoo.át we are going there aadé yaa nay.át you all are going there aadé yaa (ha)s na.át they are going there aadé yaa ana.át people are going there tlél aadé yaa ntoo.át weʼre not going there tlél aadé yaa nay.át you all are not going there tlél aadé (ha)s yaa una.át theyʼre not going there tlél aadé yaa oona.át nobody is going there át wutuwa.át we arrived there át yeey.át you all arrived there át has uwa.át they arrived there át aawa.át people arrived there tlél át wutoo.aat we didnʼt arrive there tlél át yeey.aat you all didnʼt arrive there tlél át has wu.aat they didnʼt arrive there tlél át awu.aat nobody arrived there wé át has wu.aadi aa the ones who arrived there aadé gax̱too.áat we will go there aadé gax̱yi.áat you all will go there aadé (ha)s gug̱a.áat they will go there aadé akg̱wa.áat people will go there tlél aadé gax̱too.aat we wonʼt go there tlél aadé gax̱yi.aat you all wonʼt go there tlél aadé (ha)s gug̱a.aat they wonʼt go there tlél aadé akg̱wa.aat people wonʼt go there át g̱atoo.aat let us go there át has g̱a.aat let them go there át too.aatch we go there (every time) át yeey.aatch you all go there (every time) át has u.aatch they go there (every time) át oo.aatch people go there (every time) tlél át too.aatch we havenʼt arrived there yet tlél át yeey.aatch you all havenʼt arrived there yet tlél át has u.aatch they havenʼt arrived there yet tlél át oo.aatch nobody has arrived there yet tlél aadé át has g̱waa.aadi yé no way can they get there át has g̱wa.aadín they would have gone there át has .átni if/when they go there áx̱ has .aat they go there (regularly) Tlél át awu.aat. Nobody arrived there; They (regular crowd) werenʼt there. Yax̱ iltʼéexʼ, tʼéexʼ kát aa uwa.át. When it froze, they walked over ice. Chʼa yeisú l unaliyéit has u.aatjí tsu x̱áaw tsu át yatán. They hadnʼt been going far when another log was lying there. Ách áwé du x̱ándáx̱ yóot aawa.át. This was why they left her. walking, going along there (of plural subjects) This is an example of a progressive epiaspectual paradigm (Leer, 91), which basically means that all forms are based on the progressive aspect. The progressive epiaspect is characterized by: 1)having the yaa preverb in all forms, 2)having no perfective form, and 3)denotes semantically a continuous transition from one location or state to another. P-x̱ yaa S-∅-.aat~ (ga motion) for (plural) S to be walking, going (by foot or as general term) along P (basically plural; see goot for singular) ya-.aat Áx̱ yaa gay.á! You all be walking along there! Líl áx̱ yaa yi.átjiḵ Donʼt you all be walking along there! [does not occur] áx̱ yaa ntoo.át weʼre walking along there áx̱ yaa (ha)s na.át they are walking along there [does not occur] áx̱ yaa (ha)s gug̱a.áat they will be walking along there tlél áx̱ yaa (ha)s gug̱a.aat they wonʼt be walking along there á́x̱ yaa (ha)s gag̱a.aat let them be walking along there áx̱ yaa (ha)s ga.átch they are walking along there (every time) tlél áx̱ yaa (ha)s goo.átch they havenʼt been walking along there yet tlél aadé áx̱ yaa (ha)s goog̱aa.aadi yé no way can they be walking along there áx̱ yaa (ha)s goog̱a.aadín they would have been walking along there áx̱ yaa (ha)s ga.átni if/when they are walking along there áx̱ yaa (ha)s ga.átch they are walking along there (regularly) Kag̱ít tóox̱ yaa s gag̱a.aat. Let them be walking through the darkness. Wé kag̱ít tóox̱ yaa ntoo.ádi awdlidées. As we walked along in the darkness, the moon shined bright. Wé dzískʼu tlein ítx̱ yaa na.át wé g̱ooch. The wolves are following behind the big moose. go on foot (plural subject) IX P-x̱ S-∅-.aat~ (g̱a motion) for (plural) S to walk, go (by walking or as a general term) down along P ya-.aat Direction of Motion - The following are adverbial phrases that can be used with this particular conjugation of the verb ʼgo on footʼ to specify the direction of motion. Replace yaa ʼdownʼ in the paradigm below with any of the following adverbs to change the direction of motion. yaa (deletes before aspect marker yei) moving down yaax̱ getting into canoe, boat, or other vehicle P-x̱ moving down along héenx̱ moving into the water P-náx̱ moving down by way of P, through P Áx̱ yaa g̱ay.á! You all walk down along it! Líl áx̱ yei yi.átjiḵ! Donʼt you all walk down along it! [does not occur] áx̱ yei ntoo.át we are walking down along it áx̱ yei nay.át you all are walking down along it áx̱ yei (ha)s na.át they are walking down along it áx̱ yei ana.át people are walking down along it tlél áx̱ yei ntoo.át weʼre not walking down along it tlél áx̱ yei nay.át you all are not walking down along it tlél áx̱ yei (ha)s una.át theyʼre not walking down along it tlél áx̱ yei oona.át nobody is walking down along it áx̱ wtuwa.aat we walked down along it áx̱ yeey.aat you all walked down along it áx̱ (ha)s woo.aat they walked down along it áx̱ aawa.aat people walked down along it tlél áx̱ wtoo.aat we didnʼt walk down along it tlél áx̱ yeey.aat you all didnʼt walk down along it tlél áx̱ (ha)s wu.aat they didnʼt walk down along it tlél áx̱ awu.aat nobody walked down along it wé áx̱ yaa (ha)s woo.aadi aa (has) the ones who walked down along it áx̱ yei gax̱too.áat we will walk down along it áx̱ yei gax̱yi.áat you all will walk down along it áx̱ yei has gug̱a.áat they will walk down along it áx̱ yei akg̱wa.áat people will walk down along it tlél áx̱ yei gax̱too.aat we wonʼt walk down along it tlél áx̱ yei gax̱yi.aat you all wonʼt walk down along it tlél áx̱ yei (ha)s gug̱a.aat they wonʼt walk down along it tlél áx̱ yei akg̱wa.aat nobody will walk down along it áx̱ yaa g̱aax̱too.aat let us walk down along it áx̱ yaa (ha)s g̱aag̱a.aat let them walk down along it áx̱ yaa g̱atoo.átch we walk down along it (every time) áx̱ yaa g̱ay.átch you all walk down along it (every time) áx̱ yaa (ha)s g̱a.átch they walk down along it (every time) áx̱ yaa ag̱a.átch people walk down along it (every time) tlél áx̱ yaa g̱atoo.átch we havenʼt walked down along it yet tlél áx̱ yaa g̱ay.átch you all havenʼt walked down along it yet tlél áx̱ yaa (ha)s g̱wa.átch they havenʼt walked down along it yet tlél áx̱ yaa ag̱wa.átch nobody has walked down along it yet tlél aadé áx̱ yaa (ha)s g̱waag̱aa.aadi yé no way can they walk down along it áx̱ yaa (ha)s g̱waag̱a.aadín they would have walked down along it áx̱ yaa (ha)s g̱a.átni if/when they walk down along it áx̱ yei (ha)s .átch they walk down along it (regularly) Anax̱ áyá yaa ag̱a.átjeen yóo aan tayeedéi. This is what they came down on to go underneath the village. Sʼootaat áwé yaax̱ has woo.aat. At dawn they went aboard. go on foot (plural subject) V N jikaadáx̱ ya-u-S-∅-.aat~ (∅ motion) for (plural) S to get out of Nʼs way ya-.aat Direction of Motion - The following are adverbial phrases that can be used with this particular conjugation of the verb ʼgo on footʼ to specify the direction of motion. Replace du jikaadáx̱ ʼgetting out of his/her wayʼ in the paradigm below with any of the following adverbs to change the direction of motion. P-x̱ moving circuitously, obliquely along P N daax̱ circling around N haandéi moving over this way (toward speaker) héidei moving over that way (away from speaker) N jikaadáx̱ / N jikaax̱ getting out of Nʼs way P-náx̱ moving circuitously, obliquely through P N eetíx̱ taking Nʼs place; trading places with N; missing N Du jikaadáx̱ yay.á! You all get out of his/her way! Líl du jikaadáx̱ yaa yi.átjiḵ! Donʼt you all get out of his/her way! [does not occur] du jikaadáx̱ yaa ntoo.át we are getting out of his/her way du jikaadáx̱ yaa nay.át you all are getting out of his/her way du jikaadáx̱ yaa (ha)s na.át they are getting out of his/her way du jikaadáx̱ yaa ana.át people are getting out of his/her way [does not occur] du jikaadáx̱ yawtuwa.át we got out of his/her way du jikaadáx̱ yayeey.át you all got out of his/her way du jikaadáx̱ has yaawa.át they got out of his/her way du jikaadáx̱ ayaawa.át people got out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̱ yawtoo.aat we didnʼt get out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̱ yayeey.aat you all didnʼt get out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̱ has yawu.aat they didnʼt get out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̱ ayawu.aat nobody got out of his/her way du jikaadáx̱ yagax̱too.áat we will get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̱ yagax̱yee.áat you all will get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̱ has yakg̱wa.áat they will get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̱ ayakg̱wa.áat people will get out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̱ yagax̱too.aat we wonʼt get out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̱ yagax̱yi.aat you all wonʼt get out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̱ has yakg̱wa.aat they wonʼt get out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̱ ayakg̱wa.aat people wonʼt get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̱ yax̱too.aat let us get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̱ has yag̱a.aat let them get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̱ yatoo.átch we get out of his/her way (every time) du jikaadáx̱ yay.átch you all get out of his/her way (every time) du jikaadáx̱ has woo.átch they get out of his/her way (every time) du jikaadáx̱ awoo.átch people get out of his/her way (every time) tlél du jikaadáx̱ yatoo.aatch we havenʼt gotten out of his/her way yet tlél du jikaadáx̱ yay.aatch you all havenʼt gotten out of his/her way yet tlél du jikaadáx̱ has woo.aatch they havenʼt gotten out of his/her way yet tlél du jikaadáx̱ awoo.aatch people havenʼt gotten out of his/her way yet tlél aadé du jikaadáx̱ has yag̱waa.aadi yé no way can they get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̱ has woog̱a.aadín they would have gotten out of his/her way du jikaadáx̱ has ya.átni if/when they get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̱ yaa (ha)s .átch they get out of his/her way (regularly) Chʼu tle tláakw áwé ḵa wé áx̱ ayaawa.adi yéix̱ yaa nagút. She went quickly and along where people had walked. Tle a kanax̱ has yaawa.át. They went over it. Nasʼgiyeekáxʼ a kaanáx̱ has yaawa.át. They walked for three days. go on foot (plural subject) III gági S-∅-.aat~ (∅ motion) for (plural) S to emerge, walk out into the open ya-.aat Direction of Motion - The following are adverbial phrases that can be used with this particular conjugation of the verb ʼgo on footʼ to specify the direction of motion. Replace gági ʼcoming outʼ in the paradigm below with any of the following adverbs to change the direction of motion. N yáa coming up to N N g̱unayáa separating from N N shukáxʼ getting ahead of N gági emerging, coming out into the open dáag̱i coming out of the water héeni going to the sea; getting into the water g̱unayéi / g̱unéi starting off, beginning to go P-x̱ moving in place at P, trying to move while stuck at P Gági yi.á! You all come out! Líl gági yeey.aadíḵ! Donʼt you all come out! [does not occur] gági yaa ntoo.át we are coming out gági yaa nay.át you all are coming out gági yaa (ha)s na.át they are coming out gági yaa ana.át people are coming out tlél gági yaa ntoo.át weʼre not coming out tlél gági yaa nay.át you all are not coming out tlél gági (ha)s yaa una.át theyʼre not coming out tlél gági oona.át nobody is coming out gági wutuwa.át we came out gági yeey.át you all came out gági has uwa.át they came out gági aawa.át people came out tlél gági wutoo.aat we didnʼt come out tlél gági yeey.aat you all didnʼt come out tlél gági (ha)s woo.aat they didnʼt come out tlél gági awu.aat nobody came out wé gági (ha)s wu.aadi aa the ones who came out gági gax̱too.áat we will come out gági gax̱yi.áat you all will come out gági (ha)s gug̱a.áat they will come out gági akg̱wa.áat people will come out tlél gági gax̱too.aat we wonʼt come out tlél gági gax̱yi.aat you all wonʼt come out tlél gági (ha)s gug̱a.aat they wonʼt come out tlél gági akg̱wa.aat nobody will come out gági g̱atoo.aat let us come out gági (ha)s g̱a.aat let them come out gági too.aatch we come out (every time) gági yeey.aatch you all come out (every time) gági (ha)s u.aatch they come out (every time) gági oo.aatch people come out (every time) tlél gági too.aatch we havenʼt come out yet tlél gági yeey.aatch you all havenʼt come out yet tlél gági has u.aatch they havenʼt come out yet tlél gági oo.aatch nobody has come out yet tlél aadé gági (ha)s g̱waa.aadi yé no way can they come out gági (ha)s g̱wa.aadín they would have come out gági (ha)s .átni if/when they come out gági (ha)s .átx̱ they come out (repeatedly) Du daadéi g̱unayéi a.áat. They began to gather around him. go to the bathroom (plural subject) VII Much like the English phrase "go to the bathroom", gánde (ha)s woo.aat is a euphemism for urinating and/or defecating. gánde S-∅-.aat~ (na motion) for (plural) S to go to the bathroom ya-.aat Gánde nay.á! You all go to the bathroom! Líl gánde yoo yi.átgiḵ! Donʼt you all go to the bathroom! Líl gánde yeey.aadíḵ! Donʼt you all go to the bathroom! [does not occur] gánde yaa (ha)s na.át they are going to the bathroom gánde wtuwa.aat we went to the bathroom gánde (ha)s woo.aat they went to the bathroom tlél gánde wtoo.aat we didnʼt go to the bathroom tlél gánde (ha)s wu.aat they didnʼt go to the bathroom wé gánde (ha)s wu.aadi aa the ones who went to the bathroom gánde (ha)s gug̱a.áat they will go to the bathroom tlél gánde (ha)s gug̱a.aat they wonʼt go to the bathroom gánde (ha)s nag̱a.aat let them go to the bathroom gánde (ha)s na.átch they go to the bathroom (every time) tlél gánde (ha)s una.átch they havenʼt gone to the bathroom yet tlél aadé gánde (ha)s nag̱waa.aadi yé no way can they go to the bathroom gánde (ha)s nag̱wa.aadín they would have gone to the bathroom gánde (ha)s na.átni if/when they go to the bathroom gánde yoo (ha)s ya.átk they go to the bathroom (regularly) go on foot (plural subject) VI a-ya-u-S-d-.aat~ (∅ motion) for (plural) S to turn back, go back (by walking or as general term) a-ya-di-.aat -- turn back, return, retreat, go back kei escape, flee Ayeeda.á! You all turn back! Líl ayeeda.átx̱iḵ Donʼt you all turn back! [does not occur] yaa ayantuda.át we are turning back yaa ayanayda.át you all are turning back yaa (ha)s ayanda.át they are turning back yaa ayandu.át people are turning back [does not occur] ayawtudi.át we turned back ayaydi.át you all turned back has ayawdi.át they turned back ayawduwa.át people turned back tlél ayawtuda.aat we didnʼt turn back tlél ayayda.aat you all didnʼt turn back tlél has ayawda.aat they didnʼt turn back tlél ayawdu.aat (check prefix combos) nobody turned back wé has ayawdi.adi aa the ones who turned back ayagax̱tuda.áat we will turn back ayagax̱yida.áat you all will turn back has ayagux̱da.áat they will turn back ayagux̱du.áat people will turn back tlél ayagax̱tuda.aat we wonʼt turn back tlél ayagax̱yida.aat you all wonʼt turn back tlél has ayagux̱da.aat they wonʼt turn back tlél ayagax̱du.aat nobody will turn back ayax̱tuda.aat let us turn back has ayax̱da.aat let them turn back ayatuda.átch we turn back (every time) ayayda.átch you all turn back (every time) has ayada.átch they turn back (every time) ayadu.átch people turn back (every time) tlél ayawtuda.aatch we havenʼt turned back yet tlél ayayda.aatch you all havenʼt turned back yet tlél has awooda.aatch they havenʼt turned back yet tlél awoodu.aatch nobody has turned back yet tlél aadé has awux̱di.aadi yé no way can they turn back has awux̱da.aadín they would have turned back has ayada.átni if/when they turn back has ayada.átx̱ they turn back (regularly) Dé du náḵ ayagux̱da.at aa du x̱oonxʼí áwé át náḵ wé a yeexʼ du náḵ akg̱wa.at hídi. The relatives who were going to leave her were standing by her in the house they were lieaving her in. go on foot (plural subject) VII P-dé S-∅-.aat~ (na motion) for (plural) S to walk, go (by walking or as a general term) to P ya-.aat Note that -g̱aa takes the opposite tone of the final syllable of the noun that it attaches to. Hence: kanatʼág̱aa "(going) after blueberries", but shaawg̱áa "(going) after gumboots". Direction of Motion - The following are adverbial phrases that can be used with this particular conjugation of the verb ʼgo on footʼ to specify the direction of motion. Replace aadé ʼtoward thereʼ in the paradigm below with any of the following adverbs to change the direction of motion. -- moving (along) P-t moving around, about P P-dé(i) moving toward P P-dáx̱ moving away from P P-náx̱ moving by way of P yux̱ moving out of house P-náḵ leaving P behind P-g̱aa going to get P Aadé nay.á! You all go there! Líl aadé yoo yi.átgiḵ! Donʼt you all go there! Líl aadé yeey.aadíḵ! Donʼt you all go there! [does not occur] aadé yaa ntoo.át we are going there aadé yaa nay.át you all are going there aadé yaa (ha)s na.át they are going there aadé yaa ana.át people are going there tlél aadé yaa ntoo.át weʼre not going there tlél aadé yaa nay.át you all are not going there tlél aadé yaa (ha)s una.át theyʼre not going there tlél aadé yaa oona.át nobody is going there [does not occur] aadé wtuwa.aat we went there aadé yeey.aat you all went there aadé (ha)s woo.aat they went there aadé aawa.aat people went there tlél aadé wtoo.aat we didnʼt go there tlél aadé yeey.aat you all didnʼt go there tlél aadé (ha)s wu.aat they didnʼt go there tlél aadé awu.aat nobody went there wé aadé (ha)s wu.aadi aa the ones who went there aadé gax̱too.áat we will go there aadé gax̱yi.áat you all will go there aadé (ha)s gug̱a.áat they will go there aadé akg̱wa.áat people will go there tlél aadé gax̱too.aat we wonʼt go there tlél aadé gax̱yi.aat you all wonʼt go there tlél aadé (ha)s gug̱a.aat they wonʼt go there tlél aadé akg̱wa.aat nobody will go there aadé nax̱too.aat let us go there aadé (ha)s nag̱a.aat let them go there aadé ntoo.átch we go there (every time) aadé nay.átch you all go there (every time) aadé (ha)s na.átch they go there (every time) aadé ana.átch people go there (every time) tlél aadé ntoo.átch we havenʼt gone there yet tlél aadé nay.átch you all havenʼt gone there yet tlél aadé (ha)s una.átch they havenʼt gone there yet tlél aadé oona.átch nobody has gone there yet tlél aadé aadé (ha)s nag̱waa.aadi yé no way can they go there aadé (ha)s nag̱wa.aadín they would have gone there aadé (ha)s na.átni if/when they go there aadé yoo (ha)s ya.átk they go there (regularly) Chʼu tle, chʼu yaa has na.ádi áwé, chʼu tle ḵaa x̱oot has uwa.át. Then, while they were walking along then they came upon people. A daat aawa.aat. People are walking around on it. Lingítch aadéi s at in yé, yú heentak ádi tsu aadéi kéi s ashátji yé ḵa yá át woo.aadi át, yá héen x̱ukaanáx̱ aa aadéi s a.eeni yé áwé wdudzikóo ḵa yú dáaḵt woo.aadi át x̱á. Tlingits knew how to hunt things, those sea mammals too, and how to catch those animals that walked, how to harvest those on the sea and those that walked inland. Yá aan tayeedéi, téil kagánee káaxʼ áyú ana.átch, yá aan tayeedéi. They would go underneath the village in a grotto, by the light of sapwood, underneath the village. Sagú yáx̱ ḵaa yayík du.ax̱ji nuch héendei yáa ana.ádi. Their voices would sound happy when they went to the sea. Dleeyg̱áa áwé aadéi aawa.aat. They went for meat. Tlél tsu naliyéidei s wu.aadí áwé x̱áaw át yatán. They hadnʼt gone very far when a log was lying there. go on foot (plural subject) I kei S-∅-.aat~ (∅ motion) for (plural) S to walk up, go up (by walking or as a general term) ya-.aat Note that there is no "yaa" preverb in the progressive imperfective form with this particular group of adverbs. Direction of Motion - The following are adverbial phrases that can be used with this particular conjugation of the verb ʼgo on footʼ to specify the direction of motion. Replace kei "up" in the paradigm below with any of the following adverbs to change the direction of motion. kei moving up ux̱ kei moving out of control, blindly, amiss; going the wrong way yei getting out of a canoe, boat, vehicle yeeḵ / yeiḵ / eeḵ moving down; moving toward beach, shore daaḵ moving up from beach, back away from open, inland daak moving out to sea, into open, onto fire ḵux̱ / ḵúx̱dei (requires d- element) returning, going/coming back Kei yi.á! You all go up! Líl kei yi.átjiḵ! Donʼt you all go up! Líl kei yeey.aadíḵ! Donʼt you all go up! [does not occur] kei ntoo.át we are going up kei nay.át you all are going up kei (ha)s na.át they are going up kei ana.át people are going up tlél kei ntoo.át weʼre not going up tlél kei nay.át you all are not going up tlél kei (ha)s una.át theyʼre not going up tlél kei oona.át nobody is going up kei wutuwa.át we went up kei yeey.át you all went up kei (ha)s uwa.át they went up kei aawa.át people went up tlél kei wutoo.aat we didnʼt go up tlél kei yeey.aat you all didnʼt go up tlél kei (ha)s wu.aat they didnʼt go up tlél kei awu.aat nobody went up wé kei (ha)s wu.aadi aa the ones who went up kei gax̱too.áat we will go up kei gax̱yi.áat you all will go up kei (ha)s gug̱a.áat they will go up kei akg̱wa.áat people will go up tlél kei gax̱too.aat we wonʼt go up tlél kei gax̱yi.aat you all wonʼt go up tlél kei (ha)s gug̱a.aat they wonʼt go up tlél kei akg̱wa.aat nobody will go up kei g̱atoo.aat let us go up kei (ha)s g̱a.aat let them go up kei too.aatch we go up (every time) kei yeey.aatch you all go up (every time) kei has u.aatch they go up (every time) kei oo.aatch people go up (every time) tlél kei too.aatch we havenʼt gone up yet tlél kei yeey.aatch you all havenʼt gone up yet tlél kei (ha)s u.aatch they havenʼt gone up yet tlél kei oo.aatch nobody has gone up yet tlél aadé kei (ha)s g̱waa.aadi yé no way can they go up kei (ha)s g̱wa.aadín they would have gone up kei (ha)s .átni if/when they go up kei (ha)s .átch they go up (regularly) Ách áwé áa kei has uwa.át tsu. So they moved up there again. ḵux̱ yawdi.át tsu. They left again. Daak ana.át. People are coming out. attack someone ji-S-d-.aat~ (∅ motion) for (plural) S to attack, assault, fall upon ji-di-.aat To indicate who is being attacked, use: N éet~ ʼto Nʼ. For example: Haa éet has jiwdi.át. ʼThey attacked usʼ. It is also acceptable to use this verb without specifying who was attacked. For example: Has jiwdi.át ʼThey attackedʼ. Therefore, the N éet~ is not given in the theme above. ḵaa éet jeeyda.á! You all attack someone! Líl ḵaa éex̱ jeeyda.aadíḵ! Donʼt you all attack anyone! [does not occur] ḵaa éede yaa jintuda.át weʼre attacking someone ḵaa éede yaa (ha)s jinda.át theyʼre attacking people ḵaa éet jiwtudi.át we attacked someone ḵaa éet has jiwdi.át they attacked someone tlél ḵaa éet jiwtuda.aat we didnʼt attack anyone tlél ḵaa éet has jiwda.aat they didnʼt attack anyone ḵaa eedé jigax̱tuda.áat we will attack someone ḵaa eedé has jigux̱da.áat they will attack someone tlél ḵaa eedé jigax̱tuda.aat we wonʼt attack anyone tlél ḵaa eedé (ha)s jigux̱da.aat they wonʼt attack anyone ḵaa éet jix̱tuda.aat let us attack someone ḵaa éet has jix̱da.aat let them attack someone [does not occur] tlél ḵaa éet jituda.aatch we havenʼt attacked anyone yet tlél ḵaa éet has jeeda.aatch they havenʼt attacked anyone yet tlél aadé ḵaa éet jix̱tudi.aadi yé no way can we attack someone tlél aadé ḵaa éet has jeex̱di.aadi yé no way can they attack someone ḵaa éet jix̱tuda.aadín we would have attacked someone ḵaa éet has jeex̱da.aadín they would have attacked someone ḵaa éex̱ jituda.aat we attack people (regularly) ḵaa éex̱ has jida.aat they attack people (regularly) ḵaa éet has jida.átni if/when they attack people Xʼwás teen ḵaa éet has jiwdi.át. They attacked people with clubs. go on foot (plural subject) VIII ḵut S-∅-.aat~ (ga motion) for (plural) S to get lost (on foot) ya-.aat -- taking off, starting off P-dáx̱ taking off from P; starting off from P ḵut going astray, getting lost [does not occur] Líl ḵut kei yi.átjiḵ! Donʼt you all get lost! [does not occur] ḵut kei ntoo.át we are getting lost ḵut kei nay.át you all are getting lost ḵut kei (ha)s na.át they are getting lost ḵut kei ana.át people are getting lost [does not occur] [does not occur] ḵut wutuwa.aat we got lost ḵut yeey.aat you all got lost ḵut has woo.aat they got lost ḵut aawa.aat people got lost tlél ḵut wutoo.aat we didnʼt get lost tlél ḵut yeey.aat you all didnʼt get lost tlél ḵut has wu.aat they didnʼt get lost tlél ḵut aawu.aat nobody got lost ḵut kei gax̱too.áat we will get lost ḵut kei gax̱yi.áat you all will get lost ḵut kei (ha)s gug̱a.áat they will get lost ḵut kei akg̱wa.áat people will get lost tlél ḵut kei gax̱too.aat we wonʼt get lost tlél ḵut kei gax̱yi.aat you all wonʼt get lost tlél ḵut kei (ha)s gug̱a.aat they wonʼt get lost tlél ḵut kei akg̱wa.aat nobody will get lost ḵut gax̱too.aat let us get lost ḵut has gag̱a.aat let them get lost ḵut gatoo.átch we get lost (every time) ḵut gay.átch you all get lost (every time) ḵut has ga.átch they get lost (every time) ḵut aga.átch people get lost (every time) tlél ḵut gatoo.átch we havenʼt gotten lost yet tlél ḵut gay.átch you all havenʼt gotten lost yet tlél ḵut has goo.átch they havenʼt gotten lost yet tlél ḵut agoo.átch nobody has gotten lost yet tlél aadé ḵut has gag̱waa.aadi yé no way can they get lost ḵut has gag̱wa.aadín they would have gotten lost ḵut has ga.átni if/when they get lost ḵut kei (ha)s .átch they get lost (regularly) go back (plural subject) I ḵux̱~ S-d-.aat~ (∅ motion) for (plural) S to go back, return --- ḵux̱ yida.á! You all go back! Líl ḵux̱ yida.átjíḵ! Donʼt you all go back! [does not occur] ḵúx̱de yaa (ha)s nada.át they are beginning to go back ḵux̱ wutudi.át we went back ḵux̱ has wudi.át they went back tlél ḵux̱ wutuda.aat we didnʼt go back tlél ḵux̱ has wuda.aat they didnʼt go back ḵúx̱de has gux̱da.áat they are going to go back tlél ḵúx̱de has gux̱da.aat they arenʼt going to go back (chʼa) ḵux̱ has g̱ada.aat (just) let them go back ḵux̱ has uda.aatch they go back (every time) tlél ḵux̱ has uda.aatch they havenʼt gone back yet tlél aadé ḵux̱ has ux̱di.aadi yé no way can they go back ḵux̱ has ux̱da.aadín they would have gone back ḵux̱ has da.átni if/when they go back ḵux̱ has da.átch they go back (regularly) ḵux̱ has wuda.aadí has jigax̱duḵéi. If they go back, theyʼll get paid. let in (esp. animal); welcome in, receive (plural object) II neil~ O-S-s-.aat~ (∅ motion) for S to let in, welcome in (plural) O si-.aat Neil has sa.á! Let them in! Líl neilx̱ has isa.aadíḵ! Donʼt let them in! [does not occur] neil has x̱wasi.át I let them in neil has awsi.át s/he let them in tlél neil has x̱wasa.aat I didnʼt let them in tlél neil has awus.aat s/he didnʼt let them in neildé has agux̱sa.áat s/he will let them in tlél neildé has agux̱sa.aat s/he wonʼt let them in neil has ax̱sa.aat let him/her let them in neil has oos.aatch s/he lets them in (every time) tlél neil has oos.aatch s/he hasnʼt let them in yet tlél aadé neil has oox̱si.aadi yé no way can s/he let them in neil has oox̱sa.aadín s/he would have let them in neil has as.átni if/when s/he lets them in neilx̱ has as.aat s/he lets them in (regularly) Keitlxʼ neil wududzi.át. They let the dogs in. [Story & Naish 1973: 124] gather together, assemble, congregate (esp. for meetings) woosh kaanáx̱ S-d-.aat~ (ga event) for (plural) S to assemble, congregate, gather together (for meetings) woosh kaa-nax̱ + di-.aat Woosh kaanáx̱ gayda.á! You all gather together! Líl woosh kaanáx̱ kei yda.átjiḵ! Donʼt you all gather together! [does not occur] woosh kaanáx̱ kei ntuda.át we are beginning to gather together woosh kaanáx̱ kei (ha)s nada.át they are beginning to gather together woosh kaanáx̱ wutudi.aat we gathered together woosh kaanáx̱ has wudi.aat they gathered together tlél woosh kaanáx̱ wutuda.aat we didnʼt gather together tlél woosh kaanáx̱ has wuda.aat they didnʼt gather together woosh kaanáx̱ kei gax̱tuda.áat we will gather together woosh kaanáx̱ kei (ha)s gug̱a.áat they will gather together tlél woosh kaanáx̱ kei gax̱tuda.aat we wonʼt gather together tlél woosh kaanáx̱ kei (ha)s gug̱a.aat they wonʼt gather together woosh kaanáx̱ gax̱tuda.aat let us gather together woosh kaanáx̱ has gax̱da.aat let them gather together woosh kaanáx̱ gatuda.átch we gather together (every time) woosh kaanáx̱ has gada.átch they gather together (every time) tlél woosh kaanáx̱ gatuda.átch we havenʼt gathered together yet tlél woosh kaanáx̱ has gada.átch they havenʼt gathered together yet tlél aadé woosh kaanáx̱ gax̱tudi.aadi yé no way can we gather together tlél aadé woosh kaanáx̱ has gux̱di.aadi yé no way can they gather together woosh kaanáx̱ gax̱tuda.aadín we would have gagthered together woosh kaanáx̱ has gux̱da.aadín they would have gagthered together woosh kaanáx̱ gatuda.átni if/when we gather together woosh kaanáx̱ has gada.átni if/when they gather together woosh kaanáx̱ kei tuda.átch we gather together (regularly) woosh kaanáx̱ kei (ha)s da.átch they gather together (regularly) gather, assemble, congregate (esp. for meetings) II woosh x̱oo-t~ S-d-.aat~ (∅ motion) for S to assemble, congregate, gather together (for meetings) --- Woosh and wooch seem to be interchangeable here. Woosh x̱oot yida.á! You all come together! Líl woosh x̱oox̱ yida.aadíḵ! Donʼt you all come together! [does not occur] woosh x̱oodé yaa ntuda.át we are coming together woosh x̱oodé yaa (ha)s nada.át they are coming together woosh x̱oot wutudi.át we came together woosh x̱oot has wudi.át they came together tlél woosh x̱oot wutuda.aat we didnʼt come together tlél woosh x̱oot has wuda.aat they didnʼt come together woosh x̱oodé gax̱tuda.áat we will come together woosh x̱oodé has gux̱da.áat they will come together tlél woosh x̱oodé gax̱tuda.aat we wonʼt come together tlél woosh x̱oodé has gux̱da.aat they wonʼt come together woosh x̱oot g̱atuda.aat let us come together woosh x̱oot has g̱ada.aat let them come together woosh x̱oot tuda.aatch we come together (every time) woosh x̱oot has uda.aatch they come together (every time) tlél woosh x̱oot tuda.aatch we havenʼt come together yet tlél woosh x̱oot has uda.aatch they havenʼt come together yet tlél aadé woosh x̱oot g̱atudi.aadi yé no way can we come together tlél aadé woosh x̱oot has ux̱di.aadi yé no way can they come together woosh x̱oot g̱atuda.aadín we would have come together woosh x̱oot has ux̱da.aadín they would have come together woosh x̱oot tuda.átni if/when we come together woosh x̱oot has da.átni if/when they come together woosh x̱oox̱ tuda.aat we come together (regularly) woosh x̱oox̱ has da.aat they come together (regularly) bend over, lean down (plural subject) yínde sh ka-S-l-.aat~ (na motion) for (plural) S to bend over, lean down --- Yínde sh kanayil.á! You all bend over! Líl yínde yoo sh kayil.átgiḵ! Donʼt you all bend over! [does not occur] yínde yaa has sh kanal.át they are bending over slowly yínde sh kawtudli.aat we bent over yínde has sh kawdli.aat they bent over tlél yínde sh kawtool.aat we didnʼt bend over tlél yínde has sh kawul.aat they didnʼt bend over yínde has sh kakg̱wal.áat they will bend over tlél yínde has sh kakg̱wal.aat they wonʼt bend over yínde has sh kang̱al.aat let them bend over yínde has sh kanal.átch they bend over (every time) tlél yínde has sh koonal.átch they havenʼt bent over yet tlél aadé yínde has sh koonax̱dli.aadi yé no way can they bend over yínde has sh koong̱al.aadín they would have bent over yínde has sh kanal.átni if/when they bend over yínde yoo has sh kadli.átk they bend over (regularly) Wóosh tin yínde sh kawtool.aadí woosh yát sh kawtuditʼíx̱ʼ. We bent over at the same time and knocked heads. aat2 (17) think, give, take, carry, lie2, speak, turn, change mind think over, consider, make up oneʼs mind about (plural subject) N daa yoo tu-S-l-.aat~ (∅ act) for (plural) S to think over, consider, make up oneʼs mind about N a daa + tu-yali-.aat A daa yoo teeyla.át! You all think about it! Líl a daa yoo tuyla.átgiḵ! Donʼt you all think about it! a daa yoo tutuli.átk we think about it; we are thinking about it a daa yoo tuyli.átk you all think about it; you all are thinking about it a daa yoo (ha)s tuli.átk they think about it; they are thinking about it [does not occur] tlél a daa yoo tutula.átk we donʼt think about it; weʼre not thinking about it tlél a daa yoo tuyla.átk you all donʼt think about it; you all are not thinking about it tlél a daa yoo (ha)s tool.átk they donʼt think about it; they arenʼt thinking about it tlél a daa yoo tudul.átk nobody thinks about it; nobody is thinking about it [does not occur] a daa yoo tuwtuli.át we thought about it a daa yoo tuyeeyli.át you all thought about it a daa yoo (ha)s tuwli.át they thought about it a daa yoo tuwdudli.át people thought about it tlél a daa yoo tuwtula.aat we didnʼt think about it tlél a daa yoo tuyeeyla.aat you all didnʼt think about it tlél a daa yoo (ha)s tuwul.aat they didnʼt think about it tlél a daa yoo tuwdul.aat nobody thought about it a daa yoo tugax̱tula.áat we will think about it a daa yoo tugax̱yila.áat you all will think about it a doo yoo (ha)s tugux̱la.áat they will think about it a daa yoo tugax̱dul.áat people will think about it tlél a daa yoo tugax̱tula.aat we wonʼt think about it tlél a daa yoo tugax̱yila.aat you all wonʼt think about it tlél a daa yoo (ha)s tugux̱la.aat they wonʼt think about it tlél a daa yoo tugax̱dul.aat people wonʼt think about it a daa yoo tux̱tula.aat let us think about it [does not occur] tlél a daa yoo tutula.aatch we havenʼt thought about it yet tlél a daa yoo tuyla.aatch you all havenʼt thought about it yet tlél a daa yoo (ha)s tool.aatch they havenʼt thought about it yet tlél a daa yoo tudul.aatch nobody has thought about it yet tlél aadé a daa yoo (ha)s toox̱li.aadi yé no way can they think about it a daa yoo toox̱la.aadín they would have thought about it a daa yoo (ha)s tula.átni if/when they think about it a daa yoo (ha)s tuli.átk they think about it (regularly) change oneʼs mind; think it over and reconsider, be converted (plural subject) N daatx̱ ḵux̱ tu-S-d-l-.aat~ (∅ motion) for (plural) S to change mind about N; for (plural) S to think over and reconsider N ḵux̱ tu-dli-.aat Leer 1973: 06/51 A daatx̱ ḵux̱ tuyil.át! Change your minds about it! Líl a daatx̱ ḵux̱ tuyil.átjiḵ! Donʼt change your minds about it! [does not occur] a daatx̱ ḵux̱ tuwtudli.át we changed our minds about it a daatx̱ ḵux̱ has tuwdli.át they changed their minds about it tlél a daatx̱ ḵux̱ tuwtool.aat we didnʼt change our minds about it tlél a daatx̱ ḵux̱ has tuwul.aat they didnʼt change their minds about it a daatx̱ ḵúx̱de has tukg̱wal.áat they will change their minds about it tlél a daatx̱ ḵúx̱de has tukg̱wal.aat they wonʼt change their minds about it (chʼa) a daatx̱ ḵux̱ has tug̱al.aat (just) let them change their minds about it a daatx̱ ḵux̱ has tool.aatch they change their minds about it (every time) tlél a daatx̱ ḵux̱ has tool.aatch they havenʼt changed their minds about it yet tlél aadé a daatx̱ ḵux̱ has tux̱wdli.aadi yé no way can they change their minds about it a daatx̱ ḵux̱ has tug̱wal.aadín they would have changed their minds about it a daatx̱ ḵux̱ has tul.átni if/when they change their minds about it a daatx̱ ḵux̱ has tul.átch they change their minds about it (regularly) ḵux̱ has toowdli.át. They were converted (changed their thinking). [Story & Naish 1973: 55] Alʼóon has gug̱aḵoox̱ú a daatx̱ ḵux̱ has toowdli.át. When they were going to go hunting, they changed their minds. button it up aanáx̱ O-ka-S-l-.aat~ (∅ act) for S to button up O A-nax̱ + ka-li-.aat Aanáx̱ kala.á! Button it up! Aanáx̱ kayla.á! You all button it up! Líl aanáx̱ keela.átx̱iḵ! Donʼt button it up! Líl aanáx̱ kayla.átx̱iḵ! Donʼt you all button it up! aanáx̱ akla.aat s/he is buttoning it up tlél aanáx̱ akool.aat s/he isnʼt buttoning it up aanáx̱ kax̱wli.át I buttoned it up aanáx̱ akawli.át s/he buttoned it up tlél aanáx̱ kax̱wal.aat I didnʼt button it up tlél aanáx̱ akawul.aat s/he didnʼt button it up aanáx̱ akagux̱la.áat s/he will button it up tlél aanáx̱ akagux̱la.aat s/he wonʼt button it up (chʼa) aanáx̱ akax̱la.aat (just) let him/her button it up aanáx̱ akool.aatch s/he buttons it up (every time) tlél aanáx̱ akool.aatch s/he hasnʼt buttoned it up yet tlél aadé aanáx̱ akoox̱li.aadi yé no way can s/he button it up aanáx̱ akoox̱la.aadín s/he would have buttoned it up aanáx̱ akla.átni if/when s/he buttons it up aanáx̱ akla.átx̱ s/he buttons it up (regularly) I kʼoodásʼi aanáx̱ kala.á! Button up your shirt! Aanáx̱ akawli.át wé ḵaayakʼóotʼi. She buttoned up the buttons. lying there (to have small objects lying there) P-t O-ka-S-l-.át (position) for S to have O (small objects) lying at P --- This verb only occurs in the imperfective. Note that in the example sentence, the classifier in the verb: waaḵt akal.át is l- and NOT la- . For some common nouns such as waaḵ "eye", it is possible to leave off the overt possessor du "his/her". The D- element of the classifier (in this case l-) replaces the overt possessor. Therefore, in the sentence below there is no overt possessor of waaḵ, and the verb has the D- component of the classifier (l-), producing the phrase: waaḵt akal.át. át akla.át s/he has them lying there tlél át akool.át s/he doesnʼt have them lying there [does not occur] [does not occur] Waḵdáanaa waaḵt akal.át. She has eyeglasses on. (Lit: She has glasses lying on her eyes.) lie there (of small objects) P-t ka-l-.át (position) for small objects to lie at P --- This verb only occurs in the imperfective. át kala.át they are lying there tlél át kool.át theyʼre not lying there [does not occur] [does not occur] lie there (of several things; of dead or unconscious persons or animals) P-t l-.át (position) for several things to lie at P; for several persons or animals to lie dead, unconscious, or incapacitated at P li-.aat This verb only occurs in the imperfective. át la.át theyʼre lying there tlél át ul.át theyʼre not lying there [does not occur] [does not occur] carry them, take them (esp. baggage) VII P-dé O-S-l-.aat~ (na motion) for S to carry, take (plural) O (esp. baggage) to P li-.aat -- carrying it (along) P-t carrying it around, about P (no repetitive imperfective form) P-dei carrying it toward P P-dáx̱ picking it up off of P P-náx̱ stopping over at P with it; dropping it off at P yux̱ carrying it out of house Aadé nal.aat! Carry them there! Aadé nayla.aat! You all carry them there! Líl aadé yoo ila.átgiḵ! Donʼt carry them there! Líl aadé yoo yila.átgiḵ! Donʼt you all carry them there! [does not occur] aadé yaa nax̱la.át I am carrying it there aadé yaa anal.át s/he is carrying them there aadé x̱wali.aat I carried them there aadé awli.aat s/he carried them there tlél x̱wala.aat I didnʼt carry them there tlél aadé awul.aat s/he didnʼt carry them there aadé kḵwala.áat I will carry them there aadé agux̱la.áat s/he will carry them there tlél aadé kḵwala.aat I wonʼt carry them there tlél aadé agux̱la.aat s/he wonʼt carry them there aadé naḵala.aat let me carry them there aadé anax̱la.aat let him/her carry them there aadé nax̱ala.átch I carry them there (every time) aadé anal.átch s/he carries them there (every time) tlél aadé nax̱wala.átch I havenʼt carried them there yet tlél aadé oonal.átch s/he hasnʼt carried them there yet tlél aadé aadé naḵwali.aadi yé no way can I carry them there tlél aadé aadé anax̱wli.aadi yé no way can s/he carry them there aadé naḵwala.aadín I would have carried them there aadé anax̱wla.aadín s/he would have carried them there aadé nax̱la.átni if/when I carry them there aadé anal.átni if/when s/he carries them there aadé yoo x̱ali.átk I carry them there (regularly) aadé yoo ali.átk s/he carries them there (regularly) speak, talk to him/her (plural subject) N ée-t~ x̱ʼa-S-l-.aat~ (∅ motion) for (plural) S to speak, talk to N x̱ʼa-li-.aat In classical Tlingit, the verb stem -taan refered to a singular subject and the verb stem -.aat was used to indicate a plural subject. In modern Tlingit however, this distinction is being lost. Many speakers use the verb stem -taan for both singular and plural subject, as in: du éet has x̱ʼeiwatán "they spoke to him/her". Speakers also use: du éet has x̱ʼawli.át "they spoke to him/her". Both options for the plural subjects are correct. Du éet x̱ʼayla.á! You all speak to him/her! Líl du éex̱ x̱ʼayla.aadíḵ! Donʼt you all speak to him/her! [does not occur] [does not occur] du éet x̱ʼawtuli.át we spoke to him/her du éet x̱ʼayeeyli.át you all spoke to him/her du éet has x̱ʼawli.át they spoke to him/her du éet x̱ʼawdudli.át someone spoke to him/her tlél du éet x̱ʼawtula.aat we didnʼt speak to him/her tlél du éet x̱ʼayeeyla.aat you all didnʼt speak to him/her tlél du éet has x̱ʼawul.aat they didnʼt speak to him/her tlél du éet x̱ʼawdul.aat nobody spoke to him/her du eedé x̱ʼagax̱tula.áat we will speak to him/her du eedé x̱ʼagax̱yila.áat you all will speak to him/her du eedé (ha)s x̱ʼagux̱la.áat they will speak to him/her du eedé x̱ʼagax̱dul.áat someone will speak to him/her tlél du eedé x̱ʼagax̱tula.aat we wonʼt speak to him/her tlél du eedé x̱ʼagax̱yila.aat you all wonʼt speak to him/her tlél du eedé (ha)s x̱ʼagux̱la.aat they wonʼt speak to him/her tlél du eedé x̱ʼagax̱dul.aat nobody will speak to him/her du éet x̱ʼax̱tula.aat let us speak to him/her du éet has x̱ʼax̱la.aat let them speak to him/her du éet x̱ʼatool.aatch we speak to him/her (every time) du éet x̱ʼayil.aatch you all speak to him/her (every time) du éet has x̱ʼeil.aatch they speak to him/her (every time) du éet x̱ʼadul.aatch someone speaks to him/her (every time) tlél du éet x̱ʼatool.aatch we havenʼt spoken to him/her yet tlél du éet x̱ʼayil.aatch you all havenʼt spoken to him/her yet tlél du éet has x̱ʼeil.aatch they havenʼt spoken to him/her yet tlél du éet x̱ʼadul.aatch nobody has spoken to him/her yet tlél aadé du éet has x̱ʼeix̱li.aadi yé no way can they speak to him/her du éet has x̱ʼeix̱la.aadín they would have spoken to him/her du éet has x̱ʼala.átni if/when they speak to him/her du éex̱ has x̱ʼala.aat they speak to him/her (regularly) give, take, hand it to him/her (small, round or hoop-like objects) N jee-t~ O-ka-S-l-.aat~ (∅ event) for S to give, take, hand O (small, round or hoop-like objects) to N ḵaa jee- + ka-li-.aat Du jeet kala.á! Give them to him/her! Du jeet kayla.á! You all give them to him/her! Líl du jeex̱ keela.aadíḵ! Donʼt give them to him/her! Líl du jeex̱ kayla.aadíḵ! Donʼt you all give them to him/her! [does not occur] du jeet kax̱wli.át I gave them to him/her du jeet akawli.át s/he gave them to him/her tlél du jeet kax̱wla.aat I didnʼt give them to him/her tlél du jeet akawul.aat s/he didnʼt give them to him/her du jeedé kakḵwala.áat I will give them to him/her du jeedé akagux̱la.áat s/he will give them to him/her tlél du jeedé kakḵwala.aat I wonʼt give them to him/her tlél du jeedé akagux̱la.aat s/he wonʼt give them to him/her du jeet kaḵala.aat / du jeet kaḵala.aadí let me give them to him/her du jeet akax̱la.aat / du jeet akax̱la.aadí let him/her give them to him/her du jeet koox̱la.aatch I give them to him/her (every time) du jeet akool.aatch s/he gives them to him/her (every time) tlél du jeet koox̱la.aatch I havenʼt given them to him/her yet tlél du jeet akool.aatch s/he hasnʼt given them to him/her yet tlél aadé du jeet kooḵali.aadi yé no way can I give them to him/her tlél aadé du jeet akoox̱li.aadi yé no way can s/he give them to him/her du jeet kooḵala.aadín I would have given them to him/her du jeet akoox̱la.aadín s/he would have given them to him/her du jeet kax̱la.átni if/when I give them to him/her du jeet akla.átni if/when s/he gives them to him/her du jeex̱ kax̱la.aat I give them to him/her (regularly); I am trying to give them to him/her du jeex̱ akla.aat s/he gives them to him/her (regularly); s/he is trying to give them to him/her give, take, hand them to him/her (esp. baggage and personal belongings) N jee-t~ O-S-l-.aat~ (∅ motion) for S to give, take, hand (plural) O (esp. baggage and personal belongings) to N ḵaa jee- + li-.aat (basically plural; see taan for singular) Du jeet la.át! Give them to him/her Du jeet yila.át! You all give them to him/her Líl du jeex̱ ila.aadíḵ! Donʼt give them to him/her! Líl du jeex̱ yila.aadíḵ! Donʼt you all give them to him/her! [does not occur] du jeet x̱wali.át I gave them to him/her du jeet awli.át s/he gave them to him/her tlél du jeet x̱wala.aat I didnʼt give them to him/her tlél du jeet awul.aat s/he didnʼt give them to him/her du jeedé kḵwala.áat I will give them to him/her du jeedé agux̱la.áat s/he will give them to him/her tlél du jeedé kḵwala.aat I wonʼt give them to him/her tlél du jeedé agux̱la.aat s/he wonʼt give them to him/her du jeet ḵala.aat / du jeet ḵala.aadí let me give them to him/her du jeet ax̱la.aat / du jeet ax̱la.aadí let him/her give them to him/her du jeet x̱wala.aatch I give them to him/her (every time) du jeet ool.aatch s/he gives them to him/her (every time) tlél du jeet x̱wala.aatch / tlél du jeet ux̱la.aatch I havenʼt given them to him/her yet tlél du jeet ool.aatch s/he hasnʼt given them to him/her yet tlél aadé du jeet ḵwali.aadi yé no way can I give them to him/her tlél aadé du jeet oox̱li.aadi yé no way can s/he give them to him/her du jeet ḵwala.aadín I would have given them to him/her du jeet oox̱la.aadín s/he would have given them to him/her du jeet x̱ala.átni if/when I give them to him/her du jeet al.átni if/when s/he gives them to him/her du jeex̱ x̱ala.aat I give them to him/her (regularly); I am trying to give them to him/her du jeex̱ al.aat s/he gives them to him/her (regularly); s/he is trying to give them to him/her lying down (of human) (plural subject) (P-t) sh S-d-l-.át (position) for (plural) S to be lying down (at P) sh dli-.aat sh tool.át we are lying down has sh il.át they are lying down tlél sh tool.át we arenʼt lying down tlél has sh ul.át they arenʼt lying down Yee.át kát has sh il.át. They are lying on the bed. Dei s sh il.át. They are already lying down. [Story & Naish 1973: 125] speak, talk, make speech (plural subject) x̱ʼa-S-l-.aat~ (na event) or (plural) S to speak, talk, make a speech x̱ʼa-li-.aat In classical Tlingit, the verb stem -taan refered to a singular subject and the verb stem -.aat was used to indicate a plural subject. In modern Tlingit however, this distinction is being lost. Many speakers use the verb stem -taan for both singular and plural subject, as in: has x̱ʼawditaan "they spoke". Speakers also use: has x̱ʼawli.aat "they spoke". Both options for the plural subjects are correct. x̱ʼanayil.á! You all speak! Líl yoo x̱ʼayla.átgiḵ! Donʼt you all speak! [does not occur] yaa x̱ʼantula.át weʼre speaking yaa x̱ʼanayla.át you all are speaking yaa (ha)s x̱ʼanal.át they are speaking yaa x̱ʼandul.át soemone is speaking [does not occur] x̱ʼawtuli.aat we spoke x̱ʼayeeyli.aat you all spoke has x̱ʼawli.aat they spoke x̱ʼawdudli.aat someone spoke tlél x̱awtula.aat we didnʼt speak tlél x̱ʼayeeyla.aat you all didnʼt speak tlél has x̱ʼawul.aat they didnʼt speak tlél x̱ʼawdul.aat nobody spoke x̱ʼagax̱tula.áat we will speak x̱ʼagax̱yila.áat you all will speak has x̱ʼagux̱la.áat they will speak x̱ʼagax̱dul.áat someone will speak tlél x̱ʼagax̱tula.aat we wonʼt speak tlél x̱ʼagax̱yila.aat you all wonʼt speak tlél has x̱ʼagux̱la.aat they wonʼt speak tlél x̱ʼagax̱dul.aat nobody will speak x̱ʼanax̱tula.aat let us speak has x̱ʼanax̱la.aat let them speak x̱ʼantula.átch we speak (every time) x̱ʼanayla.átch you all speak (every time) has x̱ʼanal.átch they speak (every time) x̱ʼandul.átch someone speaks (every time) tlél x̱ʼantula.átch we havenʼt spoken yet tlél x̱ʼanayla.átch you all havenʼt spoken yet tlél has x̱ʼeinal.átch they havenʼt spoken yet tlél x̱ʼandul.átch nobody has spoken yet tlél aadé (ha)s x̱ʼanax̱wli.aadi yé no way can they speak has x̱ʼanax̱wla.aadín they would have spoken has x̱ʼanal.átni if/when they speak yoo (ha)s x̱ʼali.átk they speak (regularly) turn the wheel (boat, car) I kei O-ya-S-l-.aat~ (∅ motion) for S to turn O (boat, car) kei + ya-li-.aat Kei yala.á! Turn the wheel! Líl kei yeela.átjiḵ! Donʼt turn the wheel! [does not occur] kei yaa ayanal.át s/he is turning the wheel kei ayawli.át s/he turned the wheel tlél kei ayawul.aat s/he didnʼt turn the wheel kei ayagux̱la.áat s/he will turn the wheel tlél kei ayagux̱la.aat s/he wonʼt turn the wheel kei ayax̱la.aat let him/her turn the wheel kei awul.aatch s/he turns the wheel (every time) tlél kei awul.aatch s/he hasnʼt turned the wheel yet tlél aadé kei awux̱li.aadi yé no way can s/he turn the wheel kei awux̱la.aadín s/he would have turned the wheel kei ayala.átni if/when s/he turns the wheel kei ayala.átch s/he turns the wheel (regularly); s/he is trying to turn the wheel put it down, leave it (esp. baggage and personal belongings) yan~ O-S-l-.aat~ (∅ motion) for S to put down, lay down, leave (plural) O (esp. baggage and personal belongings) li-.aat Yan la.át! Put them down! Yan yila.át! You all put them down! Líl yax̱ ila.aadíḵ! Donʼt put them down! Líl yax̱ yila.aadíḵ! Donʼt you all put them down! [does not occur] yan x̱wali.át I put them down yan awli.át s/he put them down tlél yan x̱wala.aat I didnʼt put them down tlél yan awul.aat s/he didnʼt put them down yánde kḵwala.áat I will put them down yánde agux̱la.áat s/he will put them down tlél yánde kḵwala.aat I wonʼt put them down tlél yánde agux̱la.aat s/he wonʼt put them down yan ḵala.aat let me put them down yan ax̱la.aat let him/her put them down yan x̱wala.aatch I put them down (every time) yan ool.aatch s/he puts them down (every time) tlél yan x̱wala.aatch I havenʼt put them down yet tlél yan ool.aatch s/he hasnʼt put them down yet tlél aadé yan ḵwali.aadi yé no way can I put them down tlél aadé yan oox̱li.aadi yé no way can s/he put them down yan ḵwala.aadín I would have put them down yan oox̱la.aadín s/he would have put them down yan x̱ala.átni if/when I put them down yan al.átni if/when s/he puts them down yax̱ x̱ala.aat I put them down (regularly) yax̱ al.aat s/he puts them down (regularly) lie down (of human) (plural subject) yan~ sh S-d-l-.aat~ (∅ motion) for (plural) S to lie down sh dli-.aat Leer 1973: 02/84 Yan sh yil.á! You all lie down! Líl yax̱ sh yil.aadíḵ! Donʼt you all lie down! [does not occur] yan sh wutudli.át we lay down yan has sh wudli.át they lay down tlél yan sh wutool.aat we didnʼt lie down tlél yan has sh wul.aat they didnʼt lie down yánde has sh gug̱wal.áat they will lie down tlél yánde has sh gug̱wal.aat they wonʼt lie down (chʼa) yan has sh g̱al.aat (just) let them lie down yan has sh ul.aatch they lie down (every time) tlél yan has sh ul.aatch they havenʼt lain down yet tlél aadé yan has sh ux̱dli.aadi yé no way can they lie down yan has sh g̱wal.aadín they would have lain down yan has sh il.átni if/when they lie down yax̱ has sh il.aat they lie down (regularly) Tʼaa káxʼ yan has sh wudli.át nisdaat. They lay on the floor last night. stop speaking, stop talking (plural subject) II yan~ x̱ʼa-S-l-.aat~ (∅ motion) for (plural) S to stop talking --- Yan x̱ʼayla.á! You all stop talking! Líl yan x̱ʼayla.aadíḵ! Donʼt you all stop talking! [does not occur] yan x̱ʼawtuli.át we stopped talking yan has x̱ʼawli.át they stopped talking tlél yan has x̱ʼawul.aat they didnʼt stop talking yánde has x̱ʼagux̱la.áat they will stop talking tlél yánde has x̱ʼagux̱la.aat they wonʼt stop talking (chʼa) yan has x̱ʼax̱la.aat (dé) (just) let them stop talking (now) yan has x̱ʼeil.aatch they stop talking (every time) tlél yan has x̱ʼeil.aatch they havenʼt stopped talking yet tlél aadé yan has x̱ʼeix̱li.aadi yé no way can they stop talking yan has x̱ʼeix̱la.aadín they would have stopped talking yan has x̱ʼala.átni if/when they stop talking yax̱ has x̱ʼala.aat they stop talking (regularly) speak to, talk to, converse (plural subject) yoo x̱ʼa-S-l-.aat~ (∅ act) for (plural) S to speak, talk, converse x̱ʼa-li-.aat Yoo x̱ʼayla.á! You all converse! Líl yoo x̱ʼayla.átgiḵ! Donʼt you all converse! yoo x̱ʼatuli.átk we converse; we are conversing yoo x̱ʼayeeli.átk you all converse; you all are conversing yoo (ha)s x̱ʼali.átk they converse; they are conversing yoo x̱ʼadudli.átk people converse; people are conversing tlél yoo x̱ʼatula.átk we donʼt converse; weʼre not conversing tlél yoo x̱ʼayla.átk you all donʼt converse; you all are not conversing tlél yoo (ha)s x̱ʼeil.átk they donʼt converse; theyʼre not conversing tlél yoo x̱ʼadul.átk nobody converses; nobody is conversing (yeisú) yaa x̱ʼantula.át we are (still) conversing (yeisú) yaa x̱ʼanayla.át you all are (still) conversing (yeisú) yaa (ha)s x̱ʼanal.át they are (still) conversing (yeisú) yaa x̱ʼandul.át people are (still) conversing [does not occur] yoo x̱ʼawtuli.át we conversed yoo x̱ʼayeeyli.át you all conversed yoo (ha)s x̱ʼawli.át they conversed yoo x̱ʼawdudli.át people conversed tlél yoo x̱ʼawtula.aat we didnʼt converse tlél yoo x̱ʼayeeyla.aat you all didnʼt converse tlél yoo (ha)s x̱ʼawul.aat they didnʼt converse tlél yoo x̱ʼawdul.aat nobody conversed yoo x̱ʼagax̱tula.áat we will converse yoo x̱ʼagax̱yila.áat you all will converse yoo (ha)s x̱ʼagux̱la.áat they will converse yoo x̱ʼagax̱dul.áat people will converse tlél yoo x̱ʼagax̱tula.aat we wonʼt converse tlél yoo x̱ʼagax̱yila.aat you all wonʼt converse tlél yoo (ha)s x̱ʼagux̱la.aat they wonʼt converse tlél yoo x̱ʼagax̱dul.aat nobody will converse yoo x̱ʼax̱tula.aat let us converse yoo (ha)s x̱ʼax̱la.aat let them converse [does not occur] tlél yoo x̱ʼatula.aatch we havenʼt conversed yet tlél yoo x̱ʼayla.aatch you all havenʼt conversed yet tlél yoo (ha)s x̱ʼeil.aatch they havenʼt conversed yet tlél yoo x̱ʼadul.aatch nobody has conversed yet tlél aadé yoo (ha)s x̱ʼeix̱li.aadi yé no way can they converse yoo (ha)s x̱ʼeix̱la.aadín they would have conversed yoo (ha)s x̱ʼala.átni if/when they converse yoo (ha)s x̱ʼali.átk they converse (regularly) aatlʼ insufficient insufficient, not enough ya-ka-u-∅-.áatlʼ (na state) for something to be insufficient, not enough ya-ka-ya-.aatlʼ yakoo.áatlʼ itʼs insufficient yakaawa.áatlʼ it was insufficient yakakg̱wa.áatlʼ it will be insufficient yakoona.áatlʼch itʼs insufficient (every time) tlél aadé yakoong̱aa.áatlʼi yé no way can it be insufficient yakoong̱a.áatlʼin it would have been insufficient yakoona.áatlʼni if itʼs insufficient Yakoo.áatlʼ ḵaa x̱ooxʼ yéi shukg̱waxéex. Itʼs insufficient, it wonʼt be enough for everyone. ḵaa jee x̱oox̱ kei kandulgéini yakoo.áatlʼ ḵaa x̱oox̱ shuwaxeex. There isnʼt enough to give to everyone, it ran out. Yakawu.áatlʼi tsu aa kḵwa.oo. If itʼs not enough, Iʼll buy more. Yakoona.áatlʼni yís yáatʼaa yéi na.oo. If itʼs insufficient use this one. I toowóoch ágé yakakg̱wa.áatlʼ? Do you think itʼs going to be insufficient? [Story & Naish 1973: 115] Yáa atx̱á yagoo.áatlʼ. This food is not enough This food is not enough. [Story & Naish 1973: 115] aatʼ (5) cold, cool, chill chill it; make it cold O-S-s-.áatʼ~ (∅ act) for S to make O cold, cool si-.aatʼ The form: as.átʼx̱ gives both a basic imperfective meaning "s/he is chilling it" and a repetitive imperfective meaning "s/he chills it (regularly)". Sa.átʼ! Chill it! Yisa.átʼ! You all chill it! Líl isa.átʼx̱iḵ! Donʼt chill it! Líl yisa.átʼx̱iḵ! Donʼt you all chill it! x̱asa.átʼx̱ I am chilling it as.átʼx̱ s/he is chilling it tlél x̱wasa.átʼx̱ Iʼm not chilling it tlél oos.átʼx̱ s/heʼs not chilling it yaa ana.úsʼ s/he is (in the process of) chilling it x̱wasi.átʼ I chilled it awsi.átʼ s/he chilled it tlél x̱wasa.áatʼ I didnʼt chill it tlél awus.áatʼ s/he didnʼt chill it kḵwasa.áatʼ I will chill it agux̱sa.áatʼ s/he will chill it tlél kḵwasa.áatʼ I wonʼt chill it tlél agux̱sa.áatʼ s/he wonʼt chill it ḵasa.áatʼ let me chill it ax̱sa.áatʼ let him/her chill it ux̱sa.átʼch I chill it (every time) oos.átʼch s/he chills it (every time) tlél x̱wasa.átʼch I havenʼt chilled it yet tlél oos.átʼch s/he hasnʼt chilled it yet tlél aadé oox̱si.áatʼi yé no way can s/he chill it oox̱sa.áatʼin s/he would have chilled it as.átʼni if/when s/he chills it as.átʼx̱ s/he chills it (regularly) cold (of weather) ḵu-s-.áatʼ (ga state) for the weather to be cold ḵu-si-.aatʼ ḵusi.áatʼ the weather is cold tlél ḵoos.áatʼ the weather isnʼt cold kei ḵunas.áatʼ the weather is getting cold ḵusa.áatʼin the weather used to be cold tlél ḵoos.áatʼin the weather didnʼt used to be cold ḵuwsi.áatʼ the weather got cold tlél ḵuwus.áatʼ the weather didnʼt get cold ḵuwsa.áatʼin the weather had been cold; the weather was cold (but...) tlél ḵuwsa.áatʼin the weather hadnʼt been cold; the weather wasnʼt cold (at the time, but...) kei ḵugux̱sa.áatʼ the weather will be cold tlél kei ḵugux̱sa.áatʼ the weather wonʼt be cold ḵugux̱sa.áatʼi let the weather be cold ḵusa.áatʼ nooch the weather is always cold ḵuksa.áatʼch the weather gets cold (every time) tlél ḵugus.áatʼch the weather hasnʼt gotten cold yet tlél aadé ḵugux̱si.áatʼi yé no way can the weather be cold ḵugux̱sa.áatʼin the weather would have been cold ḵugas.áatʼni if/when the weather gets cold kei ḵusa.áatʼch the weather gets cold (regularly) Táakwxʼ ḵusi.áatʼ. Winters are cold. cold (feel cold, of person) O-sa-∅-.áatʼ~ (∅ event) for O (person) to feel cold sa-ya-.aatʼ I sa.átʼ tsáa! See that you donʼt get cold! Yee sa.átʼ tsáa! See that you all donʼt get cold! [does not occur] yaa sana.átʼ s/he is starting to get cold x̱at seiwa.átʼ Iʼm cold seiwa.átʼ s/he is cold tlél x̱at sawu.áatʼ Iʼm not cold tlél sawu.áatʼ s/he isnʼt cold x̱at sakg̱wa.áatʼ I will be cold sakg̱wa.áatʼ s/he will be cold tlél x̱at sakg̱wa.áatʼ I wonʼt be cold tlél sakg̱wa.áatʼ s/he wonʼt be cold (chʼa) sag̱a.áatʼ (just) let him/her be cold sei.áatʼch s/he gets cold (every time) tlél sei.áatʼch s/he isnʼt cold yet tlél aadé sag̱waa.áatʼi yé no way can s/he be cold sag̱wa.áatʼin s/he would have been cold sa.átʼni if/when s/he is cold sa.átʼx̱ s/he gets cold (regularly) Sa.átʼni xʼóow du kináax̱ yei kagax̱tooyáa. If she is cold, weʼll spread a blanket over her. cold (of inanimate object) s-.áatʼ (∅ state) for an inanimate object to be cold si.-aatʼ si.áatʼ itʼs cold tlél us.áatʼ it isnʼt cold wé si.áatʼi aa the cold one yaa nas.átʼ it is getting cold tlél yaa unas.átʼ itʼs not getting cold sa.áatʼin it used to be cold tlél us.áatʼin it didnʼt used to be cold wusi.áatʼ it got cold tlél wus.áatʼ it didnʼt get cold gug̱as.áatʼ it will be cold tlél gug̱as.áatʼ it wonʼt be cold g̱as.áatʼ let it be cold sa.áatʼ nooch itʼs always cold us.áatʼch it gets cold (every time) tlél us.áatʼch it hasnʼt gotten cold yet tlél aadé ux̱dzi.áatʼi yé no way can it be cold g̱was.áatʼin it would have been cold sa.áatʼni if/when it is cold [does not occur] cold (of face) O-ya-d-s-.áatʼ~ (∅ event) for Oʼs face to be cold ya-dzi-.aatʼ I yas.átʼ tsáa! See that your face doesnʼt get cold! Yee yas.átʼ tsáa! See that your faces donʼt get cold! [does not occur] yaa yanas.átʼ his/her face is getting cold x̱at yawdzi.átʼ my face is cold yawdzi.átʼ his/her face is cold tlél x̱at yawus.áatʼ my face isnʼt cold tlél yawus.áatʼ his/her face isnʼt cold yakg̱was.áatʼ his/her face will be cold tlél yakg̱was.áatʼ his/her face wonʼt be cold (chʼa) yag̱as.áatʼ (just) let his/her face be cold woos.áatʼch his/her face gets cold (every time) tlél woos.áatʼch his/her face isnʼt cold yet tlél aadé woox̱dzi.áatʼi yé no way can his/her face be cold woog̱as.áatʼin his/her face would have been cold yas.átʼni if/when his/her face is cold yas.átʼx̱ his/her face gets cold (regularly) ḵusa.áatʼ tóo yux̱ wugoodí tle yas.átʼx̱. His face gets cold if he goes out into the cold. aaw tie tie up with a string, put a strap on it O-ya-S-s-.áaw~ (∅ event) for S to tie up O with a string, put a strap on O --- Leer 1973: 02/48 Yasa.áw! Tie it up with a string! Líl yeesa.áwx̱uḵ! Donʼt tie it up with a string! [does not occur] yaa ayanas.áw s/he is tying it up with a string yax̱wsi.áw I tied it up with a string ayawsi.áw s/he tied it up with a string tlél yax̱wsa.áaw I didnʼt tie it up with a string tlél ayawus.áaw s/he didnʼt tie it up with a string ayagux̱sa.áaw s/he will tie it up with a string tlél ayagux̱sa.áaw s/he wonʼt tie it up with a string ayax̱sa.áaw let him/her tie it up with a string awoos.áwch s/he ties it up with a string (every time) tlél awoos.áwch s/he hasnʼt tied it up with a string yet tlél aadé awux̱si.áawu yé no way can s/he tie it up with a string awux̱sa.áawun s/he would have tied it up with a string ayasa.áwni if/when s/he ties it up with a string ayasa.áwx̱ s/he ties it up with a string (regularly) Atkʼátskʼux̱ x̱at sateeyí ax̱ tuḵʼatáali tíxʼ tin woox̱sa.áwch. When I was a little boy I used to tie my pants up with a string. Séek eetíxʼ tíxʼ tin ayawsi.áw du tuḵʼatáali. In place of a belt he tied his pants up with a string. Yax̱wsi.áaw. I strapped it. [Leer 1973: 02/48] Ayasa.áwx̱. He is putting a strap on it. [Leer 1973: 02/48] aaxʼw1 bitter, spicy bitter, spicy O-s-.áaxʼw (ga state) for O to be bitter; for O to be spicy hot si-.aaxʼw si.áaxʼw itʼs bitter tlél us.áaxʼw itʼs not bitter wé si.áaxʼu aa the one that is bitter kei nas.áaxʼw itʼs getting bitter sa.áaxʼun it used to be bitter tlél us.áaxʼun it didnʼt used to be bitter wusi.áaxʼw it got bitter tlél wus.áaxʼw it didnʼt get bitter kei gux̱sa.áaxʼw it will be bitter tlél kei gux̱sa.áaxʼw it wonʼt be bitter gax̱sa.áaxʼw let it be bitter gasa.áaxʼwch it gets bitter (every time) tlél goos.áaxʼwch it hasnʼt gotten bitter yet tlél aadé gux̱si.áaxʼu yé no way can it be bitter gux̱sa.áaxʼun it would have been bitter gasa.áaxʼwni if/when it is bitter kei sa.áaxʼwch it gets bitter (regularly) Wusi.áaxʼw du yóo x̱ʼatángi, chʼa aan áwé du x̱ʼéit ḵoodudzi.áx̱. His words were biting, yet people listened to him. ḵútx̱ kei nas.áaxʼw. Itʼs getting too spicy. aax̱1 (9) listen listen for him/her/it VII P-g̱aa ḵu-S-s-.aax̱~ (na motion) for S to listen for P --- A kayéikg̱aa ḵunees.aax̱! Listen for the sound of it! A kayéikg̱aa ḵunayis.aax̱! You all listen for the sound of it! [does not occur] a kayéikg̱aa ḵux̱wdzi.aax̱ I listened for the sound of it a kayéikg̱aa ḵoowdzi.aax̱ s/he listened for the sound of it tlél a kayéikg̱aa ḵux̱was.aax̱ I didnʼt listen for the sound of it tlél a kayéikg̱aa ḵuwus.aax̱ s/he didnʼt listen for the sound of it a kayéikg̱aa ḵukg̱was.áax̱ s/he will listen for the sound of it tlél a kayéikg̱aa ḵukg̱was.aax̱ s/he wonʼt listen for the sound of it a kayéikg̱aa ḵunas.áx̱ch s/he listens for the sound of it (every time) tlél a kayéikg̱aa ḵoonas.áx̱ch s/he hasnʼt listened for the sound of it yet tlél aadé a kayéikg̱aa ḵoonax̱dzi.aax̱i yé no way can s/he listen for the sound of it a kayéikg̱aa ḵoong̱as.aax̱ín s/he would have listened for the sound of it a kayéikg̱aa ḵunas.áx̱ni if/when s/he listens for the sound of it a kayéikg̱aa yoo ḵudzi.áx̱k s/he listens for the sound of it (regularly) A kayéikg̱aa ḵunees.áx̱ni, gag̱ee.áax̱. If you listen for the sound of it, youʼll hear it. Tlél aadé a kayéikg̱aa ḵoonax̱dzi.aax̱i yé wé washéen yaa kanajíx wé tʼéixʼ. Thereʼs no way he can listen for the sound of it, the machine is running at the back. hear it O-S-∅-.aax̱~ (∅ event) for S to hear O ya-.aax̱ .Áx̱! Hear it! Yi.áx̱! You all hear it! [does not occur - see aya.áx̱ch] [does not occur - see aya.áx̱ch] x̱waa.áx̱ I heard it iya.áx̱ you heard it aawa.áx̱ s/he heard it wutuwa.áx̱ we heard it yeey.áx̱ you all heard it has aawa.áx̱ they heard it wuduwa.áx̱ it was heard tlél x̱wa.aax̱ I didnʼt hear it tlél yi.aax̱ you didnʼt hear it tlél awu.aax̱ s/he didnʼt hear it tlél wutoo.aax̱ we didnʼt hear it tlél yeey.aax̱ you all didnʼt hear it tlél has awu.aax̱ they didnʼt hear it tlél wudu.aax̱ it wasnʼt heard kuḵa.áax̱ I will hear it gag̱ee.áax̱ you will hear it akg̱wa.áax̱ s/he will hear it gax̱too.áax̱ we will hear it gax̱yi.áax̱ you all will hear it has akg̱wa.áax̱ they will hear it gax̱du.áax̱ it will be heard tlél kuḵa.aax̱ I wonʼt hear it tlél gag̱ee.aax̱ you wonʼt hear it tlél akg̱wa.aax̱ s/he wonʼt hear it tlél gax̱too.aax̱ we wonʼt hear it tlél gax̱yi.aax̱ you all wonʼt hear it tlél has akg̱wa.aax̱ they wonʼt hear it tlél gax̱du.aax̱ it wonʼt be heard ḵa.aax̱ let me hear it ag̱a.aax̱ let him/her hear it g̱atoo.aax̱ let us hear it x̱waa.aax̱ch I hear it (every time) iya.aax̱ch you hear it (every time) oo.aax̱ch s/he hears it (every time) tuwa.aax̱ch we hear it (every time) yeey.aax̱ch you all hear it (every time) has oo.aax̱ch they hear it (every time) duwa.aax̱ch it can be heard (every time) tlél x̱wa.aax̱ch I havenʼt heard it yet tlél ee.aax̱ch you havenʼt heard it yet tlél oo.aax̱ch s/he hasnʼt heard it yet tlél too.aax̱ch we havenʼt heard it yet tlél yi.aax̱ch you all havenʼt heard it yet tlél has oo.aax̱ch they havenʼt heard it yet tlél du.aax̱ch it hasnʼt been heard it yet tlél aadé ḵwaa.aax̱i yé no way can I hear it tlél aadé oog̱aa.aax̱i yé no way can s/he hear it ḵwa.aax̱ín I would have heard it oog̱a.aax̱ín s/he would have heard it x̱a.áx̱ni if/when I hear it a.áx̱ni if/when s/he hears it x̱a.áx̱ Iʼm hearing it (strange sounds, e.g.) a.áx̱ s/heʼs hearing it (strange sounds, e.g.) Tsʼootaatxʼ shakḵwadanóok chʼa l Yéil du.aax̱jí. Iʼm going to get up in the morning before Raven is heard. ḵwa.aax̱ín wé washéen ḵu yaa kanajúx. I would have heard it, but that machine is running. hear him/her/it (usually voice) sa-S-∅-.aax̱~ (∅ event) for S to hear O (a voice, esp. singing) sa-ya-.aax̱ [does not occur] sax̱waa.áx̱ I heard a voice aseiwa.áx̱ s/he heard a voice tlél sax̱wa.aax̱ I didnʼt hear a voice tlél asawu.aax̱ s/he didnʼt hear a voice sakḵwa.áax̱ I will hear a voice asakg̱wa.áax̱ s/he will hear a voice tlél sakḵwa.aax̱ I wonʼt hear a voice tlél asakg̱wa.aax̱ s/he wonʼt hear a voice saḵa.aax̱ let me hear a voice asag̱a.aax̱ let him/her hear a voice sax̱wa.áx̱ch I hear a voice (every time) asei.áx̱ch s/he hears a voice (every time) tlél seix̱wa.aax̱ch I havenʼt heard a voice yet tlél asei.aax̱ch s/he hasnʼt heard a voice yet tlél aadé seiḵwaa.aax̱i yé no way can I hear a voice tlél aadé aseig̱waa.aax̱i yé no way can s/he hear a voice seiḵwa.aax̱ín I would have heard a voice aseig̱wa.aax̱ín s/he would have heard a voice sax̱a.áx̱ni if/when I hear a voice asa.áx̱ni if/when s/he hears a voice sax̱aa.áx̱ch I hear a voice (regularly) asaya.áx̱ch s/he hears a voice (regularly) Tlél iseix̱a.áx̱ch. I canʼt hear you. Núkt sax̱wa.áx̱. I heard a grouse. listen to it P-t~ S-s-.aax̱~ (∅ motion) for S to listen to P A- + si-.aax̱ Át sa.áx̱! Listen to it! Át yisa.áx̱! You all listen to it! Líl áx̱ isa.aax̱íḵ! Donʼt listen to it! Líl áx̱ yisa.aax̱íḵ! Donʼt you all listen to it! [does not occur] át x̱wasi.áx̱ Iʼm listening to it; I listened to it át wusi.áx̱ s/heʼs listening to it; s/he listened to it tlél át x̱wasa.aax̱ Iʼm not listening to it; I didnʼt listen to it tlél át wus.aax̱ s/heʼs not listening to it; s/he didnʼt listen to it aadé kḵwasa.áax̱ I will listen to it aadé gux̱sa.áax̱ s/he will listen to it tlél aadé kḵwasa.aax̱ I wonʼt listen to it tlél aadé gux̱sa.aax̱ s/he wonʼt listen to it át ḵasa.aax̱ let me listen to it át g̱asa.aax̱ let him/her listen to it át x̱wasa.aax̱ch I listen to it (every time) át us.aax̱ch s/he listens to it (every time) tlél át x̱wasa.aax̱ch I havenʼt listened to it yet tlél át us.aax̱ch s/he hasnʼt listened to it yet tlél aadé át ux̱si.aax̱i yé no way can s/he listen to it át ux̱sa.aax̱ín s/he would have listened to it át sa.áx̱ni if/when s/he listens to it áx̱ sa.aax̱ s/he listens to it (regularly) Wéi a tóode sh kadulnik át kʼidéin át sa.áx̱! Listen closely to the radio! Yadujeeyí tlél áx̱ us.aax̱. She doesnʼt listen to lecturing. play it (musical instrument) O-S-l-.aax̱~ (∅ act) for S to play O (musical instrument) li-.aax̱ The form: ali.áx̱ch gives both a basic imperfective meaning "s/he is playing it" and a repetitive imperfective meaning "s/he plays it (regularly)". La.áx̱! Play it! Yila.áx̱! You all play it! Líl ila.áx̱jiḵ! Donʼt play it! Líl yil.áx̱jiḵ! Donʼt you all play it! ali.áx̱ch s/he is playing it tlél ool.áx̱ch s/he isnʼt playing it al.áx̱ nooch s/he always plays it x̱wali.áx̱ I played it awli.áx̱ s/he played it tlél x̱wala.aax̱ I didnʼt play it tlél awul.aax̱ s/he didnʼt play it kuḵala.áax̱ I will play it agux̱la.áax̱ s/he will play it tlél kuḵala.aax̱ I wonʼt play it tlél agux̱la.aax̱ s/he wonʼt play it ḵala.aax̱ let me play it ax̱la.aax̱ let him/her play it x̱wala.aax̱ch I play it (every time) ool.aax̱ch s/he plays it (every time) tlél x̱wala.aax̱ch I havenʼt played it yet tlél ool.aax̱ch s/he hasnʼt played it yet tlél aadé ux̱li.aax̱i yé no way can s/he play it ux̱la.aax̱ín s/he would have played it al.áx̱ni if/when s/he plays it ali.áx̱ch s/he plays it (regularly) understand, comprehend him/her/it; hear him/her/it with understanding O-x̱ʼa-S-∅-.aax̱~ (∅ event) for S to hear O with understanding; for S to understand, comprehend O x̱ʼa-ya-.aax̱ [does not occur] [does not occur] x̱ʼax̱waa.áx̱ I understood him/her ax̱ʼeiwa.áx̱ s/he understood him/her tlél x̱ʼax̱wa.aax̱ I didnʼt understand him/her tlél ax̱ʼawu.aax̱ s/he didnʼt understand him/her x̱ʼakḵwa.áax̱ I will understand him/her ax̱ʼakg̱wa.áax̱ s/he will understand him/her tlél x̱ʼakḵwa.aax̱ I wonʼt understand him/her tlél ax̱ʼakg̱wa.aax̱ s/he wonʼt understand him/her [does not occur] x̱ʼeix̱a.aax̱ch I understand him/her (every time) ax̱ʼei.aax̱ch s/he understands him/her (every time) tlél x̱ʼeix̱a.aax̱ch I havenʼt understood him/her yet tlél ax̱ʼei.aax̱ch s/he hasnʼt understood him/her yet tlél aadé x̱ʼeiḵwaa.aax̱u yé no way can I understand him/her tlél aadé ax̱ʼeig̱waa.aax̱u yé no way can s/he understand him/her x̱ʼeiḵwa.aax̱ún I would have understood him/her ax̱ʼeig̱wa.aax̱ún s/he would have understood him/her x̱ʼax̱a.áx̱ni if/when I understand him/her ax̱ʼa.áx̱ni if/when s/he understands him/her x̱ʼax̱aa.áx̱ch I understand him/her (regularly) ax̱ʼaya.áx̱ch s/he understands him/her (regularly) Tlél ḵool.áx̱ch ách áwé tlél ax̱ʼawu.aax̱. Heʼs deaf, thatʼs why he didnʼt hear her. Tlél a daat tooshtí ách áwé tlél ax̱ʼei.áx̱ch. Heʼs not paying attention, thatʼs why he doesnʼt hear him. hear it (be able to hear it) O-S-∅-.áx̱ch (ga state) for S to be able to hear O --- For the forms that do not occur with this verb, see the ∅- conjugation eventive verb aawa.áx̱ ʼs/he heard itʼ, which occurs in all modes except the imperfective. [does not occur] Líl ee.áx̱jiḵ! Donʼt hear it! Líl yi.áx̱jiḵ! Donʼt you all hear it! x̱aa.áx̱ch I can hear it iya.áx̱ch you can hear it aya.áx̱ch s/he can hear it tuwa.áx̱ch we can hear it yeey.áx̱ch you all can hear it has aya.áx̱ch they can hear it duwa.áx̱ch it can be heard tlél x̱wa.áx̱ch I canʼt hear it tlél ee.áx̱ch you canʼt hear it tlél oo.áx̱ch s/he canʼt hear it tlél too.áx̱ch we canʼt hear it tlél yi.áx̱ch you all canʼt hear it tlél has oo.áx̱ch they canʼt hear it tlél du.áx̱ch it canʼt be heard wé aya.áx̱chi aa the one who hears it a.áx̱jin s/he used to hear it tlél oo.áx̱jin s/he didnʼt used to hear it [does not occur] [does not occur - see aawa.áx̱] kei kḵwa.áx̱ch I will be able to hear it kei kg̱ee.áx̱ch you will be able to hear it kei akg̱wa.áx̱ch s/he will be able to hear it kei gax̱too.áx̱ch we will be able to hear it kei gax̱yi.áx̱ch you all will be able to hear it kei (ha)s akg̱wa.áx̱ch they will be able to hear it kei gax̱du.áx̱ch someone will be able to hear it tlél kei kḵwa.áx̱ch I wonʼt be able to hear it tlél kei kg̱ee.áx̱ch you wonʼt be able to hear it tlél kei akg̱wa.áx̱ch s/he wonʼt be able to hear it tlél kei gax̱too.áx̱ch we wonʼt be able to hear it tlél kei gax̱yi.áx̱ch you all wonʼt be able to hear it tlél kei (ha)s akg̱wa.áx̱ch they wonʼt be able to hear it tlél kei gax̱du.áx̱ch nobody will be able to hear it [does not occur] [does not occur] [does not occur] [does not occur] aga.áx̱chni if/when s/he can hear it [does not occur] Tlél ushikʼéiyi aa yóo x̱ʼatánk áwé tsá a.áx̱ji nooch . S/he only hears the bad talk. listen to him/her (take time to listen) N x̱ʼéide ḵu-S-s-.aax̱~ (na motion) for S to (take time to) listen to N --- One fluent speaker suggests the finer meaning "take time to listen" for this verb, thus distinguishing it slightly from the related verb: du x̱ʼéit wusi.áx̱ "s/he listened to, obeyed him/her". Du x̱ʼéide ḵunees.aax̱! Listen to him/her! Du x̱ʼéide ḵunayis.aax̱! You all listen to him/her! Líl du x̱ʼéide yoo ḵees.áx̱giḵ! Donʼt listen to him/her! Líl du x̱ʼéide yoo ḵayis.áx̱giḵ! Donʼt you all listen to him/her! [does not occur] [does not occur] du x̱ʼéide ḵux̱wdzi.aax̱ I listened to him/her du x̱ʼéide ḵuwdzi.aax̱ s/he listened to him/her tlél du x̱ʼéide ḵux̱was.aax̱ I didnʼt listen to him/her tlél du x̱ʼéide ḵuwus.aax̱ s/he didnʼt listen to him/her du x̱ʼéide ḵukḵwas.áax̱ I will listen to him/her du x̱ʼéide ḵukg̱was.áax̱ s/he will listen to him/her tlél du x̱ʼéide ḵukḵwas.aax̱ I wonʼt listen to him/her tlél du x̱ʼéide ḵukg̱was.aax̱ s/he wonʼt listen to him/her du x̱ʼéide ḵunḵas.aax̱ let me listen to him/her du x̱ʼéide ḵung̱as.aax̱ let him/her listen to him/her du x̱ʼéide ḵunx̱as.áx̱ch I listen to him/her (every time) du x̱ʼéide ḵunas.áx̱ch s/he listens to him/her (every time) tlél du x̱ʼéide ḵunx̱was.áx̱ch I havenʼt listened to him/her yet tlél du x̱ʼéide ḵoonas.áx̱ch s/he hasnʼt listened to him/her yet tlél aadé du x̱ʼéide ḵoonḵadzi.aax̱i yé no way can I listen to him/her tlél aadé du x̱ʼéide ḵoonax̱dzi.aax̱i yé no way can s/he listen to him/her ḵunḵwas.aax̱ín I would have listened to him/her du x̱ʼéide ḵung̱was.aax̱ín s/he would have listened to him/her du x̱ʼéide ḵunx̱as.áx̱ni if/when I listen to him/her du x̱ʼéide ḵunas.áx̱ni if/when s/he listens to him/her du x̱ʼéide yoo ḵux̱dzi.áx̱k I listen to him/her (regularly) du x̱ʼéide yoo ḵudzi.áx̱k s/he listens to him/her (regularly) listen to, obey him/her N x̱ʼéi-t~ S-s-.aax̱~ (∅ motion) for S to listen to, obey, give heed to N ḵaa x̱ʼéi- + si-.aax̱ Du x̱ʼéit sa.áx̱! Listen to him/her! Du x̱ʼéit yisa.áx̱! You all listen to him/her! Líl du x̱ʼéix̱ isa.aax̱íḵ! Donʼt listen to him/her! Líl du x̱ʼéix̱ yisa.aax̱íḵ! Donʼt you all listen to him/her! [does not occur] du x̱ʼéit x̱wasi.áx̱ Iʼm listening to him/her; I listen to him/her du x̱ʼéit wusi.áx̱ s/heʼs listening to him/her; s/he listens to him/her tlél du x̱ʼéit x̱wasa.aax̱ Iʼm not listening to him/her; I donʼt listen to him/her tlél du x̱ʼéit wus.aax̱ s/heʼs not listening to him/her; s/he doesnʼt listen to him/her du x̱ʼéide kḵwasa.áax̱ I will listen to him/her du x̱ʼéide gux̱sa.áax̱ s/he will listen to him/her tlél du x̱ʼéide kḵwasa.aax̱ I wonʼt listen to him/her tlél du x̱ʼéide gux̱sa.aax̱ s/he wonʼt listen to him/her du x̱ʼéit ḵasa.aax̱ let me listen to him/her du x̱ʼéit g̱asa.aax̱ let him/her listen to him/her du x̱ʼéit x̱wasa.aax̱ch I listen to him/her (every time) du x̱ʼéit us.aax̱ch s/he listens to him/her (every time) tlél du x̱ʼéit x̱wasa.aax̱ch I havenʼt listened to him/her yet tlél du x̱ʼéit us.aax̱ch s/he hasnʼt listened to him/her yet tlél aadé du x̱ʼéit ḵwasi.aax̱i yé no way can I listen to him/her tlél aadé du x̱ʼéit ux̱si.aax̱i yé no way can s/he listen to him/her du x̱ʼéit ḵwasa.aax̱ín I would have listened to him/her du x̱ʼéit ux̱sa.aax̱ín s/he would have listened to him/her du x̱ʼéit x̱asa.áx̱ni if/when I listen to him/her du x̱ʼéit sa.áx̱ni if/when s/he listens to him/her du x̱ʼéix̱ x̱asa.aax̱ I listen to him/her (regularly) du x̱ʼéix̱ sa.aax̱ s/he listens to him/her (regularly) aax̱2 (4) give, take, carry, lie2 carry it, take it (textile-like object, blanket, coat, robe, sheet, etc.) VII P-t O-S-∅-.aax̱~ (na motion) for S to carry, take O (a textile-like object, blanket, coat, robe, sheet) around at P ya-.aax̱ -- carrying it (along) P-t carrying it around, about P (no repetitive imperfective form) P-dei carrying it toward P P-dáx̱ picking it up off of P P-náx̱ stopping over at P with it; dropping it off at P yux̱ carrying it out of house Át na.aax̱! Carry it around! Át nay.aax̱! You all carry it around! Líl át yi.aax̱íḵ! Donʼt carry it around! Líl át yeey.aax̱íḵ! Donʼt you all carry it around! [does not occur] át x̱waa.aax̱ Iʼm carrying it around; I carried it around át aawa.aax̱ s/heʼs carrying it around; s/he carried it around tlél át x̱wa.aax̱ I didnʼt carry it around tlél át awu.aax̱ s/he didnʼt carry it around át kuḵa.áax̱ I will carry it around át akg̱wa.áax̱ s/he will carry it around tlél át kuḵa.aax̱ I wonʼt carry it around tlél át akg̱wa.aax̱ s/he wonʼt carry it around át naḵa.aax̱ let me carry it around át ang̱a.aax̱ let him/her carry it around át nax̱a.áx̱ch I carry it around (every time) át ana.áx̱ch s/he carries it around (every time) tlél át nax̱wa.áx̱ch I havenʼt carried it around yet tlél át oona.áx̱ch s/he hasnʼt carried it around yet tlél aadé át oong̱aa.aax̱i yé no way can s/he carry it around át oong̱a.aax̱ín s/he would have carried it around át ana.áx̱ni if/when s/he carries it around át yoo aya.áx̱k s/he carries it around (regularly) Wéi yátkʼw du xʼóowu át ana.áx̱ch. The child carries his blanket around. Chʼa wulchʼéix̱ʼu, chʼa aan áwé át ana.áx̱ch du xʼóowu. Even though itʼs dirty, he carries his blanket around. Chʼáagu ádi áwé wéi naaxein - ách áwé líl át yeey.aax̱íḵ! That Chilkat robe is very old - so donʼt you all carry it around! Líl át yi.aax̱íḵ wéi i xʼóowu - gux̱lachʼéix̱ʼw! Donʼt carry your blanket around - itʼs going to get dirty! lie there (of hide-like object, blanket, coat, robe, sheet) P-t ∅-.áx̱ (position) for a hide-like object, blanket, coat, robe, sheet to lie at P ya-.aax̱ This verb only occurs in the imperfective. át .áx̱ itʼs lying there tlél át u.áx̱ itʼs not lying there [does not occur] [does not occur] give, take, hand it to him/her (textile-like object, blanket, coat, robe, sheet, etc.) N jee-t~ O-S-∅-.aax̱~ (∅ motion) for S to give, take, hand O (textile-like object) to N ḵaa jee- + ya-.aax̱ Du jeet .áx̱! Give it to him/her! Du jeet yi.áx̱! You all give it to him/her! Líl du jeex̱ ee.aax̱íḵ! Donʼt give it to him/her! Líl du jeex̱ yi.aax̱íḵ! Donʼt you all give it to him/her! [does not occur] du jeedé yaa nx̱a.áx̱ Iʼm giving it to him/her du jeedé yaa ana.áx̱ s/heʼs giving it to him/her du jeet x̱waa.áx̱ I gave it to him/her du jeet aawa.áx̱ s/he gave it to him/her tlél du jeet x̱wa.aax̱ I didnʼt give it to him/her tlél du jeet awu.aax̱ s/he didnʼt give it to him/her du jeedé kḵwa.áax̱ I will give it to him/her du jeedé akg̱wa.áax̱ s/he will give it to him/her tlél du jeedé kḵwa.aax̱ I wonʼt give it to him/her tlél du jeedé akg̱wa.aax̱ s/he wonʼt give it to him/her du jeet ḵa.aax̱ let me give it to him/her du jeet ag̱a.aax̱ let him/her give it to him/her du jeet x̱wa.aax̱ch I give it to him/her (every time) du jeet oo.aax̱ch s/he gives it to him/her (every time) tlél du jeet x̱wa.aax̱ch I havenʼt given it to him/her yet tlél du jeet oo.aax̱ch s/he hasnʼt given it to him/her yet tlél aadé du jeet ḵwaa.aax̱i yé no way can I give it to him/her tlél aadé du jeet oog̱aa.aax̱i yé no way can s/he give it to him/her du jeet ḵwa.aax̱ín I would have given it to him/her du jeet oog̱a.aax̱ín s/he would have given it to him/her du jeet x̱a.áx̱ni if/when I give it to him/her du jeet a.áx̱ni if/when s/he gives it to him/her du jeex̱ x̱a.aax̱ I give it to him/her (regularly) du jeex̱ a.aax̱ s/he gives it to him/her (regularly) take it off (shirt, dress, coat, etc.) I For taking off oneʼs hat, replace kaax̱ with sháatx̱ "off the head" throughout the paradigm, as in: sháatx̱ kei awdi.áx̱ "s/he took off his/her hat". Note that this verb is not used for taking off pants, shoes, socks, etc. For these, use: x̱ʼoosdáx̱ awdiyíḵ "s/he took them off (pants, socks, shoes)". kaax̱ kei O-S-d-.aax̱~ (∅ motion) for S to take off O (shirt, dress, coat, etc.) --- Kaax̱ kei ida..áx̱! Take it off! Kaax̱ kei yida.áx̱! You all take them off! Líl kaax̱ kei ida.áx̱jíḵ! Donʼt take it off! Líl kaax̱ kei yida.áx̱jíḵ! Donʼt you all take them off! [does not occur] kaax̱ kei nax̱da.áx̱ I am taking it off kaax̱ kei anda.áx̱ s/he is taking it off kaax̱ kei x̱wdi.áx̱ I took it off kaax̱ kei awdi.áx̱ s/he took it off tlél kaax̱ kei x̱wda.aax̱ I didnʼt take it off tlél kaax̱ kei awda.aax̱ s/he didnʼt take it off kaax̱ kei kḵwada.áax̱ I will take it off kaax̱ kei agux̱da.áax̱ s/he will take it off tlél kaax̱ kei kḵwada.aax̱ I wonʼt take it off tlél kaax̱ kei agux̱da.aax̱ s/he wonʼt take it off kaax̱ kei ḵda.aax̱ let me take it off kaax̱ kei ax̱da.aax̱ let him/her take it off kaax̱ kei x̱wda.aax̱ch I take it off (every time) kaax̱ kei ooda.aax̱ch s/he takes it off (every time) tlél kaax̱ kei x̱wda.aax̱ch I havenʼt taken it off yet tlél kaax̱ kei ooda.aax̱ch s/he hasnʼt taken it off yet tlél aadé kaax̱ kei oox̱di.aax̱i yé no way can s/he take it off kaax̱ kei oox̱da.aax̱ín s/he would have taken it off kaax̱ kei ada.áx̱ni if/when s/he takes it off kaax̱ kei ada.áx̱ch s/he takes it off (regularly) Ax̱ yéet du kinaak.ádi du káx̱ x̱wa.aax̱í, tle kaax̱ kei ooda.aax̱ch. Every time I put my sonʼs coat on him, he takes it off. aax̱w (2) tie, wrap wrap it up; tie it in a bundle O-daa-S-s-.aax̱w~ (∅ act) for S to tie O together in a bundle; for S to wrap O up daa-si-.aax̱w Daasa.áx̱w! Wrap it up! Daaysa.áx̱w! You all wrap it up! Líl daa.ees.aax̱úḵ! Donʼt wrap it up! Líl daa.yis.aax̱úḵ! Donʼt you all wrap it up! adaasa.áax̱w s/heʼs wrapping it up tlél adaa.us.aax̱w s/heʼs not wrapping it up adaawsi.áx̱w s/he wrapped it up tlél adaawus.aax̱w s/he didnʼt wrap it up adaagux̱sa.áax̱w s/he will wrap it up tlél adaagux̱sa.aax̱w s/he wonʼt wrap it up adaax̱sa.aax̱w let him/her wrap it up adaa.us.áax̱wch s/he wraps it up (every time) tlél adaa.us.áax̱wch s/he hasnʼt wrapped it up yet tlél aadé adaa.ux̱si.aax̱u yé no way can s/he wrap it up adaa.ux̱sa.aax̱ún s/he would have wrapped it up adaasa.áx̱wni if/when s/he wraps it up adaasa.áx̱wx̱ s/he wraps it up (regularly) tie it up, secure it (esp. a boat to shore) yánde O-S-∅-.aax̱w~ (∅ act) for S to tie up, secure O (esp. a boat to shore) --- Yánde .áx̱w! Tie it up! Yánde y.áx̱w! You all tie it up! Líl yánde yi.áx̱uḵ! Donʼt tie it up! Líl yánde yeey.áx̱uḵ! Donʼt you all tie it up! yánde a.aax̱w s/heʼs tying it up; s/he ties it up tlél yánde oo.aax̱w s/he isnʼt tying it up; s/he doesnʼt tie it up yánde aawa.áx̱w s/he tied it up tlél yánde awu.aax̱w s/he didnʼt tie it up yánde akg̱wa.áax̱w s/he will tie it up tlél yánde akg̱wa.aax̱w s/he wonʼt tie it up yánde ag̱a.aax̱w let him/her tie it up yánde oo.áx̱wch s/he ties it up (every time) tlél yánde oo.aax̱wch / tlél yánde oo.áx̱wch s/he hasnʼt tied it up yet tlél aadé yánde oog̱aa.aax̱u yé no way can s/he tie it up yánde oog̱a.aax̱ún s/he would have tied it up yánde a.áx̱wni if/when s/he ties it up [does not occur] chaa strain, filter, drain strain, filter it; drain it off O-ka-S-l-chaa~ (∅ act) for S to strain, filter, drain off O ka-li-chaa Kalachá! Strain it! Kaylachá! You all strain it! Líl keelachéix̱iḵ! Donʼt strain it! Líl kaylachéix̱iḵ! Donʼt you all strain it! kax̱lachéix̱ I am straining it aklachéix̱ s/he is straining it tlél koox̱lacheix̱ Iʼm not straining it tlél akoolcheix̱ s/he isnʼt straining it yaa kanax̱lachéin I am (in the process of) straining it yaa akanalchéin s/heʼs (in the process of) straining it kax̱lachéix̱ nooch I always strain it aklachéix̱ nooch s/he always strains it kax̱wlicháa I strained it akawlicháa s/he strained it tlél kax̱wlachá I didnʼt strain it tlél akawulchá s/he didnʼt strain it kakḵwalacháa I will strain it akagux̱lacháa s/he will strain it tlél kakḵwalachaa I wonʼt strain it tlél akagux̱lachaa s/he wonʼt strain it kaḵlachaa let me strain it akax̱lachaa let him/her strain it koox̱lacháaych I strain it (every time) akoolcháaych s/he strains it (every time) tlél koox̱lacháaych I havenʼt strained it yet tlél akoolcháaych s/he hasnʼt strained it yet tlél aadé kooḵalichaayi yé no way can I strain it tlél aadé akoox̱lichaayi yé no way can s/he strain it kooḵalachaayín I would have strained it akoox̱lachaayín s/he would have strained it kax̱lachéini if/when I strain it aklachéini if/when s/he strains it kax̱lachéix̱ I strain it (regularly) aklachéix̱ s/he strains it (regularly) chaak pile, pack, stack pack it; pile up, stack it O-ka-S-∅-cháak~ (∅ act; CV́C Hort/Pot) for S to pile, stack away neatly, pack O (food, clothing, firewood, etc.) ka-ya-chaak Kachák! Pack it! Kaychák! You all pack it! Líl kayeecháagiḵ! Donʼt pack it! Líl kayeeycháagiḵ! Donʼt you all pack it! akacháak s/heʼs packing it tlél akoocháak s/he isnʼt packing it akacháak nooch s/he always packs it akaawachák s/he packed it tlél akawucháak s/he didnʼt pack it akakg̱wacháak s/he will pack it tlél akakg̱wacháak s/he wonʼt pack it akg̱achák let him/her pack it akoochákch s/he packs it (every time) tlél akoochákch / tlél akoocháakch s/he hasnʼt packed it yet tlél aadé ookg̱aachági yé no way can s/he pack it ookg̱achágin s/he would have packed it akachákni if s/he packs it akachákx̱ s/he packs it (regularly) chán stink, smell stink, smell strongly O-l-chán (ga state) for O to stink, have unpleasant odor, smell bad; for O to smell strongly li-chaan Líl eelchániḵ Donʼt be stinky! Líl yee lachániḵ Donʼt you all be stinky! x̱at lichán I stink ilichán you stink lichán he/she/it stinks haa lichán we stink yee lichán you all stink has lichán they stink ḵulichán somebody stinks tlél x̱at ulchán I donʼt stink tlél eelchán you donʼt stink tlél ulchán he/she/it doesnʼt stink tlél haa ulchán we donʼt stink tlél yee ulchán you all donʼt stink tlél has ulchán they donʼt stink tlél ḵoolchán nobody stinks wé lichani aa the one who stinks kei ax̱ nalchán Iʼm starting to stink kei inalchán youʼre starting to stink kei nalchán he/she/it is starting to stink kei haa nalchán we are starting to stink kei yee nalchán you all are starting to stink kei has nalchán they are starting to stink kei ḵunalchán people are starting to stink lachánin he/she/it used to stink tlél ulchánin he/she/it didnʼt used to stink ax̱ wulichán I stank iwlichán you stank wulichán he/she/it stank haa wlichán we stank yee wlichán you all stank has wulichán they stank ḵuwlichán people stank tlél ax̱ wulchán I didnʼt stink tlél iwulchán you didnʼt stink tlél wulchán he/she/it didnʼt stink tlél haa wulchán we didnʼt stink tlél yee wulchán you all didnʼt stink tlél has wulchán they didnʼt stink tlél ḵuwulchán nobody stank kei ax̱ gux̱lachán I will stink kei igux̱lachán you will stink kei gux̱lachán he/she/it will stink kei haa gux̱lachán we will stink kei yee gux̱lachán you all will stink kei (ha)s gux̱lachán they will stink kei ḵugux̱lachán people will stink tlél kei ax̱ gux̱lachán I wonʼt stink tlél kei igux̱lachán you wonʼt stink tlél kei gux̱lachán he/she/it wonʼt stink tlél kei haa gux̱lachán we wonʼt stink tlél kei yee gux̱lachán you all wonʼt stink tlél kei (ha)s gux̱lachán they wonʼt stink tlél kei ḵugux̱lachán nobody will stink ax̱ gax̱lachán let me stink gax̱lachán let him/her/it stink haa gax̱lachán let us stink lachán nooch he/she/it always stinks tlél aadé gux̱lichani yé no way can he/she/it stink gux̱lacháneen he/she/it would have stunk lachánni if/when he/she/it stinks kei lachánch he/she/it stinks (regularly) ` ` Yee lichán You all stink (often used in reference to alcohol on the breath). Chʼa yéi x̱at kasnéexʼi tín, has du yáanáx̱ át x̱wasikóo. Even though I stink, I know more than they do. choon (2) injure injure, hurt, wound, bruise him/her O-S-l-choon~ (∅ event; CV́C Hort/Pot) for S to injure, hurt, wound, bruise O li-choon Lachún! Injure him/her/it! Yilachún! You all injure him/her/it! Líl ilachúnx̱iḵ! Donʼt injure him/her/it Líl yilachúnx̱iḵ! Donʼt you all injure him/her/it [does not occur] x̱walichún I injured him/her/it awlichún s/he injured him/her/it tlél x̱walachoon I didnʼt injure him/her/it tlél awulchoon s/he didnʼt injure him/her/it agux̱lachóon s/he will injure him/her/it tlél agux̱lachoon s/he wonʼt injure him/her/it (chʼa) ax̱lachún (just) let him/her injure him/her/it oolchúnch s/he injures him/her/it (every time) tlél oolchúnch s/he hasnʼt injured him/her/it yet tlél aadé oox̱lichúni yé no way can s/he injure him/her/it oox̱lachúnin s/he would have injured him/her/it alchúnni if/when s/he injures him/her/it alchúnx̱ s/he injures it (regularly) I jin tsá ilachóon! See that you donʼt injure your hand! Du goosh awlichún. He hurt his thumb. Ilachúnni, i éede jikḵwadagóot. If you hurt him, I will attack you. injured, wounded, bruised (physically); hurt (emotionally) O-d-choon~ (∅ event) for O to be wounded, injured, bruised; for O to be hurt (emotionally) li-choon The most common use of this verb is in the perfective form. Note that it can also refer to a mental state, as in: ḵúnáx̱ haa wdichún "weʼre really hurting (emotionally)" (after the loss of a family member, e.g.). [does not occur] x̱at wudichún I got injured wudichún s/he got injured tlél x̱at wudachoon I didnʼt get injured tlél wudachoon s/he didnʼt get injured [does not occur] [does not occur] [does not occur] [does not occur] [does not occur] tlél aadé ux̱dichooni yé no way can s/he get injured g̱wadachoonín s/he would have gotten injured dachúnni if/when s/he gets injured dachúnx̱ s/he gets injured (regularly) choox knead, press, pat knead it, press it, pat it (with palm of hand) O-ka-S-∅-choox~ (∅ act; CV́C Hort/Pot) for S to knead, press, pat O with palm of hand -cheexw~ ka-ya-choox Kachúx! Knead it! Kaychúx! You all knead it! Líl keechooxúḵ! Donʼt knead it! Líl kaychooxúḵ! Donʼt you all knead it! kax̱achóox I knead it; I am kneading it keechóox you knead it; you are kneading it akachóox s/he kneads it; s/he is kneading it katoochóox we knead it; we are kneading it kaychóox you all knead it; you all are kneading it has akachóox they knead it; they are kneading it kaduchóox it is kneaded; it is being kneaded tlél koox̱achoox I donʼt knead it; Iʼm not kneading it tlél keechoox you donʼt knead it; you arenʼt kneading it tlél akoochoox s/he doesnʼt knead it; s/he isnʼt kneading it tlél katoochoox we donʼt knead it; we arenʼt kneading it tlél kaychoox you all donʼt knead it; you all arenʼt kneading it tlél has akoochoox they donʼt knead it; they arenʼt kneading it tlél kaduchoox it isnʼt kneaded; it isnʼt being kneaded wé akachoox aa the one who kneads it; the one who is kneading it akachooxún s/he used to knead it tlél akoochooxún s/he didnʼt used to knead it kax̱waachúx I kneaded it keeyachúx you kneaded it akaawachúx s/he kneaded it kawtuwachúx we kneaded it kayeeychúx you all kneaded it has akaawachúx they kneaded it kawduwachúx it was kneaded tlél kax̱wachoox I didnʼt knead it tlél kayichoox you didnʼt knead it tléil akawuchoox s/he didnʼt knead it tlél kawtoochoox we didnʼt knead it tlél kayeeychoox you all didnʼt knead it tlél has akawuchoox they didnʼt knead it tlél kawduchoox it wasnʼt kneaded kakḵwachóox I will knead it kakg̱eechóox you will knead it akakg̱wachóox s/he will knead it kagax̱toochóox we will knead it kagax̱yeechóox you all will knead it has akakg̱wachóox they will knead it kagax̱duchóox it will be kneaded tlél kakḵwachoox I wonʼt knead it tlél kakg̱eechoox you wonʼt knead it tlél akakg̱wachoox s/he wonʼt knead it tlél kagax̱toochoox we wonʼt knead it tlél kagax̱yeechoox you all wonʼt knead it tlél has akakg̱wachoox they wonʼt knead it tlél kagax̱duchoox it wonʼt be kneaded kaḵachúx let me knead it akg̱achúx let him/her knead it kax̱toochúx let us knead it akachoox nooch s/he always kneads it koox̱achúxch I knead it (every time) keechúxch you knead it (every time) akoochúxch s/he kneads it (every time) katoochúxch we knead it (every time) kaychúxch you all knead it (every time) has akoochúxch they knead it (every time) kaduchúxch it is kneaded (every time) tlél koox̱achúxch I havenʼt kneaded it yet tlél keechúxch you havenʼt kneaded it yet tlél akoochúxch s/he hasnʼt kneaded it yet tlél katoochúxch we havenʼt kneaded it yet tlél kaychúxch you all havenʼt kneaded it yet tlél has akoochúxch they havenʼt kneaded it yet tlél kooduchúxch it hasnʼt been kneaded yet tlél aadé akg̱waachúxu yé no way can s/he knead it akg̱wachúxun she would have kneaded it akachúxni if/when s/he kneads it akachúxx̱ s/he kneads it (regularly) ` ` ` ` choox̱ (2) mooch mooch, freeload; obtain things often without payment at u-S-∅-choox̱ (g̱a act) for S to mooch, freeload; for S to obtain things often without payment ya-choox̱ Leer 1973: 10/228-229 At g̱achoox̱! Freeload! At g̱aychoox̱! You all freeload! Líl at eechoox̱úḵ! Donʼt freeload! Lílt at yichoox̱úḵ! Donʼt you all freeload! at uchoox̱ s/he is freeloading; s/he freeloads tlél at uchoox̱ s/he isnʼt freeloading; s/he doesnʼt freeload at uchoox̱ nooch s/he is always freeloading at x̱waachoox̱ I freeloaded at woochoox̱ s/he freeloaded tlél at x̱wachoox̱ I didnʼt freeload tlél at wuchoox̱ s/he didnʼt freeload yei at gug̱wachoox̱ s/he will freeload tlél yei at gug̱wachoox̱ s/he wonʼt freeload (chʼa) at g̱aag̱achoox̱ (just) let him/her freeload at g̱achoox̱ch s/he freeloads (every time) tlél at g̱wachoox̱ch s/he hasnʼt freeloaded yet tlél aadé at g̱waag̱aachoox̱u yé no way can s/he freeload at g̱waag̱achoox̱ún s/he would have freeloaded at g̱achoox̱ní if/when s/he freeloads yei at uchoox̱ch s/he freeloads (regularly) Du éech yaa akandushkʼán ḵúdáx̱ at uchoox̱. Theyʼre starting to get angry with him, he freeloads too much. At uchoox̱ akwshitán. Heʼs in the habit of mooching things. mooch, bum, scrounge it; obtain it often without payment (N eex̱) O-u-S-∅-choox̱ (g̱a act) for S to mooch, bum, scrounge O (off of N); for S to obtain O (from N) often without payment ya-choox̱ Leer 1973: 10/228-229 (Du eex̱) g̲̲achoox̱! Mooch it (off of him/her)! Líl (du eex̱) eechoox̱úḵ! Donʼt mooch it (off of him/her)! (du eex̱) oochoox̱ s/he is mooching it (off of him/her); s/he mooches it (off of him/her) tlél (du eex̱) oochoox̱ s/he isnʼt mooching it (off of him/her); s/he doesnʼt mooch it (off of him/her) (du eex̱) oochoox̱ nooch s/he always mooches it (off of him/her) (du eex̱) x̱waachoox̱ I mooched it (off of him/her) (du eex̱) aawachoox̱ s/he mooched it (off of him/her) tlél (du eex̱) x̱wachoox̱ I didnʼt mooch it (off of him/her) tlél (du eex̱) awuchoox̱ s/he didnʼt mooch it (off of him/her) (du eex̱) yei akg̱wachoox̱ s/he will mooch it (off of him/her) tlél (du eex̱) yei akg̱wachoox̱ s/he wonʼt mooch it (off of him/her) (chʼa) (du eex̱) ag̱aag̱achoox̱ (just) let him/her mooch it (off of him/her) (du eex̱) oog̱achoox̱ch s/he mooches it (off of him/her) (every time) tlél (du eex̱) oog̱achoox̱ch s/he hasnʼt mooched it (off of him/her) yet tlél aadé (du eex̱) ag̱waag̱aachoox̱u yé no way can s/he mooch it (off of him/her) (du eex̱) ag̱waag̱achoox̱ún s/he would have mooched it (off of him/her) (du eex̱) ag̱achoox̱ní if/when s/he mooches it (off of him/her) (du eex̱) yei oochoox̱ch s/he mooches it (off of him/her) (regularly) Tlákw dáanaa oochoox̱ nuch. Heʼs always mooching money. Du eex̱ yei kḵwachoox̱. Iʼm going to sponge it off of him. [Leer 1973: 10/229] chʼaakʼw carve carve it O-ka-S-∅-chʼáakʼw~ (∅ act; CV́Cʼ Hort/Pot) for S to carve O (usually smaller, detailed work) using a knife ka-ya-chʼaakʼw Kachʼákʼw! Carve it! Kaychʼákʼw! You all carve it! Líl keechʼákʼx̱uḵ! Donʼt carve it! Líl kaychʼákʼx̱uḵ! Donʼt you all carve it! akachʼáakʼw s/he is carving it tlél akoochʼáakʼw s/he isnʼt carving it akaawachʼákʼw s/he carved it tlél akawuchʼáakʼw s/he didnʼt carve it akakg̱wachʼáakʼw s/he will carve it tlél akakg̱wachʼáakʼw s/he wonʼt carve it akg̱achʼákʼw let him/her carve it akoochʼákʼwch s/he carves it (every time) tlél akoochʼáakʼwch s/he hasnʼt carved it yet tlél aadé ookg̱aachʼákʼu yé no way can s/he carve it ookg̱achʼákʼun s/he would have carved it akachʼákʼwni if/when s/he carves it akachʼákʼwx̱ s/he carves it (regularly) chʼáchʼx̱ spotted spotted ka-d-l-chʼáchʼx̱ (ga state) for a natural object (wood, rock, etc.) to be spotted ka-dli-chʼáchʼx̱ This verb only occurs in the imperfective. kadlichʼáchʼx̱ itʼs spotted tlél koolchʼáchʼx̱ itʼs not spotted [does not occur] [does not occur] chʼeesh (2) splash splash, be splashed ka-d-chʼeesh~ (∅ act) for a liquid to splash, be splashed ka-di-chʼeesh Leer 1973: 10/260-261 kadachʼéesh it is splashing kawdichʼísh it splashed tlél kawdachʼeesh it didnʼt splash kagux̱dachʼéesh it will splash tlél kagux̱dachʼeesh it wonʼt splash kax̱dachʼeesh let it splash koodachʼeeshch it splashes (every time) tlél koodachʼeeshch it hasnʼt splashed yet tlél aadé koox̱dichʼeeshi yé no way can it splash koox̱dachʼeeshín it would have splashed kadachʼíshni if/when it splashes kadachʼíshx̱ it splashes (regularly) Du yát kawdichʼísh. It splashed his face. splash it (N daadé) O-ka-S-l-chʼeesh~ (∅ act) for S to splash O (on N) ka-li-chʼeesh Leer 1973: 10/260-261 (Du daadé) kalachʼísh! Splash it (on him/her)! (Du daadé) kaylachʼísh! You all splash it (on him/her)! Líl (du daadé) keelachʼíshx̱iḵ! Donʼt splash it (on him/her)! Líl (du daadé) kalyachʼíshx̱iḵ! Donʼt you all splash it (on him/her)! (du daadé) aklachʼéesh s/he is splashing it (on him/her) tlél (du daadé) akoolchʼéesh s/he isnʼt splashing it (on him/her) (du daadé) kax̱wlichʼísh I splashed it (on him/her) (du daadé) akawlichʼísh s/he splashed it (on him/her) tlél (du daadé) kax̱wlachʼeesh I didnʼt splash it (on him/her) tlél (du daadé) akawulchʼeesh s/he didnʼt splash it (on him/her) (du daadé) akagux̱lachʼéesh s/he will splash it (on him/her) tlél (du daadé) akagux̱lachʼeesh s/he wonʼt splash it (on him/her) (du daadé) akax̱lachʼeesh let him/her splash it (on him/her) (du daadé) aklachʼeeshch s/he splashes it (on him/her) (every time) tlél (du daadé) akoolchʼeeshch s/he hasnʼt splashed it (on him/her) yet tlél aadé (du daadé) akoox̱lichʼeeshi yé no way can s/he splash it (on him/her) (du daadé) akoox̱lachʼeeshín s/he would have splashed it (on him/her) (du daadé) aklachʼíshni if/when s/he splashes it (on him/her) (du daadé) aklachʼíshx̱ s/he splashes it (on him/her) (regularly) Yáa héen ax̱ daat kaylichʼísh. You splashed some water on me. [Story & Naish 1973: 204] Du daat aklachʼíshni xʼáan yáx̱ du toowú kg̱washx̱éen. If he splashes it on her, sheʼll get angry. chʼeex̱ʼ point (with finger) point (with finger) -chʼeix̱ʼ P-t~ S-∅-chʼéex̱ʼ~ (∅ motion) for S to point in the direction of P ya-chʼeix̱ʼ Át eechʼíx̱ʼ! Point there! Át yeechʼíx̱ʼ! You all point there! Líl át yichʼéex̱ʼiḵ! Donʼt point there! Líl át yeeychʼéex̱ʼiḵ! Donʼt you all point there! [does not occur] aadé yaa nachʼíx̱ʼ s/heʼs pointing there át x̱waachʼíx̱ʼ I pointed there át iyachʼíx̱ʼ you pointed there át uwachʼíx̱ʼ s/he pointed there át wutuwachʼíx̱ʼ we pointed there át yeeychʼíx̱ʼ you all pointed there át has uwachʼíx̱ʼ they pointed there át aawachʼíx̱ʼ people pointed there tlél át x̱wachʼéex̱ʼ I didnʼt point there tlél át yichʼéex̱ʼ you didnʼt point there tlél át woochʼéex̱ʼ s/he didnʼt point there tlél át wutoochʼéex̱ʼ we didnʼt point there tlél át yeeychʼéex̱ʼ you all didnʼt point there tlél át has woochʼéex̱ʼ they didnʼt point there tlél át aawuchʼéex̱ʼ nobody pointed there át wuchʼéix̱ʼin s/he had pointed there; s/he pointed there (but...) aadé kḵwachʼéex̱ʼ I will point there aadé kg̱eechʼéex̱ʼ you will point there aadé kg̱wachʼéex̱ʼ s/he will point there aadé gax̱toochʼéex̱ʼ we will point there aadé gax̱yichʼéex̱ʼ you all will point there aadé (ha)s gug̱achʼéex̱ʼ they will point there aadé akg̱wachʼéex̱ʼ someone will point there tlél aadé kḵwachʼéex̱ʼ I wonʼt point there tlél aadé kg̱eechʼéex̱ʼ you wonʼt point there tlél aadé kg̱wachʼéex̱ʼ s/he wonʼt point there tlél aadé gax̱toochʼéex̱ʼ we wonʼt point there tlél aadé gax̱yichʼéex̱ʼ you all wonʼt point there tlél aadé (ha)s gug̱achʼéex̱ʼ they wonʼt point there tlél aadé akg̱wachʼéex̱ʼ nobody will point there át ḵachʼéex̱ʼ let me point there át g̱achʼéex̱ʼ let him/her point there át g̱atoochʼéex̱ʼ let us point there át x̱wachʼíx̱ʼch I point there (every time) át eechʼíx̱ʼch you point there (every time) át uchʼíx̱ʼch s/he points there (every time) át toochʼíx̱ʼch we point there (every time) át yeechʼíx̱ʼch you all point there (every time) át has uchʼíx̱ʼch they point there (every time) át oochʼíx̱ʼch people point there (every time) tlél át x̱wachʼíx̱ʼch I havenʼt pointed there yet tlél át eechʼíx̱ʼch you havenʼt pointed there yet tlél át uchʼíx̱ʼch s/he hasnʼt pointed there yet tlél át toochʼíx̱ʼch we havenʼt pointed there yet tlél át yeechʼíx̱ʼch you all havenʼt pointed there yet tlél át has uchʼíx̱ʼch they havenʼt pointed there yet tlél át oochʼíx̱ʼch nobody has pointed there yet tlél aadé át g̱waachʼíx̱ʼi yé no way can s/he point there át g̱wachʼíx̱ʼin s/he would have pointed there át chʼíx̱ʼni if/when s/he points there áx̱ chʼéex̱ʼ s/he points there (regularly) Chʼa tlákw át x̱achʼéix̱ʼ nooch. I always point there. chʼéeyáḵw (2) slow slow O-l-chʼéeyáḵw (ga state) for O to be slow li-chʼéeyaḵw Leer 1973: 10/250-251 x̱at lichʼéeyáḵw I am slow lichʼéeyáḵw s/he is slow tlél x̱at ulchʼéeyáḵw Iʼm not slow tlél ulchʼéeyáḵw s/he isnʼt slow kei nalchʼéeyáḵw s/he is starting to slow down; s/he is getting slow wulichʼéeyáḵw s/he got slow tlél wulchʼéeyáḵw s/he didnʼt get slow gux̱lachʼéeyáḵw s/he will be slow tlél gux̱lachʼéeyáḵw s/he wonʼt be slow (chʼa) gax̱lachʼéeyáḵw (just) let him/her be slow galachʼéeyáḵwch s/he gets slow (every time) tlél goolchʼéeyáḵwch s/he hasnʼt gotten slow yet tlél aadé gux̱lichʼéeyág̱u yé no way can s/he be slow gux̱lachʼéeyág̱un s/he would have been slow galachʼéeyákwni if/when s/he gets slow kei lachʼéeyáḵwch s/he gets slow (regularly) Neilyeexʼ yéi jiné aan x̱at lichʼéeyaḵw. Iʼm slow at housework. [Story & Naish 1973: 197] A yáanáx̱ lichʼéeyaḵw: yasátgi shí áwé. Itʼs too slow (that is, you are singing it too slowly): itʼs a fast song. [Story & Naish 1973: 197] Tlax̱ ḵútx̱ wulichʼéeyáḵw. He was entirely too slow. [Leer 1973: 10/251] slow (in speaking or eating) Leer (1973: 10/251) documents this verb as x̱ʼayawlichʼéeyáḵw, having a ya- thematic prefix. Story & Naish (1973: 306) document the verb without the ya- thematic prefix: x̱ʼawlichʼéeyáḵw, and this is how speakers consulted for this project pronounced the verb as well. Please note that both forms are acceptable. O-x̱ʼa-l-chʼéeyáḵw (ga state) for O to be slow in eating or talking x̱ʼa-li-chʼéeyaḵw Leer 1973: 10/250-251 x̱at x̱ʼalichʼéeyáḵw I am a slow eater/talker x̱ʼalichʼéeyáḵw s/he is a slow eater/talker tlél x̱at x̱ʼeilchʼéeyáḵw Iʼm not a slow eater/talker tlél x̱ʼeilchʼéeyáḵw s/he isnʼt a slow eater/talker kei x̱ʼanalchʼéeyáḵw s/he is getting to be a slow eater/talker x̱ʼawlichʼéeyáḵw s/he became a slow eater/talker tlél x̱ʼawulchʼéeyáḵw s/he didnʼt become a slow eater/talker x̱ʼagux̱lachʼéeyáḵw s/he will be a slow eater/talker tlél x̱ʼagux̱lachʼéeyáḵw s/he wonʼt be a slow eater/talker (chʼa) x̱ʼagax̱lachʼéeyáḵw (just) let him/her be a slow eater/talker x̱ʼaklachʼéeyáḵwch s/he gets to be a slow eater/talker (every time) tlél x̱ʼagoolchʼéeyáḵwch s/he hasnʼt gotten to be a slow eater/talker yet tlél aadé x̱ʼagoox̱lichʼéeyág̱u yé no way can s/he be a slow eater/talker x̱ʼagoox̱lachʼéeyág̱un s/he would have been a slow eater/talker x̱ʼaklachʼéeyákwni if/when s/he is a slow eater/talker kei x̱ʼalachʼéeyáḵwch s/he gets to be a slow eater/talker (regularly) Atx̱á teen x̱at x̱ʼalichʼéeyaḵw. Iʼm slow in eating / I eat slowly. [Story & Naish 1973: 197] chʼeix̱ʼ (2) point point at it, point it out O-S-∅-chʼéix̱ʼ~ (∅ event) for S to point at, point out O ya-chʼeix̱ʼ Leer 1973: 10/262-263 Chʼéx̱ʼ! Point at it! Yichʼéx̱ʼ! You all point at it! Líl eechʼéx̱ʼx̱iḵ! Donʼt point at it! Líl yichʼéx̱ʼx̱iḵ! Donʼt you all point at it! [does not occur] x̱waachʼéx̱ʼ I pointed at it aawachʼéx̱ʼ s/he pointed at it tlél x̱wachʼéix̱ʼ I didnʼt point at it tlél awuchʼéix̱ʼ s/he didnʼt point at it akg̱wachʼéix̱ʼ s/he will point at it tlél akg̱wachʼéix̱ʼ s/he wonʼt point at it (chʼa) ag̱achʼéix̱ʼ (just) let him/her point at it oochʼéix̱ʼch s/he points at it (every time) tlél oochʼéix̱ʼch s/he hasnʼt pointed at it yet tlél aadé ag̱waachʼéix̱ʼi yé no way can s/he point at it ag̱wachʼéix̱ʼin s/he would have pointed at it achʼéx̱ʼni if/when s/he points at it achʼéx̱ʼx̱ s/he points at it (regularly) Yaakw aawachʼéx̱ʼ. He pointed at the boat. [Story & Naish 1973: 154] Wé at yahaayí chʼíx̱ʼ. Point at the picture. point at a person (with finger) O-ya-S-∅-chʼéex̱ʼ~ (∅ act) for S to point at O (with finger) ya-ya-chʼeix̱ʼ Leer 1973: 10/262-263 O-ya-S-∅-chʼéix̱ʼ~ (∅ act) Yachʼíx̱ʼ! Point at him/her! Yaychʼíx̱ʼ! You all point at him/her! Líl yeechʼíx̱ʼx̱iḵ! Donʼt point at him/her! Líl yaychʼíx̱ʼx̱iḵ! Donʼt you all point at him/her! ayachʼíx̱ʼt s/he is pointing at him/her tlél awoochʼíx̱ʼt s/he isnʼt pointing at him/her yax̱waachʼíx̱ʼ I pointed at him/her ayaawachʼíx̱ʼ s/he pointed at him/her tlél yax̱wachʼéex̱ʼ I didnʼt point at him/her tlél ayawuchʼéex̱ʼ s/he didnʼt point at him/her ayakg̱wachʼéex̱ʼ s/he will point at him/her tlél ayakg̱wachʼéex̱ʼ s/he wonʼt point at him/her (chʼa) ayag̱achʼéex̱ʼ (just) let him/her point at him/her awoochʼéex̱ʼch s/he points at him/her (every time) tlél awoochʼéex̱ʼch s/he hasnʼt pointed at him/her yet tlél aadé awoog̱aachʼéex̱ʼi yé no way can s/he point at him/her awoog̱achʼéex̱ʼin s/he would have pointed at him/her ayachʼíx̱ʼni if/when s/he points at him/her ayachʼíx̱ʼx̱ s/heʼs still pointing at him/her Kudigéiḵ ḵuyaduchʼíx̱ʼx̱i. Itʼs not polite to point at people. chʼeix̱ʼw (2) dirty, soil soil it, get it dirty O-S-l-chʼéix̱ʼw~ (∅ event) for S to dirty, soil O (esp. clothing or person) li-chʼeix̱ʼw Lachʼéx̱ʼw! Get it dirty! Yeeylachʼéx̱ʼw! You all get it dirty! Líl ilachʼéx̱ʼwx̱uḵ! Donʼt get it dirty! Líl yilachʼéx̱ʼwx̱uḵ! Donʼt you all get it dirty! [does not occur] yaa nx̱alachʼéx̱ʼw I am getting it dirty yaa analchʼéx̱ʼw s/heʼs getting it dirty x̱walichʼéx̱ʼw I got it dirty awlichʼéx̱ʼw s/he got it dirty tlél x̱walachʼéix̱ʼw I didnʼt get it dirty tlél awulchʼéix̱ʼw s/he didnʼt get it dirty kuḵalachʼéix̱ʼw I will get it dirty agux̱lachʼéix̱ʼw s/he will get it dirty tlél kuḵalachʼéix̱ʼw I wonʼt get it dirty tlél agux̱lachʼéix̱ʼw s/he wonʼt get it dirty ḵalachʼéix̱ʼw let me get it dirty ax̱lachʼéix̱ʼw let him/her get it dirty x̱walachʼéx̱ʼwch I get it dirty (every time) oolchʼéx̱ʼwch s/he gets it dirty (every time) tlél x̱walachʼéx̱ʼwch I havenʼt gotten it dirty yet tlél oolchʼéx̱ʼwch s/he hasnʼt gotten it dirty yet tlél aadé ḵwalichʼéix̱ʼu yé no way can I get it dirty tlél aadé oox̱lichʼéix̱ʼu yé no way can s/he get it dirty ḵwalachʼéix̱ʼun I would have gotten it dirty oox̱lachʼéix̱ʼun s/he would have gotten it dirty x̱alachʼéx̱ʼwni if/when I get it dirty alchʼéx̱ʼwni if/when s/he gets it dirty x̱alachʼéx̱ʼwx̱ I get it dirty (regularly) alchʼéx̱ʼwx̱ s/he gets it dirty (regularly) Tlél x̱walachʼéix̱ʼw ax̱ dleit kʼoodásʼi. I didnʼt dirty my white shirt. Chʼa tlákw oolchʼéx̱ʼwch du at xáshdi téeli. He always dirties his moccasins. Tlákw áwé alchʼéx̱ʼwx̱ du naa.ádi. She always dirties her clothes. Wé yées yee.át kasʼísayi tlél x̱walachʼéix̱ʼw. I didnʼt dirty the new sheet. dirty (on surface) O-l-chʼéix̱ʼw~ (∅ event) for O to be dirty li-chʼeix̱ʼw Ilachʼéx̱ʼw! Get dirty! Yilachʼéx̱ʼw! You all get dirty! Líl ilchʼéx̱ʼx̱uḵ! Donʼt get dirty! Líl yee lachʼéx̱ʼx̱uḵ! Donʼt you all get dirty! [does not occur] yaa x̱at nalchʼéx̱ʼw Iʼm getting dirty yaa inalchʼéx̱ʼw youʼre getting dirty yaa nalchʼéx̱ʼw he/she/it is getting dirty yaa haa nalchʼéx̱ʼw weʼre getting dirty yaa yee nalchʼéx̱ʼw you all are getting dirty yaa (ha)s nalchʼéx̱ʼw they are getting dirty [does not occur] [does not occur] x̱at wulichʼéx̱ʼw Iʼm dirty iwlichʼéx̱ʼw youʼre dirty wulichʼéx̱ʼw he/she/it is dirty haa wlichʼéx̱ʼw weʼre dirty yee wlichʼéx̱ʼw you all are dirty has wulichʼéx̱ʼw theyʼre dirty tlél x̱at wulchʼéix̱ʼw Iʼm not dirty tlél iwulchʼéix̱ʼw youʼre not dirty tlél wulchʼéix̱ʼw s/heʼs not dirty tlél haa wulchʼéix̱ʼw weʼre not dirty tlél yee wulchʼéix̱ʼw you all arenʼt dirty tlél has wulchʼéix̱ʼw theyʼre not dirty tlél ḵuwulchʼéix̱ʼw nobody is dirty x̱at gux̱lachʼéix̱ʼw I will get dirty igux̱lachʼéix̱ʼw you will get dirty gux̱lachʼéix̱ʼw s/he will get dirty haa gux̱lachʼéix̱ʼw we will get dirty yee gux̱lachʼéix̱ʼw you all will get dirty has gux̱lachʼéix̱ʼw they will get dirty ḵugux̱lachʼéix̱ʼw someone will get dirty tlél x̱at gux̱lachʼéix̱ʼw I wonʼt get dirty tlél igux̱lachʼéix̱ʼw you wonʼt get dirty tlél gux̱lachʼéix̱ʼw s/he wonʼt get dirty tlél haa gux̱lachʼéix̱ʼw we wonʼt get dirty tlél yee gux̱lachʼéix̱ʼw you all wonʼt get dirty tlél has gux̱lachʼéix̱ʼw they wonʼt get dirty tlél ḵugux̱lachʼéix̱ʼw nobody will get dirty x̱at g̱alachʼéix̱ʼw let me be dirty g̱alachʼéix̱ʼw let him/her be dirty haa g̱alachʼéix̱ʼw let us be dirty x̱at ulchʼéx̱ʼwch I get dirty (every time) eelchʼéx̱ʼwch you get dirty (every time) ulchʼéx̱ʼwch s/he gets dirty (every time) haa ulchʼéx̱ʼwch we get dirty (every time) yee ulchʼéx̱ʼwch you all get dirty (every time) has ulchʼéx̱ʼwch they get dirty (every time) ḵoolchʼéx̱ʼwch someone gets dirty (every time) tlél x̱at ulchʼéx̱ʼwch I havenʼt gotten dirty yet tlél eelchʼéx̱ʼwch you havenʼt gotten dirty yet tlél ulchʼéx̱ʼwch he/she/it hasnʼt gotten dirty yet tlél haa ulchʼéx̱ʼwch we havenʼt gotten dirty yet tlél yee ulchʼéx̱ʼwch you all havenʼt gotten dirty yet tlél has ulchʼéx̱ʼwch they havenʼt gotten dirty yet tlél ḵoolchʼéx̱ʼwch nobody has gotten dirty yet tlél aadé ux̱lichʼéix̱ʼu yé no way can s/he get dirty ux̱lachʼéix̱ʼun s/he would have gotten dirty lachʼéx̱ʼwni if/when s/he gets dirty lachʼéx̱ʼwx̱ he/she/it gets dirty (regularly) daa1 (6) flow, rise (tide), bleed, run (nose) flow there; flood it (of tide) P-náx̱ ya-∅-daa~ (∅ motion) for water, the tide to flow through P; for water, the tide to flood P ya-daa [does not occur] anax̱ yaa yanadéin itʼs flowing there anax̱ yaawadáa it flowed there tlél anax̱ yawudá it didnʼt flow there anax̱ yakg̱wadáa it will flow there tlél anax̱ yakg̱wadaa it wonʼt flow there anax̱ yag̱adaa (dé) let it flow there (now) anax̱ yoodáaych it flows there (every time) tlél anax̱ woodáaych it hasnʼt flowed there yet tlél aadé anax̱ yag̱waadaayi yé no way can it flow there anax̱ yag̱wadaayín it would have flowed there anax̱ yadéini if/when it flows there [does not occur] Ax̱ sélʼ kinaak.ádi tóonáx̱ yaawadáa wé séew. The rain leaked through my raincoat. rise, come in (of tide) daaḵ ∅-daa~ (∅ motion) for the tide to rise, come in ya-daa [does not occur] daaḵ nadéin the tide is coming in daaḵ uwadáa the tide is in [does not occur] daaḵ gug̱adáa the tide will rise [does not occur] [does not occur] daaḵ udáaych the tide comes in (every time) tlél daaḵ udáaych the tide hasnʼt come in yet [does not occur] [does not occur] daaḵ déini if/when the tide comes in [does not occur] flow (water, blood); run (of nose) VII ka-∅-daa~ (na motion) for water, blood to flow; for a nose to run ka-ya-daa kanaadaa itʼs flowing yaa kanadéin itʼs starting to flow kaawadaa it flowed; itʼs flowing tlél kawudaa it didnʼt flow; itʼs not flowing kakg̱wadáa it will flow tlél kakg̱wadaa it wonʼt flow kang̱adaa let it flow kanadéich it flows (every time) tlél koonadéich it hasnʼt flowed yet tlél aadé koong̱aadaayi yé no way can it flow koong̱adaayín it would have flowed kanadéini if/when it flows yoo kayadéik it flows (regularly) Héen tlél kawudaa, wudlitʼíxʼ. The water isnʼt flowing, itʼs frozen. Tle yaadé yoo kayadéik. It flows here. Ax̱ lú kaawadaa. My nose is running. Ldakát tsʼootaat áwé shí du lóot kanadéich. Every morning his nose bleeds. g̱ílʼ yáx̱ kanaadaa wé héen. The water is flowing down the face of the rock cliff. Du tlʼátgi dagiygé áwé héenákʼw áx̱ kanaadaa. A small stream flows in the middle of her land. rise (of water level, tide) kei ∅-daa~ (∅ motion) for water level, tide to rise ya-daa [does not occur] kei nadéin itʼs rising kei uwadáa it rose tlél kei wudá it didnʼt kei kg̱wadáa it will rise tlél kei kg̱wadaa it wonʼt [does not occur] kei udáaych it rises (every time) tlél kei udáaych it hasnʼt risen yet tlél aadé kei g̱waadaayi yé no way can it rise kei g̱wadaayín it would have risen kei déini if/when it rises [does not occur] Tlél aadé kei g̱waadaayi yé, tlél séew daak ustaanch ách áwé. Thereʼs no way the water level can rise because it hasnʼt rained yet. Áyáx̱ kei uwadáa wé yaakw héende wusx̱óotʼi. The tide is just right for putting the boat in the water. bleed, run (of nose) To say "my nose is running", replace shí "blood" throughout the paradigm with héen "water", as in: héen ax̱ lóot uwadáa. shí N lóot~ ∅-daa~ (∅ motion) for Nʼs nose to bleed --- [does not occur] shí du lóode yaa nadéin his/her nose is starting to bleed shí ax̱ lóot uwadáa my nose is bleeding shí du lóot uwadáa his/her nose is bleeding; his/her nose bled tlél shí ax̱ lóot wudá my nose isnʼt bleeding; my nose didnʼt bleed tlél shí du lóot wudá his/her nose isnʼt bleeding; his/her nose didnʼt bleed shí du lóode kg̱wadáa his/her nose is going to bleed tlél shí du lóode kg̱wadaa his/her nose isnʼt going to bleed shí du lóot g̱adaa let his/her nose bleed shí du lóot udáaych his/her nose bleeds (every time) tlél shí du lóot udáaych his/her nose hasnʼt bled yet tlél aadé shí du lóot g̱waadaayi yé no way can his/her nose bleed shí du lóot g̱wadaayín his/her nose would have bled shí du lóot déini if/when his/her nose bleeds shí du lóox̱ daa his/her nose bleeds (regularly) Ldakát yagiyee shí du lóot udáaych. Her nose bleeds every day. Shí ax̱ lóot déini doctor x̱ánde x̱at yagax̱dux̱áa. If my nose bleeds theyʼll take me to the doctor. rise (of water level); flow (of water) II P-t~ ka-∅-daa~ (∅ motion) for water to flow, rise to P ka-ya-daa [does not occur] wé héen aadé yaa kanadéin the water level is starting to rise to there wé héen át kaawadáa the water level rose to there wé héen tlél át kawudá the water level didnʼt rise to there wé héen aadé kakg̱wadáa the water level will rise to there wé héen tlél aadé kakg̱wadaa the water level wonʼt rise to there wé héen át kag̱adaa let the water level rise to there wé héen át koodáaych the water level rises to there (every time) wé héen tlél át koodáaych the water level hasnʼt risen to there yet wé héen tlél aadé át koog̱aadaayi yé no way can the water level rise to there wé héen át koog̱adaayín the water level would have risen to there wé héen át kadéini if/when the water level rises to there wé héen áx̱ kadaa the water level rises to there (regularly) Yeisú át kaawadáa. Itʼs still rising. Át kadéini át shután wé héen. When it reaches tha level, turn off the water. daa2 (3) used to, watch watch, keep an eye on him/her/it II N káa yan~ ya-u-S-∅-daa~ (∅ motion) for S to keep an eye on, watch N A- + ya-ya-daa A káa yan woodá! Keep an eye on him/her/it! A káa yan yaydá! You all keep an eye on him/her/it! Líl a káa yax̱ yeedaayíḵ! Donʼt keep an eye on him/her/it! Lil a káa yax̱ yaydaayíḵ! Donʼt you all keep an eye on him/her/it! [does not occur] a káa yan yax̱waadáa I kept an eye on him/her/it a káa yan yaawadáa s/he kept an eye on him/her/it tlél a káa yan yax̱wadá I didnʼt keep an eye on him/her/it tlél a káa yan yawudá s/he didnʼt keep an eye on him/her/it a káa yánde yakg̱wadáa s/he will keep an eye on him/her/it tlél a káa yánde yakg̱wadaa s/he wonʼt keep an eye on him/her/it (chʼa) a káa yan yag̱adaa (just) let him/her keep an eye on him/her/it a káa yan yoodáaych s/he keeps an eye on him/her/it (every time) tlél a káa yan yoodáaych s/he hasnʼt kept an eye on him/her/it yet tlél aadé a káa yan yoog̱aadaayi yé no way can s/he keep an eye on him/her/it a káa yan yoog̱adaayín s/he would have kept an eye on him/her/it a káa yan woodéini if/when s/he keeps an eye on him/her/it a káa yax̱ woodaa s/he keeps an eye on him/her/it (regularly) Tlél wáa sá kg̱watee a káa yan woodéini. It will be OK if he keeps an eye on it. watch, keep an eye on him/her/it N kát~ ya-u-S-∅-daa~ (∅ act) for S to keep an eye on , watch N A- + ya-ya-daa A kát woodá! Keep an eye on him/her/it! A kát yaydá! You all keep an eye on him/her/it! Líl a káx̱ yeedaayíḵ! Donʼt keep an eye on him/her/it! Líl a káx̱ yaydaayíḵ! Donʼt you all keep an eye on him/her/it! a kát woox̱adéin Iʼm keeping an eye on him/her/it a kát woodéin s/he is keeping an eye on him/her/it tlél a kát woox̱adéin Iʼm not keeping an eye on him/her/it! tlél a kát woodéin s/he isnʼt keeping an eye on him/her/it a kát yax̱waadáa I kept an eye on him/her/it a kát yaawadáa s/he kept an eye on him/her/it tlél a kát yax̱wadá I didnʼt keep an eye on him/her/it tlél a kát yawudá s/he didnʼt keep an eye on him/her/it a kaadé yakg̱wadáa s/he will keep an eye on him/her/it tlél a kaadé yakg̱wadaa s/he wonʼt keep an eye on him/her/it a kát yag̱adaa let him/her keep an eye on him/her/it a kát woodáaych s/he keeps an eye on him/her/it (every time) tlél a kát woodáaych s/he hasnʼt kept an eye on him/her/it yet tlél aadé a kát woog̱aadaayi yé no way can s/he keep an eye on him/her/it a kát woog̱adaayín s/he would have kept an eye on him/her/it a kát woodéini if/when s/he keeps an eye on him/her/it a káx̱ woodaa s/he keeps an eye on him/her/it (regularly) Du yátxʼi gáanxʼ has ash koolyát a kát woodéin. Heʼs keeping an eye on his children playing outside. used to it, accustomed to it (pronunciation or flavor of something) N x̱ʼéix̱ ∅-daa~ (na event) for N to become used to, accustomed to it (of manner of speech or flavor of food) ḵaa x̱ʼéi-x̱ + ya-daa I x̱ʼéix̱ nadá! Get used to it! Yee x̱ʼéix̱ nadá! You all get used to it! [does not occur] du x̱ʼéix̱ yaa nadéin s/he is getting used to it ax̱ x̱ʼéix̱ woodaa I got used to it du x̱ʼéix̱ woodaa s/he got used to it tlél du x̱ʼéix̱ wudaa s/he didnʼt get used to it du x̱ʼéix̱ gug̱adáa s/he will get used to it tlél du x̱ʼéix̱ gug̱adaa s/he wonʼt get used to it du x̱ʼéix̱ nag̱adaa let him/her get used to it du x̱ʼéix̱ nadéich s/he gets used to it (every time) tlél du x̱ʼéix̱ unadéich s/he hasnʼt gotten used to it yet tlél aadé du x̱ʼéix̱ nag̱waadaayi yé no way can s/he get used to it du x̱ʼéix̱ nag̱wadaayín s/he would have gotten used to it du x̱ʼéix̱ nadéini it/when s/he gets used to it du x̱ʼéix̱ yoo yadéik s/he gets used to it (regularly) Wé kʼínkʼ tlél aadé du x̱ʼéix̱ nag̱waadaayi yé. She canʼt get used to eating the stink heads. daakw render render down (for oil) (esp. seal blubber) a-S-∅-daakw~ (∅ act; CV́C Hort/Pot) for S to render something down (for oil) (esp. seal blubber) a-ya-daakw Adákw! Render it! Líl eedákwx̱uḵ! Donʼt render it! adáakw s/he is rendering it ax̱waadákw I rendered it aawadákw s/he rendered it tlél ax̱wadaakw I didnʼt render it tlél awudaakw s/he didnʼt render it akg̱wadáakw s/he will render it tlél akg̱wadaakw s/he wonʼt render it ag̱adákw let him/her render it oodákwch s/he renders it (every time) tlél oodákwch s/he hasnʼt rendered it yet tlél aadé oog̱aadágu yé no way can s/he render it oog̱adágun s/he would have rendered it adákwni if/when s/he renders it adákwx̱ s/he is trying to render it Tsaa taayí aawadákw. He rendered seal oil. [Story & Naish 1973: 171] Agax̱toodáakw. We are going to render it down. [Story & Naish 1973: 171] Kʼidéin ashigóok, chʼa hóoch ag̱adákw. He knows how to do it real well, let him render it. daaḵ1 sober up, come to sober up, regain consciousness, come to N daa a-∅-daaḵ~ (na event) for N to sober up ḵaa daa a-ya-daaḵ I daa anadaaḵ (dé)! Sober up (now)! Yee daa anadaaḵ (dé)! You all sober up (now)! [does not occur] du daa yaa anadáḵ s/he is beginning to sober up ax̱ daa aawadaaḵ I sobered up du daa aawadaaḵ s/he sobered up tlél ax̱ daa awudaaḵ I didnʼt sober up tlél du daa awudaaḵ s/he didnʼt sober up du daa akg̱wadáaḵ s/he will sober up tlél du daa akg̱wadaaḵ s/he wonʼt sober up du daa ang̱adaaḵ let him/her sober up du daa anadáḵch s/he sobers up (every time) tlél du daa oonadáḵch s/he hasnʼt sobered up yet tlél aadé du daa ang̱waadaag̱i yé no way can s/he sober up du daa ang̱wadaag̱ín s/he would have sobered up du daa anadáḵni if/when s/he sobers up du daa yoo ayadáḵk s/he sobers up (regularly) Si.aatʼi héen du kát akaawax̱ích du daa ang̱adaaḵt. She threw cold water on him to sober him up. Yéi jiné du jeet yéi kḵwatée du daa anadáḵni . When he sobers up Iʼll give him a job. Daa akg̱wadáaḵ. Heʼs going to get back to his senses. [Story & Naish 1973:52] ḵaa daa yaa anadáḵ. Heʼs coming to/coming back to consciousness after drinking. [Story & Naish 1973:52] daaḵ2 move, migrate migrate, move household (permanantly) kei O-s-daaḵ~ (∅ motion) for O to move household (permanently), migrate si-daaḵ [does not occur] aax̱ kei x̱at wusidáḵ I moved from there aax̱ kei wsidáḵ s/he moved from there tlél aax̱ kei x̱at wusdaaḵ I didnʼt move from there tlél aax̱ kei wusdaaḵ s/he didnʼt move from there aax̱ kei gux̱sadáaḵ s/he will move from there tlél aax̱ kei gux̱sadaaḵ s/he wonʼt move from there tlél aax̱ kei usdaaḵch s/he hasnʼt moved from there yet tlél aadé aax̱ kei ux̱sidaag̱i yé no way can s/he move from there aax̱ kei ux̱sadaag̱ín s/he would have moved from there aax̱ kei isdáḵni if/when s/he moves from there Tléi chʼáakw x̱á wé aatx̱ kei haa wsidáḵ. It was a long time ago that we migrated from there. wé aax̱ kei haa wsidaḵi yé the place where we migrated from Tlél yáadáx̱ kei has wusdaaḵ. They didnʼt migrate from here. Tlákw Aandáx̱ haat haa wsidáḵ. We migrated here from Klukwan. daalʼ type type it O-ka-S-l-dáalʼ~ (∅ act) for S to type O ka-li-daalʼ Kaladálʼ! Type it! Kayladálʼ! You all type it! Líl keeldáalʼiḵ! Donʼt type it! Líl kayildáalʼiḵ! Donʼt you all type it! kax̱ladáalʼ Iʼm typing it; I type it akladáalʼ s/he is typing it tlél koox̱ladáalʼ Iʼm not typing it tlél akooldáalʼ s/he doesnʼt type it; s/he isnʼt typing it yaa kanax̱ladálʼ I am (in the process of) typing it yaa akanaldálʼ s/he is (in the process of) typing it akladáalʼin s/he used to type it kax̱wlidálʼ I typed it akawlidálʼ s/he typed it tlél kax̱wladáalʼ I didnʼt type it tlél akawuldáalʼ s/he didnʼt type it kakḵwaladáalʼ I will type it akagux̱ladáalʼ s/he will type it tlél kakḵwaladáalʼ I wonʼt type it tlél akagux̱ladáalʼ s/he wonʼt type it kaḵladáalʼ let me type it akax̱ladáalʼ let him/her type it akladáalʼ nooch s/he always types it koox̱ladáalʼch I type it (every time) akooldáalʼch s/he types it (every time) tlél koox̱ladáalʼch I havenʼt typed it yet tlél akooldáalʼch s/he hasnʼt typed it yet tlél aadé akoox̱lidáalʼi yé no way can s/he type it akoox̱ladáalʼin s/he would have typed it akladálʼni if/when s/he types it akladálʼx̱ s/he types it (regularly) Ax̱ jeeyís xʼwán keeldálʼ! Type this for me! daan snow snow heavily a-ya-ka-∅-dáan~ (∅ event; CV́C Hort/Pot) for it to snow heavily ya-ka-ya-daan Leer 1973: 05/32-33 yaa ayakanadán itʼs starting to snow heavily ayakaawadán itʼs snowing heavily; it snowed heavily tlél ayakawudáan itʼs not snowing heavily; it didnʼt snow heavily ayakakg̱wadáan it will snow heavily tlél ayakakg̱wadáan it wonʼt snow heavily (chʼa) ayakag̱adán (just) let it snow heavily ayakoodánch it snows heavily (every time) tlél ayakoodánch it hasnʼt snowed heavily yet ayakadánni if/when it snows heavily ayakadánx̱ it snows heavily (regularly) Dleit ayakadánni ax̱ dleit xwéini aax̱ daak kuḵwasaḵóox̱. If it snows heavily, Iʼll have to get my snow blower out. daasʼ snare snare it O-S-d-l-dáasʼ~ (∅ event) for S to snare O dli-daasʼ Eeldásʼ! Snare it! Yeeldásʼ! You all snare it! Líl eeldásʼx̱iḵ! Donʼt snare it! Líl yeeldásʼx̱iḵ! Donʼt snare it! [does not occur] x̱wadlidásʼ I snared it awdlidásʼ s/he snared it tlél awuldáasʼ s/he didnʼt snare it akg̱waldáasʼ s/he will snare it tlél akg̱waldáasʼ s/he wonʼt snare it ag̱aldáasʼ let him/her snare it ooldáasʼch s/he snares it (every time) tlél ooldáasʼch s/he hasnʼt snared it yet tlél aadé oox̱dlidáasʼi yé no way can s/he snare it oog̱aldáasʼin s/he would have snared it aldásʼni if/when s/he snares it aldásʼx̱ s/he snares it (regularly) Aldásʼni haa atx̱aayí sákw. If he snares it, it will be our dinner. Tlél aadé oox̱dlidáasʼi yé ḵúdáx̱ yaa ḵuwdzigéi wé nukshiyáan. He canʼt snare that weasel, itʼs too smart. dáskw quick-tempered quick-tempered Note that Leer (1976: 325) documents this verb slightly differently (without the u- thematic prefix): tukayadáskw and translates it as "easily embarassed". The speaker consulted here, however translates this verb as "quick-tempered." O-tu-ka-u-∅-dáskw (ga state) for O to be quick-tempered --- Leer 1976: 325 Líl itukoodásguḵ! Donʼt be quick-tempered! Líl yee tukoodásguḵ! Donʼt you all be quick-tempered! x̱at tukuwadáskw I am quick-tempered tukuwadáskw s/he is quick-tempered tlél x̱at tukoodáskw Iʼm not quick-tempered tlél tukoodáskw s/he isnʼt quick-tempered kei tukunadáskw s/he is getting to be quick-tempered tukaawadáskw s/he was quick-tempered tlél tukawudáskw s/he wasnʼt quick-tempered kei tukakg̱wadáskw s/he will be quick-tempered tlél kei tukakg̱wadáskw s/he wonʼt be quick-tempered (chʼa) tukakg̱adáskw (just) let him/her be quick-tempered tukagadáskwch s/he gets to be quick-tempered (every time) tlél tukoogadáskwch s/he hasnʼt gotten to be quick-tempered yet tukugadáskwni if/when s/he is quick-tempered kei tukadáskwch s/he is quick-tempered (regularly) ḵúdáx̱ tukuwadáskw, tlél ax̱ tuwáa ushgú ax̱ yaagú yík átx̱ x̱walayeix̱í. Heʼs too quick-tempered, I donʼt want to use him on my boat. Tukugadáskwni yan latsʼén. If he gets quick-tempered, leave him alone. Hél ḵaa tuwáa ushgú ḵaa x̱ooníx̱ wudulyeix̱í ḵúdáx̱ tukuwadáskw. Nobody wants to make friends with him because heʼs too quick-tempered. Ldakát yagiyee at danaayí áwé tukagadáskwch. Every time he drinks he gets to be quick-tempered. deekʼ (2) constipate constipate him/her; plug it O-S-s-déekʼ~ (∅ event; CV́C Hort/Pot) for S to constipate, plug O --- Leer 1973: 05/122-123 [does not occur] ash wusidíkʼ it constipated him/her tlél ash wusdéekʼ it didnʼt constipate him/her ash gux̱sadéekʼ it will constipate him/her tlél ash gux̱sadéekʼ it wonʼt constipate him/her (chʼa) ash g̱asdíkʼ (just) let it constipate him/her ash usdíkʼch it constipates him/her (every time) tlél ash usdíkʼch it hasnʼt constipated him/her yet tlél aadé ash ux̱sidíkʼi yé no way can it constipate him/her ash ux̱sadíkʼin it would have constipated him/her ash sadíkʼni if/when it constipates him/her ash sadíkʼx̱ it constipates him/her (regularly) Sakwnéin awux̱aayí áwé ash sadíkʼx̱. When he eats bread, it constipates him. constipated, plugged O-d-s-déekʼ~ (∅ event; CV́Cʼ Hort/Pot) for O to be constipated, plugged dzi-deekʼ Leer 1973: 05/122-123 [does not occur] yaa nasdíkʼ s/he is getting constipated x̱at wudzidíkʼ I am constipated wudzidíkʼ s/he is constipated tlél x̱at wusdéekʼ Iʼm not constipated tlél wusdéekʼ s/heʼs not constipated gug̱asdéekʼ s/he is going to be constipated tlél gug̱asdéekʼ s/he isnʼt going to be constipated (chʼa) g̱asdíkʼ (just) let him/her be constipated usdíkʼch s/he gets constipated (every time) tlél usdíkʼch s/he hasnʼt gotten constipated yet tlél aadé ux̱dzidíkʼi yé no way can s/he be constipated g̱wasdíkʼin s/he would have been constipated isdíkʼni if/when s/he gets constipated isdíkʼx̱ s/he gets constipated (regularly) tlel usdíkʼx̱ s/he never gets constipated Wé náakw tuwáadáx̱ áwé tlél usdíkʼx̱. Because of the medicine, he never gets constipated. dees shine shine (of moon) a-d-l-dées (g̱a event) for the moon to shine a-dli-dees [does not occur] [does not occur] awdlidées the moon is shining tlél awuldées the moon isnʼt shining yei akg̱waldées the moon will shine tlél yei akg̱waldées the moon wonʼt shine ag̱aag̱aldées let the moon shine ag̱aldéesch the moon shines (every time) tlél oog̱aldéesch the moon hasnʼt shone yet [does not occur] [does not occur] ag̱aldéesni if/when the moon shines yei aldéesch the moon shines (regularly) deexʼ (2) cork up, shut, cover cork it up (bottle); shut, cover his/her/its mouth O-x̱ʼe-S-∅-déexʼ~ (∅ event) for S to cork up (bottle), shut mouth of O x̱ʼa-ya-deexʼ x̱ʼadíxʼ! Cork it up! x̱ʼaydíxʼ You all cork it up! Líl x̱ʼeedíxʼx̱iḵ! Donʼt cork it up! Líl x̱ʼaydíxʼx̱iḵ! Donʼt you all cork it up! [does not occur] x̱ʼax̱waadíxʼ I corked it up ax̱ʼeiwadíxʼ s/he corked it up tlél x̱ʼax̱wadéexʼ I didnʼt cork it up tlél ax̱ʼawudéexʼ s/he didnʼt cork it up x̱ʼakḵwadéexʼ I will cork it up ax̱ʼakg̱wadéexʼ s/he will cork it up tlél x̱ʼakḵwadéexʼ I wonʼt cork it up tlél ax̱ʼakg̱wadéexʼ s/he wonʼt cork it up x̱ʼaḵadéexʼ let me cork it up ax̱ʼag̱adéexʼ let him/her cork it up x̱ʼux̱adíxʼch I cork it up (every time) ax̱ʼeidíxʼch s/he corks it up (every time) tlél x̱ʼux̱adíxʼch I havenʼt corked it up yet tlél ax̱ʼeidíxʼch s/he hasnʼt corked it up yet tlél aadé x̱ʼaḵwaadéexʼi yé no way can I cork it up tlél aadé ax̱ʼag̱waadéexʼi yé no way can s/he cork it up x̱ʼaḵwadéexʼin I would have corked it up ax̱ʼag̱wadéexʼin s/he would have corked it up x̱ʼax̱adíxʼni if/when I cork it up ax̱ʼadíxʼni if/when s/he corks it up x̱ʼax̱adíxʼx̱ I cork it up (regularly) ax̱ʼadíxʼx̱ s/he corks it up (regularly) plug it (a hole) O-S-∅-déexʼ~ (∅ event) for S to plug up O (a hole in a surface) ya-deexʼ I gúk díxʼ! Plug your ears! Yee gúk yidíxʼ! You all plug your ears! Líl i gúk idíxʼx̱iḵ! Donʼt plug your ears! Líl yee gúk yidíxʼx̱iḵ! Donʼt you all plug your ears! [does not occur] ax̱ gúk x̱waadíxʼ I plugged my ears du gúk aawadíxʼ s/he plugged his/her ears tlél ax̱ gúk x̱wadéexʼ I didnʼt plug my ears tlél du gúk awudéexʼ s/he didnʼt plug his/her ears du gúk akg̱wadéexʼ s/he will plug his/her ears tlél du gúk akg̱wadéexʼ s/he wonʼt plug his/her ears du gúk ag̱adéexʼ let him/her plug his/her ears du gúk oodíxʼch s/he plugs his/her ears (every time) tlél du gúk oodíxʼch s/he hasnʼt plugged his/her ears yet tlél aadé du gúk oog̱aadéexʼi yé no way can s/he plug his/her ears du gúk oog̱adéexʼin s/he would have plugged his/her ears du gúk adíxʼni if/when s/he plugs his/her ears du gúk adíxʼx̱ s/he plugs his/her ears (regularly) x̱ʼax̱waadíxʼ. I covered her mouth. Wé x̱aawag̱ei eetí gax̱toodéexʼ. We are going to stuff up the hole in the window. [Story & Naish 1973: 154] deil watch watch, keep watch, keep a lookout II yan~ a-S-∅-deil~ (∅ motion) for S to keep watch, keep a lookout yan a-ya-deil Yan adél! Keep watch! Yan aydél! You all keep watch! Líl yax̱ eedeilíḵ! Donʼt keep watch! Líl yax̱ aydeilíḵ! Donʼt you all keep watch! [does not occur] yan ax̱waadél I kept watch yan aawadél s/he kept watch tlél yan ax̱wadeil I didnʼt keep watch tlél yan awudeil s/he didnʼt keep watch yánde akg̱wadéil s/he will keep watch tlél yánde akg̱wadeil s/he wonʼt keep watch (chʼa) yan ag̱adeil (just) let him/her keep watch yan oodeilch s/he keeps watch (every time) tlél yan oodeilch s/he hasnʼt kept watch yet tlél aadé yan ag̱waadeili yé no way can s/he keep watch yan ag̱wadeilín s/he would have kept watch yan adélni if/when s/he keeps watch yax̱ adeil s/he keeps watch (regularly) Wé keitl áxʼ yax̱ adeil wé hít. The dog keeps watch there over the house. Sháal káx̱ yan aawadél. He watched the fishtrap. [Story & Naish 1973: 243] A káx̱ yan ax̱waadél. I kept watch over it. dlaaḵ get, succeed, accomplish, defeat, win win, gain, get, obtain it; acquire it; succeed, accomplish it; defeat him/her/it O-ya-S-∅-dlaaḵ~ (na event) for S to gain, get, obtain, acquire O; for S to succeed, accomplish O; for S to defeat, beat O ya-ya-dlaaḵ The prohibitive forms "Donʼt win it!" require context in order to make sense. An example would be this statement, said jokingly: Líl yoo yeedláḵgiḵ - yakḵwadláaḵ! "Donʼt win it - Iʼm going to win it!" Yanadlaaḵ! Win it! Yanaydlaaḵ! You all win it! Líl yoo yeedláḵgiḵ! Donʼt win it! Líl yoo yaydláḵgiḵ! Donʼt you all win it! [does not occur] yax̱waadlaaḵ I won it ayaawadlaaḵ s/he won it tlél yax̱wadlaaḵ I didnʼt win it tlél ayawudlaaḵ s/he didnʼt win it yakḵwadláaḵ I will win it ayakg̱wadláaḵ s/he will win it tlél yakḵwadlaaḵ I wonʼt win it tlél ayakg̱wadlaaḵ s/he wonʼt win it yanḵadlaaḵ let me win it ayang̱adlaaḵ let him/her win it yanx̱adláḵch I win it (every time) ayanadláḵch s/he wins it (every time) tlél yoonx̱adláḵch I havenʼt won it yet tlél awunadláḵch s/he hasnʼt won it yet tlél aadé yoonḵaadlaag̱i yé no way can I win it tlél aadé ayang̱waadlaag̱i yé no way can s/he win it yoonḵadlaag̱ín I would have won it ayang̱wadlaag̱ín s/he would have won it yanx̱adláḵni if/when I win it ayanadláḵni if/when s/he wins it yoo yax̱aadláḵk I win it (regularly) yoo ayaadláḵk s/he wins it (regularly) dlaan (2) deep deep (of water, snow, etc.) ∅-dlaan~ (g̱a state) for water, snow, etc. to be deep, to be piled thickly ya-dlaan This verb is one of a very small set of dimensional verbs with extensional imperfective forms (Leer, 1991). It is distinguished by an imperfective form whch requires the g̱a- conjugation prefix. g̱aadlaan itʼs deep tlél g̱wadlaan itʼs not deep yei nadlán itʼs getting deep woodlaan it became deep tlél wudlaan it didnʼt become deep yei kg̱wadláan it will get deep tlél yei kg̱wadlaan it wonʼt get deep [does not occur] g̱adlánch it gets deep (every time) [does not occur] tlél aadé g̱waadlaani yé no way can it get deep g̱wadlaanín it would have gotten deep g̱adlánni if/when it gets deep yei dlánch it gets deep (regularly) deep, thick, piled up (of snow, pine needles, etc) yan~ ka-∅-dlaan~ (∅ motion) for grain-like objects, pine needles, snow to be deep, thick, pile up ka-ya-dlaan Note that some forms above require context in order to make sense. For example the hortative form: yan kag̱adlaan might be said in the context "let the snow pile up more before you go out and shovel". [does not occur] yánde yaa kanadlán itʼs beginning to pile up yan kaawadlán itʼs piled up tlél yan kawudlaan itʼs not piled up; it didnʼt stick (of snow) yánde kakg̱wadláan itʼs going to pile up tlél yánde kakg̱wadlaan itʼs not going to pile up yan kag̱adlaan let it pile up yan koodlaanch it piles up (every time) tlél yan koodlaanch it hasnʼt piled up yet tlél aadé yan kag̱waadlaani yé no way can it pile up yan kag̱wadlaanín it would have piled up yan kadlánni if/when it piles up [does not occur] Yánde yaa kanadlán wé dleit, déix̱ aa yagiyee áyá daak wusitán. The snow is beginning to pile up, itʼs the second day itʼs been snowing. Wéi shaa kei wushtóogu, kélʼt yánde yaa kanadlán. When the mountain erupts, ash begins to pile up. Yan kawudlaaní tsá wéi dleit aag̱áa tsá nag̱ilatlʼéet. When the snow piles up, then you can shovel. dléigu (2) shake hands, pat pat, pet him/her (esp. under chin or on back, to express affection) O-S-l-dléigu (na act) for S to pat, pet O (esp. under chin or on back, to express affection) li-dléigoo Naldléigu! Pat him/her! Nayladléigu! You all pat him/her! Líl iladléiguḵ! Donʼt pat him/her! Líl yiladléiguḵ! Donʼt you all pat him/her! x̱aladléigu I am patting him/her aldléigu s/he is patting him/her x̱walidléigu I patted him/her awlidléigu s/he patted him/her tlél x̱waladléigu I didnʼt pat him/her tlél awuldléigu s/he didnʼt pat him/her agux̱ladléigu s/he will pat him/her tlél agux̱ladléigu s/he wonʼt pat him/her anax̱ladléigu let him/her pat him/her analdléiguch s/he pats him/her (every time) tlél oonaldléiguch s/he hasnʼt patted him/her yet tlél aadé oonax̱lidléigu yé no way can s/he pat him/her oonax̱ladléigun s/he would have patted him/her analdléikwni if/when s/he pats him/her yoo alidléikwk s/he pats him/her (regularly) Analdléikwni, táach gug̱wajáak. If she pats him, heʼll fall asleep. Át anasnúkni agux̱ladléigu. When he carries her around, he will pat her (putting baby to sleep). Tʼukanéiyi aldléigu. Sheʼs rocking/patting the baby. [Story & Naish 1973:146] Du x̱ʼásʼ x̱walidléigu. I patted her on the chin (esp. grandparent, of child). [Story & Naish 1973:146] shake hands with him/her N jín S-l-dléigu (na act) for S to shake hands with N ḵaa jín + li-dléigoo Du jín naldléigu! Shake his/her hand! Du jín nayladléigu! You all shake his/her hand! Líl du jín iladléiguḵ! Donʼt shake his/her hand! Líl du jín yiladléiguḵ! Donʼt you all shake his/her hand! du jín x̱aladléigu I am shaking his/her hand du jín aldléigu s/he is shaking his/her hand tlél du jín ooldléigu s/he isnʼt shaking his/her hand du jín x̱walidléigu I shook his/her hand du jín awlidléigu s/he shook his/her hand tlél du jín awuldléigu s/he didnʼt shake his/her hand du jín agux̱ladléigu s/he will shake his/her hand tlél du jín agux̱ladléigu s/he wonʼt shake his/her hand du jín anax̱ladléigu let him/her shake his/her hand du jín analdléiguch s/he shakes his/her hand (every time) tlél du jín oonaldléiguch s/he hasnʼt shaken his/her hand yet tlél aadé du jín oonax̱lidléigu yé no way can s/he shake his/her hand du jín oonax̱ladléigun s/he would have shaken his/her hand du jín analdléikwni if/when s/he shakes his/her hand du jín yoo alidléiguk s/he shakes his/her hand (regularly) Tlél aadé du jín oonax̱lidléigu yé, du jín woolʼéexʼ. He canʼt shake his hand, his hand is broken. Ldakát át kei kg̱wakʼéi du jín awuldléigu. If he shakes his hand, everything will be ok. dleikw scare scare, startle him/her/it O-S-l-dléikw~ (∅ event) for S to scare O li-dleikw Ladlékw! Scare him/her! Yiladlékw! You all scare him/her! Líl iladlékwx̱uḵ! Donʼt scare him/her! Líl yiladlékwx̱uḵ! Donʼt you all scare him/her! [does not occur] x̱walidlékw I scared him/her awlidlékw s/he scared him/her tlél x̱waladléikw I didnʼt scare him/her tlél awuldléikw s/he didnʼt scare him/her agux̱ladléikw s/he will scare him/her tlél agux̱ladléikw s/he wonʼt scare him/her (chʼa) ax̱ladléikw (just) let him/her scare him/her ooldléikwch he/she/it scares him/her/it (every time) tlél ooldléikwch s/he hasnʼt scared him/her yet tlél aadé oox̱lidléigu yé no way can s/he scare him/her oox̱ladléigun s/he would have scared him/her aldlékwni if/when s/he scares him/her aldlékwx̱ s/he scares him/her (regularly) x̱at yilidlékw. You scared me. dlénx̱aa tempt, try, test tempt him/her; test him/her/it; try it out O-ka-u-S-∅-dlénx̱aa (na act) for S to tempt, try out, test O ka-ya-dlénx̱aa Kanadlénx̱aa! Tempt him/her! Kanaydlénx̱aa! You all tempt him/her! Líl keedlénx̱aayiḵ! Donʼt tempt him/her! Líl kaydlénx̱aayiḵ! Donʼt you all tempt him/her! kux̱adlénx̱aa I am tempting him/her akoodlénx̱aa he/she/it is tempting him/her tlél kux̱adlénx̱aa Iʼm not tempting him/her tlél akoodlénx̱aa he/she/it isnʼt tempting him/her kux̱waadlénx̱aa I tempted him/her akaawadlénx̱aa he/she/it tempted him/her tlél kux̱wadlénx̱aa I didnʼt tempt him/her tlél akawudlénx̱aa he/she/it didnʼt tempt him/her kakḵwadlénx̱aa I will tempt him/her akakg̱wadlénx̱aa he/she/it will tempt him/her tlél kakḵwadlénx̱aa I wonʼt tempt him/her tlél akakg̱wadlénx̱aa he/she/it wonʼt tempt him/her koonḵadlénx̱aa let me tempt him/her akoong̱adlénx̱aa let him/her/it tempt him/her [does not occur] tlél kunx̱adlénx̱aach I havenʼt tempted him/her yet tlél akunadlénx̱aach he/she/it hasnʼt tempted him/her yet tlél aadé akung̱aadlénx̱aayi yé no way can he/she/it tempt him/her akung̱adlénx̱aayin he/she/it would have tempted him/her akanadlénx̱aaní if/when he/she/it tempts him/her yoo akayadlénx̱aa he/she/it tempts him/her (regularly) dootl hug hug him/her II N séit~ ka-S-d-dootl~ (∅ motion) for S to hug N --- Du séit keedadútl! Hug him/her! Du séit kaydadútl! You all hug him/her! Líl du séix̱ keedadoodlíḵ! Donʼt hug him/her! Líl du séix̱ kaydadoodlíḵ! Donʼt you all hug him/her! [does not occur] du séit kax̱wdidútl I hugged him/her du séit kawdidútl s/he hugged him/her tlél du séit kawdadootl s/he didnʼt hug him/her du séide kagux̱dadóotl s/he will hug him/her tlél du séide kagux̱dadootl s/he wonʼt hug him/her du séit kax̱dadootl let him/her hug him/her du séit koodadootlch s/he hugs him/her every time tlél du séit koodadootlch s/he hasnʼt hugged him/her yet tlél aadé du séit koox̱didoodli yé no way can s/he hug him/her du séit koox̱dadoodlín s/he would have hugged him/her du séit kadadútlni if/when s/he hugs him/her du séix̱ kadadootl s/he hugs him/her (regularly) Tlél du tuwáa ushgú du séix̱ kadudoodlí yeedát. He doesnʼt want to be hugged now. dootl2 entice entice, call or bring to oneself (esp. child or wild animal) II tóo-t~ O-ka-S-l-dootl~ (∅ motion) for S to entice, call, or bring O to oneself (esp. child or wild animal) ka-li-dootl Tóot kaladútl! Call it over to you! Líl tóox̱ keeladoodlíḵ! Donʼt call it over to you! [does not occur] tóode yaa akanaldútl s/he is calling him/her/it over to him/her tóot kax̱wlidútl I called him/her/it over to me tóot akawlidútl s/he called him/her/it over to her tlél tóot kax̱wladootl I didnʼt call him/her/it over to me tlél tóot akawuldootl s/he didnʼt call him/her/it over to him/her tóode akagux̱ladóotl s/he will call him/her/it over to him/her tlél tóode akagux̱ladootl s/he wonʼt call him/her/it over to him/her tóot akax̱ladootl let him/her call him/her/it over to him/her tóot akooldootlch s/he calls him/her/it over to him/her (every time) tlél tóot akooldootlch s/he hasnʼt called him/her/it over to him/her yet tlél aadé tóot akoox̱lidoodli yé no way can s/he call him/her/it over to him/her tóot akoox̱ladoodlín s/he would have called him/her/it over to him/her tóot akladútlni if/when s/he calls him/her/it over to him/her tóox̱ akladootl s/he calls him/her/it over to him/her (regularly) Tléináx̱ ḵáa alʼóon wugoodí xóots tóot akawlidútl, du een sh kawdlixúts. A man went hunting alone and called up a brown bear, and it tried to overpower him. Kuna.aaḵw tóot kayladoodlí. Try calling it to you. Taan tóot kayladoodlí wé saak i xhánxʼ woosh kaanáx̱ kei akakg̱awaháa. If you call the sea lion to you, the hooligans will all school up next to you. Tóot kax̱wlidútl wé atkʼátskʼu. Iʼve got that child used to me (with candy, etc.) so heʼll do what I please. [Story & Naish 1973: 80] Tsaa kax̱wlidútl. I called up a seal (brought it close enough to shoot). [Story & Naish 1973: 80] dooxʼ tie tie it in a knot O-ka-S-∅-dóoxʼ~ (∅ act; CV́Cʼ Hort/Pot) for S to tie O in a knot ka-ya-dooxʼ Kadúxʼ! Tie it! Kaydúxʼ You all tie it! Líl keedúxʼx̱uḵ! Donʼt tie it! Líl kayduxʼx̱uḵ! Donʼt you all tie it! akadóoxʼ s/heʼs tying it tlél akoodóoxʼ s/heʼs not tying it akaawadúxʼ s/he tied it tlél akawudóoxʼ s/he didnʼt tie it akakg̱wadóoxʼ s/he will tie it tlél akakg̱wadóoxʼ s/he wonʼt tie it akg̱adúxʼ let him/her tie it akoodúxʼch s/he ties it (every time) tlél akoodúxʼch s/he hasnʼt tied it yet tlél aadé akoog̱aadúxʼu yé no way can s/he tie it akoog̱adúxʼun s/he would have tied it akadúxʼni if s/he ties it akadúxʼx̱ s/he ties it (regularly) dzee difficult, frustrating difficult, almost impossible, hard (in abstract), frustrating O-l-dzée (ga state) for O to be very difficult, frustrating, almost impossible, hard, (in abstract) li-dzee lidzée itʼs difficult tlél uldzée itʼs not difficult wé lidzéeyi aa the difficult one kei naldzéen itʼs getting difficult tlél kei unaldzéen itʼs getting easier ladzée nooch itʼs always difficult wulidzée it became difficult tlél wuldzée it didnʼt get difficult kei gux̱ladzée it will be difficult tlél kei gux̱ladzée it wonʼt be difficult gax̱ladzée let it be difficult galadzéech it gets difficult (every time) tlél gooldzéech it hasnʼt gotten difficult yet tlél aadé gux̱lidzéeyi yé no way can it be difficult gux̱ladzéeyin it would have been difficult galadzéeni if/when it is difficult kei ladzéech it gets difficult (regularly) Ax̱ jee lidzée wé kasné. Knitting is difficult for me. Du tuwóo lidzée. S/heʼs a difficult, stubborn person Ax̱ tuwáa lidzée. It looks difficult to me. Wulidzée ḵustí. Life was difficult. Kei gux̱ladzée ináḵ yaa ḵunatín It will be difficult to leave you. déixʼ (2) shame shamed or embarrassed by another, be put to shame O-ka-S-l-déixʼ (na act) for O to be shamed, embarrassed by S; for O to be put to shame by S ka-li-déixʼ x̱at kalidéixʼ he/she/it makes me ashamed akalidéixʼ he/she/it makes him/her ashamed tlél x̱at kooldéixʼ he/she/it doesnʼt make me ashamed tlel akooldéixʼ he/she/it doesnʼt make him/her ashamed kei akanaldéixʼ he/she/it is starting to make him/her ashamed x̱at kawlidéixʼ he/she/it made me ashamed akawlidéixʼ he/she/it made him/her ashamed tlél akawuldéixʼ he/she/it didnʼt make him/her ashamed akagux̱ladéixʼ he/she/it will make him/her ashamed tlél akagux̱ladéixʼ he/she/it wonʼt make him/her ashamed (chʼa) akanax̱ladéixʼ (just) let him/her/it make him/her ashamed akanaldéixʼch he/she/it makes him/her ashamed (every time) tlél akoonaldéixʼch he/she/it hasnʼt made him/her ashamed yet tlél aadé akoonax̱lidéixʼi yé no way can he/she/it make him/her ashamed akoonax̱ladéixʼin he/she/it would have made him/her ashamed akanaldéixʼni if/when he/she/it makes him/her ashamed yoo akalidéixʼk he/she/it makes him/her ashamed (regularly) x̱at kaniladéixʼni... If you are ashamed of me... [Leer 1973:05/99] ashamed, feel shame O-ka-∅-déixʼ (na state) for O to be ashamed, feel shame ka-ya-déixʼ Ikanadéixʼ! Be ashamed! Yee kanadéixʼ! You all be ashamed! Líl ikoodéixʼiḵ! Donʼt be ashamed! Líl yee koodéixʼiḵ! Donʼt you all be ashamed! x̱at kayadéixʼ / x̱at kaadéixʼ I am ashamed kayadéixʼ / kaadéixʼ s/he is ashamed tlél x̱at koodéixʼ Iʼm not ashamed tlél koodéixʼ s/he isnʼt ashamed yaa kanadéixʼ s/he is starting to be ashamed kadéixʼin s/he was ashamed kaawadéixʼ s/he became ashamed tlél kawudéixʼ s/he didnʼt become ashamed kakg̱wadéixʼ s/he will be ashamed tlél kakg̱wadéixʼ s/he wonʼt be ashamed (chʼa) kang̱adéixʼ (dé) (just) let him/her be ashamed (now) kanadéixʼch s/he is ashamed (every time) tlél koonadéixʼch s/he hasnʼt been ashamed yet tlél aadé koong̱aadéixʼi yé no way can s/he be ashamed koong̱adéixʼin s/he would have been ashamed kanadéixʼni if/when s/he is ashamed yoo kayadéixʼk s/he is ashamed (regularly) Ax̱ dláakʼ kayadéixʼ. My sister is ashamed. [Story & Naish 1973:186] ee (3) cook cook at S-s-.ee~ (∅ act) for S to cook si-.ee At sa.í! Cook! At yisa.í! You all cook! Líl at isa.éex̱iḵ! Donʼt cook! Líl at yisa.éex̱iḵ! Donʼt you all cook! at x̱asa.ée I cook; I am cooking at sa.ée she cooks; s/he is cooking tlél at ux̱sa.ee I donʼt cook; Iʼm not cooking tlél at us.ee s/he doesnʼt cook; sheʼs not cooking wé at is.ee aa the one who cooks; the one who is cooking [does not occur] at x̱wasi.ée I cooked at wusi.ée s/he cooked tlél at x̱wasa.í I didnʼt cook tlél at wus.í s/he didnʼt cook at kuḵasa.ée I will cook at gux̱sa.ée s/he will cook tlél at kuḵasa.ee I wonʼt cook tlél at gux̱sa.ee s/he wonʼt cook at ḵasa.ee let me cook at g̱asa.ee let him/her cook is.ee nooch s/he always cooks at x̱wasa.éeych I cook (every time) at us.éeych s/he cooks (every time) tlél at x̱wasa.éeych I havenʼt cooked yet tlél at us.éeych s/he hasnʼt cooked yet tlél aadé at ux̱si.eeyi yé no way can s/he cook ux̱sa.eeyín s/he would have cooked at sa.éeni if/when s/he cooks at is.éex̱ s/he cooks (regularly) cook it O-S-s-.ee~ (∅ act) for S to cook O si-.ee Sa.í! Cook it! Yisa.í! You all cook it! Líl isa.éex̱iḵ! Donʼt cook it! Líl yisa.éex̱iḵ! Donʼt you all cook it! x̱asa.ée I cook it; I am cooking it isa.ée you cook it; you are cooking it as.ée s/he cooks it; s/he is cooking it tusa.ée we cook it; we are cooking it yisa.ée you all cook it; you all are cooking it has as.ée they cook it; they are cooking it dus.ée someone cooks it; someone is cooking it tlél ux̱sa.ee I donʼt cook it; I am not cooking it tlél isa.ee you donʼt cook it; you arenʼt cooking it tlél oos.ee s/he doesnʼt cook it; s/he isnʼt cooking it tlél tusa.ee we donʼt cook it; we arenʼt cooking it tlél yisa.ee you all donʼt cook it; you all arenʼt cooking it tlél has oos.ee they donʼt cook it; they arenʼt cooking it tlél dus.ee itʼs not to be cooked wé as.ee aa the one who cooks it; the one who is cooking it [does not occur] as.eeyín s/he used to cook it tlél as.eeyín s/he didnʼt used to cook it x̱wasi.ée I cooked it yisi.ée you cooked it awsi.ée s/he cooked it wutusi.ée we cooked it yeeysi.ée you all cooked it has awsi.ée they cooked it wududzi.ée it was cooked tlél x̱wasa.í I didnʼt cook it tlél yisa.í you didnʼt cook it tlél awus.í s/he didnʼt cook it tlél wutusa.í we didnʼt cook it tlél yeeysa.í you all didnʼt cook it tlél has awus.í they didnʼt cook it tlél wudus.í it wasnʼt cooked kuḵasa.ée I will cook it gag̱isa.ée you will cook it agux̱sa.ée s/he will cook it gax̱tusa.ée we will cook it gax̱yisa.ée you all will cook it has agux̱sa.ée they will cook it gax̱dus.ée it will be cooked tlél kuḵasa.ee I wonʼt cook it tlél gag̱isa.ee you wonʼt cook it tlél agux̱sa.ee s/he wonʼt cook it tlél gax̱tusa.ee we wonʼt cook it tlél gax̱yisa.ee you all wonʼt cook it tlél has agux̱sa.ee they wonʼt cook it tlél gax̱dus.ee nobody will cook it ḵasa.ee let me cook it ax̱sa.ee let him/her cook it g̱atusa.ee let us cook it as.ee nooch s/he always cooks it x̱wasa.éeych I cook it (every time) isa.éeych you cook it (every time) oos.éeych s/he cooks it (every time) tusa.éeych we cook it (every time) yisa.éeych you all cook it (every time) has oos.éeych they cook it (every time) dus.éeych it is cooked (every time) tlél x̱wasa.éeych I havenʼt cooked it yet tlél isa.éeych you havenʼt cooked it yet tlél oos.éeych s/he hasnʼt cooked it yet tlél tusa.éeych we havenʼt cooked it yet tlél yisa.éeych you all havenʼt cooked it yet tlél has oos.éeych they havenʼt cooked it yet tlél dus.éeych it hasnʼt been cooked yet tlél aadé oox̱si.eeyi yé no way can s/he cook it oox̱sa.eeyín s/he would have cooked it as.éeni if/when s/he cooks it as.éex̱ s/he cooks it (regularly) Tlél x̱wasa.éex̱ wé g̱áaxʼw. I donʼt cook the herring eggs. cooked yan~ ∅-.ee~ (∅ motion) for food to be cooked, done cooking ya-.ee [does not occur] yánde yaa na.éen itʼs cooking yan uwa.ée itʼs cooked tlél yan wu.í it isnʼt cooked yánde kg̱wa.ée it will be cooked tlél yánde kg̱wa.ee it wonʼt be cooked [does not occur] yan oo.éeych it gets cooked (every time) tlél yan oo.éeych it isnʼt cooked yet tlél aadé yan g̱waa.eeyi yé no way can it get cooked yan g̱wa.eeyín it would have gotten cooked yan .éeni if/when itʼs cooked yax̱ .ee it cooks (regularly, quickly) een1 (5) give, take, carry, pick pick it O-S-∅-.een~ (∅ act; CV́C Hort/Pot) for S to pick O (esp. berries) into a container ya-.een .Ín! Pick them! Yee.ín! You all pick them! Líl ee.eeníḵ! Donʼt pick them! Líl yi.eeníḵ! Donʼt you all pick them! a.éen s/heʼs picking them; s/he picks them Tlél oo.een s/he isnʼt picking them; s/he doesnʼt pick them aawa.ín s/he picked them tlél awu.een s/he didnʼt pick them akg̱wa.éen s/he will pick them tlél akg̱wa.een s/he wonʼt pick them ag̱a.ín let him/her pick them oo.ínch s/he picks them (every time) tlél oo.eench / tlél oo.ínch s/he hasnʼt picked them yet tlél aadé oog̱aa.íni yé no way can s/he pick them oog̱a.ínin s/he would have picked them a.ínni if s/he picks them a.ínx̱ s/he picks them (regularly) carry it, take it (container full of liquid or small objects) II P-t~ O-S-s-.een~ (∅ motion) for S to carry O (container full of liquid or small objects) to P si-.een P-t (~x̱~dei) carrying it to P yan (~yax̱~yándei) setting it down neil (~neilx̱~neildéi) carrying it inside, carrying it home haat (~haax̱~haa(n)déi) carrying it here Át sa.ín! Carry it there! Át yisa.ín! You all carry it there! Líl áx̱ isa.eeníḵ! Donʼt carry it there! Líl áx̱ yisa.eeníḵ! Donʼt you all carry it there! [does not occur] aadé yaa anas.ín s/he is carrying it there át awsi.ín s/he carried it there tlél át awus.een s/he didnʼt carry it there aadé agux̱sa.éen s/he will carry it there tlél aadé agux̱sa.een s/he wonʼt carry it there át ax̱sa.een let him/her carry it there át oos.eench s/he carries it there (every time) tlél át oos.eench s/he hasnʼt carried it there yet tlél aadé át ux̱si.eeni yé no way can s/he carry it there át ux̱sa.eenín s/he would have carried it there át as.ínni if/when s/he carries it there áx̱ as.een s/he carries it there (regularly) give, take, hand it to him/her (container full of liquid or small objects) N jee-t~ O-S-s-.een~ (∅ motion) for S to give, take, hand O (container full of liquid or small objects) to N si-.een Du jeet sa.ín! Give it to him/her! Du jeet yisa.ín! You all give it to him/her! Líl du jeex̱ isa.eeníḵ! Donʼt give it to him/her! Líl du jeex̱ yisa.eeníḵ! Donʼt you all give it to him/her! [does not occur] du jeet x̱wasi.ín I gave it to him/her du jeet awsi.ín s/he gave it to him/her tlél du jeet x̱wasa.een I didnʼt give it to him/her tlél du jeet awus.een s/he didnʼt give it to him/her du jeedé kḵwasa.éen I will give it to him/her du jeedé agux̱sa.éen s/he will give it to him/her tlél du jeedé kḵwasa.een I wonʼt give it to him/her tlél du jeedé agux̱sa.een s/he wonʼt give it to him/her du jeet ḵasa.een let me give it to him/her du jeet ax̱sa.een let him/her give it to him/her du jeet x̱wasa.eench I give it to him/her (every time) du jeet oos.eench s/he gives it to him/her (every time) tlél du jeet x̱wasa.eench I havenʼt given it to him/her yet tlél du jeet oos.eench s/he hasnʼt given it to him/her yet tlél aadé du jeet ḵwasi.eeni yé no way can I give it to him/her tlél aadé du jeet oox̱si.eeni yé no way can s/he give it to him/her du jeet ḵwasa.eenín I would have given it to him/her du jeet oox̱sa.eenín s/he would have given it to him/her du jeet x̱asa.ínni if/when I give it to him/her du jeet as.ínni if/when s/he gives it to him/her du jeex̱ x̱asa.een I give it to him/her (regularly) du jeex̱ as.een s/he gives it to him/her (regularly) bring, carry it inside (of container full of liquid or small objects) neil O-S-s-.een~ (∅ motion) for S to bring O (container full of liquid or small objects) inside si-.een Neil sa.ín! Bring it inside! Neil yisa.ín! You all bring it inside! Líl neilx̱ isa.eeníḵ! Donʼt bring it inside! Líl neilx̱ yisa.eeníḵ! Donʼt you all bring it inside! [does not occur] neil x̱wasi.ín I brought it inside neil awsi.ín s/he brought it inside tlél neil x̱wasa.een I didnʼt bring it inside tlél neil awus.een s/he didnʼt bring it inside neildé kḵwasa.éen I will bring it inside neildé agux̱sa.éen s/he will bring it inside tlél neildé kḵwasa.een I wonʼt bring it inside tlél neildé agux̱sa.een s/he wonʼt bring it inside neil ax̱sa.een let him/her bring it inside neil x̱wasa.eench I bring it inside (every time) neil oos.eench s/he brings it inside (every time) tlél neil x̱wasa.eench I havenʼt brought it inside tlél neil oos.eench s/he hasnʼt brought it inside yet tlél aadé neil oox̱si.eeni yé no way can s/he bring it inside neil oox̱sa.eenín s/he would have brought it inside neil as.éeni if/when s/he brings it inside neilx̱ as.een s/he brings it inside (regularly) put it down; leave it (container full of liquid or small objects) yan~ O-S-s-.een~ (∅ motion) for S to put down, lay down, leave, place O (a container full of liquid or small objects) si-.een Yan sa.ín! Put it down! Yan yisa.ín! You all put it down! Líl yax̱ isa.eeníḵ! Donʼt put it down! Líl yax̱ yisa.eeníḵ! Donʼt you all put it down! [does not occur] yan x̱wasi.ín I put it down yan awsi.ín s/he put it down tlél yan x̱wasa.een I didnʼt put it down tlél yan awus.een s/he didnʼt put it down yánde kḵwasa.éen I will put it down yánde agux̱sa.éen s/he will put it down tlél yánde kḵwasa.een I wonʼt put it down tlél yánde agux̱sa.een s/he wonʼt put it down yan ḵasa.een let me put it down yan ax̱sa.een let him/her put it down yan x̱wasa.eench I put it down (every time) yan oos.eench s/he puts it down (every time) tlél yan x̱wasa.eench I havenʼt put it down yet tlél yan oos.eench s/he hasnʼt put it down yet tlél aadé yan x̱wasi.eeni yé no way can I put it down tlél aadé yan oox̱si.eeni yé no way can s/he put it down yan x̱wasa.eenín I would have put it down yan oox̱sa.eenín s/he would have put it down yan x̱asa.ínni if/when I put it down yan as.ínni if/when s/he puts it down yax̱ x̱asa.een I put it down (regularly) yax̱ as.een s/he puts it down (regularly) eesh string together string them together (esp. beads) O-ka-S-l-.eesh~ (∅ act; CV́C Hort/Pot) for S to thread O (esp. beads), string together ka-li-eesh Kala.ísh! String them together! Kayla.ísh! You all string them together! Líl keel.íshx̱iḵ! Donʼt string them together! Líl kayla.íshx̱iḵ! Donʼt you all string them together! kax̱la.eesh Iʼm stringing them together akla.eesh s/he is stringing them together tlél kux̱la.eesh I didnʼt string them together tlél akool.eesh s/he isnʼt stringing them together kax̱wli.ísh I strung them together akawli.ísh s/he strung them together tlél kax̱wla.eesh I didnʼt string them together tlél akawul.eesh s/he didnʼt string them together kakḵwala.éesh I will string them together akagux̱la.éesh s/he will string them together tlél kakḵwala.eesh I wonʼt string them together tlél akagux̱la.eesh s/he wonʼt string them together kaḵala.ísh let me string them together akax̱la.ísh let him/her string them together koox̱la.eeshch I string them together (every time) akool.eeshch s/he strings them together (every time) tlél koox̱la.eeshch I havenʼt strung them together yet tlél akool.eeshch s/he hasnʼt strung them together yet tlél aadé akoox̱li.íshi yé no way can s/he string them together akoox̱la.íshin s/he would have strung them together akla.íshni if/when s/he strings them together akla.íshx̱ s/he strings them together (regularly) eetʼ soaked soaked, waterlogged O-ka-d-.éetʼ~ (∅ event; CV́Cʼ Hort/Pot) for O to be soaked, waterlogged ka-di-.eetʼ (Góok) ikada.ítʼ! (Go ahead) get soaked! Líl ikooda.ítʼx̱iḵ! Donʼt get soaked! [does not occur] yaa kanda.ítʼ itʼs getting soaked x̱at kawdi.ítʼ Iʼm soaked kawdi.ítʼ it is soaked tlél x̱at kawda.éetʼ Iʼm not soaked tlél kawda.éetʼ itʼs not soaked kagux̱da.éetʼ it will get soaked tlél kagux̱da.éetʼ it wonʼt get soaked (chʼa) kax̱da.ítʼ (just) let it get soaked kooda.ítʼch it gets soaked (every time) tlél kooda.ítʼch it hasnʼt gotten soaked yet tlél aadé koox̱di.ítʼi yé no way can it get soaked koox̱da.ítʼin it would have gotten soaked kada.ítʼni if/when it gets soaked kada.ítʼx̱ it gets soaked (regularly) Ax̱ yaagú yaa kanda.ítʼ. My boat is waterlogged (so heavy with water in the boards that it is going to sink). [Story & Naish 1973: 201] Séew daak wusitán, ikagux̱da.éetʼ. Itʼs raining, youʼre going to get soaked. eexʼ (2) call out, invite call out to him/her; shout to, holler at him/her O-S-∅-.éexʼ (na act) for S to call out to, shout to, holler at O ya-.eexʼ Na.éexʼ! Call out to him/her! Nay.éexʼ! You all call out to him/her! Líl ee.éexʼiḵ! Donʼt call out to him/her! Líl yi.éexʼiḵ! Donʼt you all call out to him/her! x̱a.éexʼ I call out to him/her; I am calling out to him/her a.éexʼ s/he calls out to him/her; s/he is calling out to him/her tlél x̱wa.éexʼ I donʼt call out to him/her; Iʼm not calling out to him/her tlél oo.éexʼ s/he doesnʼt call out to him/her; s/he isnʼt calling out to him/her x̱waa.éexʼ I called out to him/her aawa.éexʼ s/he called out to him/her tlél x̱wa.eexʼ I didnʼt call out to him/her tlél awu.éexʼ s/he didnʼt call out to him/her kuḵa.éexʼ I will call out to him/her akg̱wa.éexʼ s/he will call out to him/her tlél kuḵa.éexʼ I wonʼt call out to him/her tlél akg̱wa.éexʼ s/he wonʼt call out to him/her naḵa.éexʼ let me call out to him/her ang̱a.éexʼ let him/her call out to him/her nax̱a.éexʼch I call out to him/her (every time) ana.éexʼch s/he calls out to him/her (every time) tlél nax̱wa.éexʼch I havenʼt called out to him/her yet tlél oona.éexʼch s/he hasnʼt called out to him/her yet tlél aadé oong̱aa.éexʼi yé no way can s/he call out to him/her oong̱a.éexʼin s/he would have called out to him/her ana.éexʼni if/when s/he calls out to him/her yoo aya.éexʼk s/he calls out to him/her (regularly) I keidlí na.éexʼ! Call your dog! x̱at na.éexʼ xʼwán wulaayí. Be sure and holler at me when it thaws out. x̱waa.áx̱, x̱at woo.éexʼi. I heard her call me. invite him/her O-S-∅-.éexʼ (g̱a event) for S to invite O, ask O to a party ya-.eexʼ g̱a.éexʼ! Invite him/her! g̱ay.éexʼ! You all invite him/her! Líl yei ee.éexʼjiḵ! Donʼt invite him/her! Líl yei yi.éexʼjiḵ! Donʼt you all invite him/her! [does not occur] [does not occur] x̱waa.éexʼ I invited him/her yee.éexʼ you invited him/her aawa.éexʼ s/he invited him/her wutuwa.éexʼ we invited him/her yeey.éexʼ you all invited him/her has aawa.éexʼ they invited him/her wuduwa.éexʼ someone invited him/her tlél x̱wa.éexʼ I didnʼt invite him/her tlél yi.éexʼ you didnʼt invite him/her tlél awu.éexʼ s/he didnʼt invite him/her tlél wutoo.éexʼ we didnʼt invite him/her tlél yeey.éexʼ you all didnʼt invite him/her tlél has awu.éexʼ they didnʼt invite him/her tlél wudu.éexʼ nobody invited him/her yei kḵwa.éexʼ I will invite him/her yei kg̱ee.éexʼ you will invite him/her yei akg̱wa.éexʼ s/he will invite him/her yei gax̱too.éexʼ we will invite him/her yei gax̱yi.éexʼ you all will invite him/her yei (ha)s akg̱wa.éexʼ they will invite him/her yei gax̱du.éexʼ someone will invite him/her tlél yei kḵwa.éexʼ I wonʼt invite him/her tlél yei kg̱ee.éexʼ you wonʼt invite him/her tlél yei akg̱wa.éexʼ s/he wonʼt invite him/her tlél yei gax̱too.éexʼ we wonʼt invite him/her tlél yei gax̱yi.éexʼ you all wonʼt invite him/her tlél yei (ha)s akg̱wa.éexʼ they wonʼt invite him/her tlél yei gax̱du.éexʼ nobody will invite him/her ḵaaḵa.éexʼ let me invite him/her ag̱aag̱a.éexʼ let him/her invite him/her g̱aax̱too.éexʼ let us invite him/her ḵa.éexʼch I invite him/her (every time) g̱ee.éexʼch you invite him/her (every time) ag̱a.éexʼch s/he invites him/her (every time) g̱atoo.éexʼch we invite him/her (every time) g̱ay.éexʼch you all invite him/her (every time) has ag̱a.éexʼch they invite him/her (every time) g̱adu.éexʼch someone invites him/her (every time) tlél ḵwa.éexʼch I havenʼt invited him/her yet tlél g̱ee.éexʼch you havenʼt invited him/her yet tlél oog̱a.éexʼch s/he hasnʼt invited him/her yet tlél g̱atoo.éexʼch we havenʼt invited him/her yet tlél g̱ay.éexʼch you all havenʼt invited him/her yet tlél has oog̱a.éexʼch they havenʼt invited him/her yet tlél g̱adu.éexʼch s/he hasnʼt been invited yet tlél aadé ag̱waag̱aa.éexʼi yé no way can s/he invite him/her ag̱waag̱a.éexʼin s/he would have invited him/her ag̱a.éexʼni if/when s/he invites him/her yei a.éexʼch s/he invites him/her (regularly) x̱at woo.éexʼ atx̱á daakahídidé. She invited me to the restaurant. ei answer answer, reply to a greeting or to oneʼs name a-S-d-.ei (na act) for S to answer, reply to a greeting or to oneʼs name a-di-.ei Leer 1973: 02/186-187 Anida.ei! Answer! ada.ei s/he is answering ax̱wdi.ei I answered awdi.ei s/he answered tlél ax̱wda.ei I didnʼt answer tlél awda.ei s/he didnʼt answer agux̱da.ei s/he will answer tlél agux̱da.ei s/he wonʼt answer anax̱da.ei let him/her answer anada.eich s/he answers (every time) tlél oonda.eich s/he hasnʼt answered yet tlél aadé oonax̱di.eiyi yé no way can s/he answer oonax̱da.eiyín s/he would have answered anada.einí if/when s/he answers ada.eix̱ s/he answers (regularly) I .éexʼ áwé: anida.ei! Heʼs calling you: answer him! [Story & Naish 1973: 20] Dei ax̱wdi.ei. I answered already / I said "yes" already. [Story & Naish 1973: 20] eikw whistle whistle a-ka-u-S-∅-.éikw (na act) for S to whistle a-ka-ya-.eikw Leer 1973: 02/214-215 Akuna.éikw! Whistle! Líl akee.éiguḵ! Donʼt whistle! akx̱wa.éikw Iʼm whistling akoo.éikw s/he is whistling tlél akx̱wa.éikw Iʼm not whistling; I donʼt whistle tlél akoo.éikw s/heʼs not whistling; s/he doesnʼt whistle yaa akuna.éikw s/he is going along whistling akx̱waa.éikw I whistled akaawa.éikw s/he whistled tlél akx̱wa.éikw I didnʼt whistle tlél akawu.éikw s/he didnʼt whistle akakg̱wa.éikw s/he will whistle tlél akakg̱wa.éikw s/he wonʼt whistle akang̱a.éikw let him/her whistle akana.éikwch s/he whistles (every time) tlél akoona.éikwch s/he hasnʼt whistled yet tlél aadé akoong̱aa.éigu yé no way can s/he whistle akoong̱a.éigun s/he would have whistled akana.éikwni if/when s/he whistles yoo akaa.éikwk s/he whistles (regularly) Ash yaadé akoo.éikw. He is whistling to her. [Leer 1973: 02/215] Du yaadé akx̱waa.éikw. I whistled at her. [Leer 1973: 02/214] g̱unéi akaawa.éikw. She started whistling. [Leer 1973: 02/214] Kei akaawa.éikw. He started up whistling. [Leer 1973: 02/214] eilʼ salty salty l-éilʼ (ga state) for something to be salty li-.eilʼ li.éilʼ itʼs salty tlél ul.éilʼ itʼs not salty wé li.éilʼi aa the salty one kei nal.éilʼ it is getting salty la.éilʼin it used to be salty tlél ul.éilʼin it didnʼt used to be salty wuli.éilʼ it got salty tlél wul.éilʼ it didnʼt get salty kei gux̱la.éilʼ it will be salty tlél kei gux̱la.éilʼ it wonʼt be salty gax̱la.éilʼ let it be salty la.éilʼ nooch itʼs always salty gala.éilʼch it gets salty (every time) tlél gool.éilʼch it hasnʼt gotten salty yet tlél aadé gux̱li.éilʼi yé no way can it be salty gux̱la.éilʼin it would have been salty gala.éilʼni if/when itʼs salty kei la.éilʼch it gets salty eis stagger stagger (esp. of young child or drunkard) VII P-t O-ya-ka-l-.eis (na motion) for O to stagger around at P (esp. of young child or drunkard) ya-ka-li-.eis Direction of Motion - The following are adverbial phrases that can be used with this particular conjugation of the verb ʼstaggerʼ to specify the direction of motion. Replace át ʼaroundʼ in the paradigm below with any of the following adverbs to change the direction of motion. -- moving (along) P-t moving around, about P P-dé(i) moving toward P P-dáx̱ moving away from P P-náx̱ moving by way of P yux̱ moving out of house P-náḵ leaving P behind P-g̱aa going to get P Át iyakanal.eis Stagger around! Át yee yakanal.eis! You all stagger around! Líl át iyakawul.eisíḵ! Donʼt stagger around! Líl át yee yakawul.eisíḵ! Donʼt you all stagger around! [does not occur] át x̱at yakawli.eis I am staggering around; I staggered around át yakawli.eis s/he is staggering around; s/he staggered around tlél át x̱at yakawul.eis Iʼm not staggering around; I didnʼt stagger around tlél át yakawul.eis s/he isnʼt staggering around; s/he didnʼt stagger around át yakagux̱la.eis s/he will stagger around tlél át yakagux̱la.eis s/he wonʼt stagger around át yakanax̱la.eis let him/her stagger around át yakanal.eisch s/he staggers around (every time) tlél át yakoonal.eisch s/he hasnʼt staggered around yet tlél aadé át yakoonax̱li.eisi yé no way can s/he stagger around át yakoong̱al.eisín s/he would have staggered around át yakanal.eisní if/when s/he staggers around át yoo yakali.eisk s/he staggers around (regularly) Át yakoong̱al.eisín taat kaanáx̱ hél du eeg̱áa haat wuḵoox̱ú. He would have staggered around all night if she didnʼt come pick him up. Át iyakanal.eisní g̱ayéisʼ hít yeedé igax̱dux̱éech. If you stagger around theyʼre going to throw you in jail. gaaʰ1 tide slack (of tide) du-∅-gaaʰ~ (∅ event) for the tide to be slack doo-ya-gaa Leer 1973: f05/2 [does not occur] yaa ndugéin itʼs gettig to be slack tide wuduwagáa itʼs slack tide tlél wudugá itʼs not slack tide gax̱dugáa it will be slack tide tlél gax̱dugaa it wonʼt be slack tide tlél dugáaych itʼs not slack tide yet dugéini if/when itʼs slack tide dugeix̱ itʼs slack tide (regularly) Wuduwagáa yá ḵéesʼ. Itʼs slack tide. Násʼk gaawxʼ áwé gux̱dagáa wé ḵéesʼ. Itʼs going to be slack tide at three oʼclock. Yaa kdugéini g̱unéi kg̱waḵóox̱. When itʼs slack tide heʼll get going. Haat ḵux̱ shoowdaxeexí shukwát dugeix̱. Before the tide turns itʼs slack. gaa1 (2) predict predict it O-shu-S-s-gaa~ (na act) for S to predict O --- Shunasgá! Predict it! Shunaysagá! You all predict it! Líl yoo sheesagéigiḵ! Donʼt predict it! Líl yoo shaysagéigiḵ! Donʼt you all predict it! shux̱sageitʼ I am predicting it ashoosgeitʼ s/he is predicting it tlél shux̱wsageitʼ Iʼm not predicting it tlél ashoosgeitʼ s/heʼs not predicting it shux̱wsigaa I predicted it ashoowsigaa s/he predicted it tlél shux̱wsagaa I didnʼt predict it tlél ashuwusgaa s/he didnʼt predict it ashagux̱sagáa s/he will predict it tlél ashagux̱sagaa s/he wonʼt predict it ashunax̱sagaa let him/her predict it ashunasgéich s/he predicts it (every time) tlél ashoonasgéich s/he hasnʼt predicted it yet tlél aadé ashunax̱sigaayi yé no way can s/he predict it ashunax̱sagaayín s/he would have predicted it ashunasgéini if/when s/he predicts it yoo ashasigéik s/he predicts it (regularly) Dleit haa káa yéi kg̱wasgéet, yéi áwé shux̱wsigaa. Itʼs going to snow on us, thatʼs what I predict. Yá yéi adaané yéi jiné a tóonáx̱ ḵáakwt ikg̱wanéi yéi áwé shux̱wsigaa. I predict that youʼre going to get hurt doing that work. x̱áat haa x̱ánde yakg̱wa.áa. Yéi áwé shudusgeitʼ. Thereʼs going to be a big salmon run. Thatʼs what theyʼre predicting. Dleit shudusgeitʼ. Theyʼre predicting snow. Ldakát yagiyee yéi wuneiyí hóoch áwé ashoowsigaa. Every time it happens, heʼs the one that predicts it. Yéi áwé shudusgeitʼín. Thatʼs what they predicted. delay, wait, take oneʼs time, be detained To say "wait for someone" use: ash eeg̱áa yax̱ kaawagaa "s/he waited for him/her". To say "wait there (deliberately) use: áx̱ sh akwdligaa "s/he is waiting there". P-x̱ O-ka-∅-gaa~ (g̱a motion) for O to delay, wait, pause, take oneʼs time, stay behind, or be detained at P A-x̱ + ka-ya-gaa Leer 1973: f05/3; Leer 1976: 642 Áx̱ ikag̱agá! Take your time there! Áx̱ yee kag̱agá! You all take your time there! Líl áx̱ yei ikoogéijiḵ! Donʼt delay there! Líl áx̱ yei yee koogéijiḵ! Donʼt you all delay there! [does not occur] áx̱ x̱at kaawagaa Iʼm delayed there áx̱ kaawagaa s/heʼs delayed there tlél áx̱ x̱at kawugaa Iʼm not delayed there tlél áx̱ kawugaa s/heʼs not delayed there áx̱ yei kakg̱wagáa s/he will delay there tlél áx̱ yei kakg̱wagaa s/he wonʼt delay there (chʼa) áx̱ kag̱aag̱agaa (just) let him/her delay there áx̱ kag̱agéich s/he delays there (every time) tlél áx̱ koog̱agéich s/he hasnʼt delayed there yet tlél aadé áx̱ kag̱aag̱aagaayi yé no way can s/he delay there áx̱ kag̱aag̱agaayín s/he would have delayed there áx̱ kag̱agéini if/when s/he delays there áx̱ yei kagéich s/he delays there (regularly) Chʼa yáax̱ x̱at kakg̱wagáa tléixʼ sunday. Iʼm going to be detained here one week. [Story & Naish 1973:65] ḵéesʼ kul.aan áwé yax̱ haa kaawagaa. Weʼre delayed because of the tide. Áx̱ kag̱agéini seig̱ánxʼ yéi gax̱tusanéi. If she delays there, weʼll do it tomorrow. Chʼa wáa sá yaa iganéini tlél áx̱ yei ikoogéijiḵ! Whatever you do, donʼt delay there! Áx̱ ikag̱agá, tlél sháa yidawóodliḵ! Take your time there, donʼt hurry! Kʼeeljáa ḵúx̱de yoo daneiyí eeg̱áa áx̱ kaawagaa. Heʼs waiting there for the storm to cease. gaa2 put up, store up put up, store up, accumulate, stock up (esp. food for winter); finish distributing things (esp. at party) yan~ O-ka-S-l-gaa~ (∅ motion) for S to put up, store up, accumulate O (esp. food for winter) yan ka-li-gaa Yan kalagá! Put up food! Yan kaylagá! You all put up food! [does not occur] [does not occur] yánde yaa kanax̱lagéin I am putting up food yánde yaa akanalgéin s/he is putting up food yan kax̱wligáa I put up food yan akawligáa s/he put up food tlél yan kax̱wlagá I didnʼt put up food tlél yan akawulgá s/he didnʼt put up food yánde kakḵwalagáa I will put up food yánde akagux̱lagáa s/he will put up food tlél yánde kakḵwalagaa I wonʼt put up food tlél yánde akagux̱lagaa s/he wonʼt put up food yan kaḵlagaa let me put up food yan akax̱lagaa let him/her put up food yan koox̱lagáaych I put up food (every time) yan akoolgáaych s/he puts up food (every time) tlél yan koox̱lagáaych I havenʼt put up food yet tlél yan akoolgáaych s/he hasnʼt put up food yet tlél aadé yan kooḵaligaayi yé no way can I put up food tlél aadé yan akax̱wligaayi yé no way can s/he put up food yan kooḵalagaayín I would have put up food yan akoox̱lagaayín s/he would have put up food yan kax̱lagéini if/when I put up food yan aklagéini if/when s/he puts up food yax̱ kax̱lagaa I put up food (regularly) yax̱ aklagaa s/he puts up food (regularly) Tlél táakw atx̱aayí yan katulagáaych. We havenʼt finished putting up winter food yet. Tlél yan katulagáaych wé tléiḵw. We didnʼt finish putting up our berries yet. Aatlein at x̱ʼéeshi ḵa tléiḵw yan kawtuligáa. We put up a lot of dryfish and berries. Sʼeiḵ x̱áat ḵa tsaa dleeyí yan kawtuligáa. We put up smoked fish and seal meat. gaaḵ visit visit (esp. for pleasure); meet with people O-S-∅-gaaḵ~ (g̱a event) for S to visit O ya-gaaḵ [does not occur] Líl yei eegáḵjiḵ! Donʼt visit him/her! Líl yei yeegáḵjiḵ! Donʼt you all visit him/her! [does not occur] x̱waagaaḵ I visited him/her aawagaaḵ s/he visited him/her tlél x̱wagaaḵ I didnʼt visit him/her tlél awugaaḵ s/he didnʼt visit him/her yei kḵwagáaḵ I will visit him/her yei akg̱wagáaḵ s/he will visit him/her tlél yei kḵwagaaḵ I wonʼt visit him/her tlél yei akg̱wagaaḵ s/he wonʼt visit him/her ḵaaḵagaaḵ let me visit him/her ag̱aag̱agaaḵ let him/her visit him/her g̱ax̱agáḵch I visit him/her (every time) ag̱agáḵch s/he visits him/her (every time) tlél g̱oox̱agáḵch I havenʼt visited him/her yet tlél oog̱agáḵch s/he hasnʼt visited him/her yet tlél aadé ḵwaaḵaagaag̱i yé no way can I visit him/her tlél aadé ag̱waag̱aagaag̱i yé no way can s/he visit him/her ḵwaaḵagaag̱ín I would have visited him/her ag̱waag̱agaag̱ín s/he would have visited him/her g̱ax̱agáḵni if/when I visit him/her ag̱agáḵni if/when s/he visits him/her yei x̱agáḵch I visit him/her (regularly) yei agáḵch s/he visits him/her (regularly) Haa wduwagaaḵ. We had visitors. Yei haa gax̱dugáaḵ. We will have visitors. gaan1 (5) burn, shine, light burn, catch alight; for a light to be on P-t~ a-ka-∅-gaan~ (∅ motion) for P (light) to be on; for P (fire) to burn, catch alight A- + a-ka-ya-gaan [does not occur] át akaawagán itʼs lit tlél át akawugaan itʼs not lit aadé akakg̱wagáan it will be lit tlél aadé akakg̱wagaan it wonʼt be lit át akg̱agaan let it be lit át akoogaanch it lights (every time) tlél át akoogaanch it hasnʼt lit yet tlél aadé át akg̱waagaani yé no way can it light át akg̱wagaanín it would have lit át akagánní if/when it lights áx̱ akagaan it is lit (regularly) light; set fire to; cause to shine; turn on (light) P-t~ a-ka-S-l-gaan~ (∅ motion) for S to light, set fire to, cause P to shine; for S to turn P on (light) A- + a-ka-li-gaan Át aklagán! Light it! Át akaylagán! You all light it! Líl áx̱ akeelagaaníḵ Donʼt light it! Líl áx̱ akaylagaaníḵ! Donʼt you all light it! [does not occur] [does not occur] át akax̱wligán I lit it át akawligán s/he lit it tlél át akax̱wlagaan I didnʼt light it tlél át akawulgaan s/he didnʼt light it aadé akakḵwalagáan I will light it aadé akagux̱lagáan s/he will light it tlél aadé akakḵwalagaan I wonʼt light it tlél aadé akagux̱lagaan s/he wonʼt light it át akḵalagaan let me light it át akax̱lagaan let him/her light it át akoox̱algaanch I light it (every time) át akoolgaanch s/he lights it (every time) tlél át akoox̱algaanch I havenʼt lit it yet tlél át akoolgaanch s/he hasnʼt lit it yet tlél aadé át akux̱ligaani yé no way can s/he light it át akux̱lagaanín s/he would have lit it át aklagánni if/when s/he lights it áx̱ aklagaan s/he lights it (regularly) shine (of sun) a-d-gaan~ (g̱a event) for the sun to shine a-di-gaan [does not occur] yei andagán the sun is coming out awdigaan itʼs sunny tlél awdagaan it isnʼt sunny awdagaanín it had been sunny; it was sunny (but...) tlél awdagaanín it hadnʼt been sunny; it wasnʼt sunny (at the time, but...) yei agux̱dagáan it will be sunny tlél yei agux̱dagaan it wonʼt be sunny agax̱dagaan let it be sunny ax̱dagánch it gets sunny (every time) tlél oox̱dagánch it hasnʼt been sunny yet tlél aadé ag̱waax̱digaani yé no way can it be sunny ag̱waax̱dagaanín it would have been sunny ax̱dagánni if/when itʼs sunny yei adagánch the sun shines (regularly) Tlákw yei adagánch. The sun used to shine. A kát awdagáani. Sunshine rays hit it. Yaa andagán. The sun is peeking through; Sun rays are moving. Yei andagán. The sun is beginning to shine. shine, be bright; produce light by burning ka-d-gáan~ (∅ event) for something to shine, produce light by burning ka-di-gaan [does not occur] kawdigán itʼs bright tlél kawdagáan it isnʼt bright kagux̱dagáan it will be bright tlél kagux̱dagáan it wonʼt be bright kax̱dagáan let it be bright koodagánch it gets bright (every time) tlél koodagánch it hasnʼt gotten bright yet tlél aadé koox̱digáani yé no way can it get bright koox̱dagáanin it would have gotten bright kadagánni if/when itʼs bright kadagánx̱ it brightens (regularly) Kʼidéin kawdagáani áwé tsá x̱daḵéisʼ. When itʼs really bright I sew. burn it up kei O-S-s-gaan~ (∅ motion) for S to burn O up si-gaan Kei sagaan! Burn it up! Kei yisagaan! You all burn it up! Líl kei isagánjiḵ! Donʼt burn it up! Líl kei yisagánjiḵ! Donʼt you all burn it up! [does not occur] kei nax̱sagán I am burning it up kei anasgán s/he is burning it up kei x̱wsigán I burned it up kei awsigán s/he burned it up tlél kei x̱wsagaan I didnʼt burn it up tlél kei awusgaan s/he didnʼt burn it up kei kḵwasagáan I will burn it up kei agux̱sagáan s/he will burn it up tlél kei kḵwasagaan I wonʼt burn it up tlél kei agux̱sagaan s/he wonʼt burn it up kei ḵasagaan let me burn it up kei ax̱sagaan let him/her burn it up kei x̱wsagaanch I burn it up (every time) kei oosgaanch s/he burns it up (every time) tlél kei x̱wsagaanch I havenʼt burned it up yet tlél kei oosgaanch s/he hasnʼt burned it up yet tlél aadé kei ax̱wsigaani yé no way can s/he burn it up kei oox̱sagaanín s/he would have burned it up kei asgánni if/when s/he burns it up kei asgánch s/he burns it up (regularly) gaasʼ (4) leap, pounce leap, pounce on him/her/it II P-t~ sh S-d-l-gáasʼ~ (∅ motion) for S to leap, pounce on P --- A kát sh eelgásʼ! Leap on it! A kát sh yilgásʼ! You all leap on it! Líl a káx̱ sh eelgáasʼiḵ! Donʼt leap on it! Líl a káx̱ sh yilgáasʼíḵ! Donʼt you all leap on it! [does not occur] a kát sh x̱wadligásʼ I leapt on it a kát sh wudligásʼ he/she/it leaped on it tlél a kát sh x̱walgáasʼ I didnʼt leap on it tlél a kát sh wulgáasʼ he/she/it didnʼt leap on it a kát sh gug̱algáasʼ he/she/it will leap on it tlél a kát sh gug̱algáasʼ he/she/it wonʼt leap on it a kát sh g̱algáasʼ let him/her/it leap on it a kát sh ulgáasʼch he/she/it leaps on it (every time) tlél a kát sh ulgáasʼch he/she/it hasnʼt leaped on it yet tlél aadé a kát sh ux̱dligáasʼi yé no way can he/she/it leap on it a kat sh g̱walgáasʼin he/she/it would have leaped on it a kát sh ilgásʼni if/when he/she/it leaps on it a káx̱ sh ilgáasʼ he/she/it leaps on it (regularly) ḵaa kát sh wudligásʼ. She pounced on someone. A wándáx̱ áwé a yíkt sh wudligásʼ wé yéil. The raven leaped into it from the edge. Yóot sh wudligásʼ a ḵoowúdáx̱. It charged out of its den. move there VII P-dé O-l-gáasʼ~ (na motion) for O to move household (with future plans unspecified) to P li-gaasʼ Aadé inalgáasʼ! Move there! Aadé yee nalgáasʼ! You all move there! Líl aadé yoo ilgásʼx̱iḵ! Donʼt move there! Líl aadé yoo yee lgásʼx̱iḵ! Donʼt you all move there! [does not occur] aadé x̱at wuligáasʼ I moved there aadé wligáasʼ s/he moved there tlél aadé x̱at wulgáasʼ I didnʼt move there tlél aadé wulgáasʼ s/he didnʼt move there aadé x̱at gux̱lagáasʼ I will move there aadé gux̱lagáasʼ s/he will move there tlél aadé x̱at gux̱lagáasʼ I wonʼt move there tlél aadé gux̱lagáasʼ s/he wonʼt move there aadé x̱at nax̱lagáasʼ let me move there aadé nax̱lagáasʼ let him/her move there aadé x̱at nalgásʼch I move there (every time) aadé nalgásʼch s/he moves there (every time) tlél aadé x̱at unalgásʼch I havenʼt moved there yet tlél aadé unalgásʼch s/he hasnʼt moved there yet tlél aadé aadé nax̱ligáasʼi yé no way can s/he move there aadé nax̱lagáasʼin s/he would have moved there aadé nlagásʼni if/when s/he moves there yoo ligásʼk s/he moves (regularly); s/heʼs always on the move move there II P-t~ O-l-gáasʼ~ (∅ motion) for O to move household (with future plans unspecified) to P li-gaasʼ Át eelgásʼ! Move there! Át yee lagásʼ! You all move there! Líl áx̱ eelgáasʼiḵ! Donʼt move there! Líl áx̱ yee ulgáasʼiḵ! Donʼt you all move there! [does not occur] át x̱at wuligásʼ I moved there át wuligásʼ s/he moved there tlél át x̱at wulgáasʼ I didnʼt move there tlél át wulgáasʼ s/he didnʼt move there aadé x̱at gux̱lagáasʼ I will move there aadé gux̱lagáasʼ s/he will move there tlél aadé x̱at gux̱lagáasʼ I wonʼt move there tlél aadé gux̱lagáasʼ s/he wonʼt move there át x̱at g̱alagáasʼ let me move there át g̱alagáasʼ let him/her move there át x̱at ulgáasʼch I move there (every time) át ulgáasʼch s/he moves there (every time) tlél át x̱at ulgáasʼch I havenʼt moved there yet tlél át ulgáasʼch s/he hasnʼt moved there yet tlél aadé át g̱waligáasʼi yé no way can s/he move there át g̱walagáasʼin s/he would have moved there át lagásʼni if/when s/he moves there áx̱ lagáasʼ s/he moves there (regularly) Kulix̱éitlʼshán áwé wéi Mountain View, líl aadé yoo ilgásʼx̱iḵ! Mountain View is scary, donʼt move there! Aadé wulgáasʼí kaxéelʼ tóo yei kg̱watée. If she moves there, sheʼll get into trouble. fall on face; nod off, fall asleep while sitting up yan~ O-ya-∅-gáasʼ~ (∅ motion) for O to fall on face; for O to nod off, fall asleep while sitting up --- Yan tsá iyagáasʼ! See that you donʼt fall on your face! Yan tsá yee yagáasʼ! See that you all donʼt fall on your faces! [does not occur] yan x̱at yaawagásʼ I fell on my face yan yaawagásʼ s/he fell on his/her face tlél yan x̱at yawugáasʼ I didnʼt fall on my face tlél yan yawugáasʼ s/he didnʼt fall on his/her face yánde x̱at yakg̱wagáasʼ I will fall on my face yánde yakg̱wagáasʼ s/he will fall on his/her face tlél yánde x̱at yakg̱wagáasʼ I wonʼt fall on my face tlél yánde yakg̱wagáasʼ s/he wonʼt fall on his/her face (chʼa) yan x̱at yag̱agáasʼ (dé) (just) let me fall on my face (now) (chʼa) yan yag̱agáasʼ (dé) (just) let him/her fall on his/her face (now) yan x̱at woogáasʼch I fall on my face (every time) yan woogáasʼch s/he falls on her face (every time) tlél yan x̱at woogáasʼch I havenʼt fallen on my face yet tlél yan woogáasʼch s/he hasnʼt fallen on his/her face yet tlél aadé yan x̱at wug̱aagáasʼi yé no way can I fall on my face tlél aadé yan wug̱aagáasʼi yé no way can s/he fall on his/her face yan x̱at wug̱agáasʼin I would have fallen on my face yan wug̱agáasʼin s/he would have fallen on his/her face yan x̱at yagásʼni if/when I fall on my face yan yagásʼni if/when s/he falls on his/her face yax̱ x̱at yagáasʼ I am nodding off, falling asleep while sitting yax̱ yagáasʼ s/he is nodding off, falling asleep while sitting Tlél awusháadi yan wug̱agáasʼin. If she didnʼt catch him, he would have fallen on his face. Yan x̱at yaawagásʼ wé couch káxʼ. I fell on my face on the couch (fell asleep). gaaw (3) fight fight for, defend N káx̱ ḵu-S-l-gaaw (na act) for S to fight for, defend N ḵaa káx̱ + ḵu-li-gaaw Note that when replacing the N in the theme with the reflexive pronoun chush, the d component of the classifier is required, as in: chush káx̱ ḵoowdligaaw "s/he defended himself/herself". Remember that the reflexive set of pronouns are always accompanied by the d component of the classifier. Du káx̱ ḵunalgaaw! Fight for him/her! Du káx̱ ḵunaylagaaw! You all fight for him/her! Líl du káx̱ yoo keelagaawúḵ! Donʼt fight for him/her! Líl du káx̱ yoo keeylagaawúḵ! Donʼt you all fight for him/her! du káx̱ ḵux̱lagaaw I am fighting for him/her du káx̱ ḵulagaaw s/he is fighting for him/her du káx̱ ḵux̱wligaaw I fought for him/her du káx̱ ḵoowligaaw s/he fought for him/her tlél du káx̱ ḵuwulgaaw s/he didnʼt fight for him/her du káx̱ ḵugux̱lagaaw s/he will fight for him/her tlél du káx̱ ḵugux̱lagaaw s/he wonʼt fight for him/her du káx̱ ḵunax̱lagaaw let him/her fight for him/her du káx̱ ḵunalgaawch s/he fights for him/her (every time) tlél du káx̱ ḵoonalgaawch s/he hasnʼt fought for him/her yet tlél aadé du káx̱ ḵoonax̱ligaawu yé no way can s/he fight for him/her du káx̱ ḵoonax̱lagaawún s/he would have fought for him/her du káx̱ ḵunalgaawní if/when s/he fights for him/her du káx̱ yoo ḵuligaawk s/he fights for him/her (regularly) Du kéekʼ kawdaxéelʼi du káx̱ ḵoowligaaw. When his little brother got into trouble, he fought for him. Yóo keitl tlein chush káx̱ ḵoowdligaaw. The big dog defended himself. [Story & Naish 1973:65] loud-voiced O-sa-l-gaaw (ga state) for O to be loud-voiced, noisy in speech sa-li-gaaw Note a related verb with a similar meaning: x̱ʼaligaaw "s/he has a loud, powerful voice." Isaklagaaw! Be loud! Yee saklagaaw! You all be loud! Líl isalagaawúḵ! Donʼt be loud! Líl yee salagaawúḵ! Donʼt you all be loud! x̱at saligaaw I am loud-voiced saligaaw he/she/it is loud-voiced tlél x̱at seilgaaw Iʼm not loud-voiced tlél seilgaaw he/she/it isnʼt loud-voiced x̱at sawligaaw I was loud-voiced sawligaaw he/she/it was loud-voiced tlél x̱at sawulgaaw I wasnʼt loud-voiced tlél sawulgaaw he/she/it wasnʼt loud-voiced kei x̱at sagux̱lagaaw I will be loud-voiced kei sagux̱lagaaw he/she/it will be loud-voiced tlél kei x̱at sagux̱lagaaw I wonʼt be loud-voiced tlél kei sagux̱lagaaw he/she/it wonʼt be loud-voiced x̱at sagax̱lagaaw let me be loud-voiced sagax̱lagaaw let him/her/it be loud-voiced [does not occur] [does not occur] [does not occur] [does not occur] saklagaawní if/when he/she/it is loud-voiced kei salagaawch he/she/it gets loud-voiced (regularly) fight (N een) ḵu-S-l-gaaw (na act) for S to fight (with N) ḵu-li-gaaw Note that du een is not required by the verb. For example, one can simply say: ḵax̱wligaaw "I fought". Replace the N in the theme with the appropriate possessive pronoun to specify who the subject fought with, as in: du een kax̱wligaaw "I fought him/her". (Du een) ḵunalgaaw! Fight (him/her)! (Du een) ḵunaylagaaw! You all fight (him/her)! Líl (du een) yoo keelagaawúḵ! Donʼt fight (him/her)! Líl (du een) yoo keeylagaawúḵ! Donʼt you all fight (him/her)! (du een) ḵux̱lagaaw I am fighting (him/her) (du een) ḵulagaaw s/he is fighting (him/her) (du een) ḵux̱wligaaw I fought (him/her) (du een) ḵoowligaaw s/he fought (him/her) tlél (du een) ḵuwulgaaw s/he didnʼt fight (him/her) (du een) ḵugux̱lagaaw s/he will fight (him/her) tlél (du een) ḵugux̱lagaaw s/he wonʼt fight (him/her) (du een) ḵunax̱lagaaw let him/her fight (him/her) (du een) ḵunalgaawch s/he fights (him/her) (every time) tlél (du een) ḵoonalgaawch s/he hasnʼt fought (him/her) yet tlél aadé (du een) ḵoonax̱ligaawu yé no way can s/he fight (him/her) (du een) ḵoonax̱lagaawún s/he would have fought (him/her) (du een) ḵunalgaawní if/when s/he fights (him/her) (du een) yoo ḵuligaawk s/he fights (him/her) (regularly) gaaxʼ pray pray sh káa x̱ʼe-S-d-gáaxʼ~ (∅ act; CV́Cʼ Hort/Pot) for S to pray --- Sh káa x̱ʼeedagáxʼ! Pray! Sh káa x̱ʼaydagáxʼ! You all pray! Líl sh káa x̱ʼeidagáxʼx̱iḵ! Donʼt pray! Líl sh káa x̱ʼeeydagáxʼx̱iḵ! Donʼt you all pray! sh káa x̱ʼadagáaxʼ s/he prays; s/he is praying tlél sh káa x̱ʼeidagáaxʼ s/he doesnʼt pray sh káa x̱ʼawdigáxʼ s/he prayed tlél sh káa x̱ʼawdagáaxʼ s/he didnʼt pray sh káa x̱ʼagux̱dagáaxʼ s/he will pray tlél sh káa x̱ʼagux̱dagáaxʼ s/he wonʼt pray sh káa x̱ʼax̱dagáxʼ let him/her pray sh káa x̱ʼeidagáxʼch s/he prays (every time) tlél sh káa x̱ʼeidagáxʼch s/he hasnʼt prayed yet tlél aadé sh káa x̱ʼeix̱digáxʼi yé no way can s/he pray sh káa x̱ʼax̱dagáxʼin s/he would have prayed sh káa x̱ʼadagáxʼni if/when s/he prays sh káa x̱ʼadagáxʼx̱ s/he prays (regularly) geen (2) wrinkle wrinkle it O-ka-S-sh-géen~ (∅ event) for S to wrinkle O ka-shi-geen Kashagín! Wrinkle it! Kayshagín! You all wrinkle it! Líl keeshagínx̱iḵ! Donʼt wrinkle it! Líl kayshagínx̱iḵ! Donʼt you all wrinkle it! [does not occur] yaa kanax̱shagín Iʼm starting to wrinkle it yaa akanashgín s/he is starting to wrinkle it kax̱wshigín I wrinkled it akawshigín s/he wrinkled it tlél kax̱wshagéen I didnʼt wrinkle it tlél akawushgéen s/he didnʼt wrinkle it kakḵwashagéen I will wrinkle it akagux̱shagéen s/he will wrinkle it tlél kakḵwashagéen I wonʼt wrinkle it tlél akagux̱shagéen s/he wonʼt wrinkle it kaḵashagéen let me wrinkle it akax̱shagéen let him/her wrinkle it koox̱shagínch I wrinkle it (every time) akooshgínch s/he wrinkles it (every time) tlél koox̱shagínch I havenʼt wrinkled it yet tlél akooshgínch s/he hasnʼt wrinkled it yet tlél aadé kooḵashigéeni yé no way can I wrinkle it tlél aadé akoox̱shigéeni yé no way can s/he wrinkle it kooḵashagéenin I would have wrinkled it akoox̱shagéenin s/he would have wrinkled it kax̱shagínni if/when I wrinkle it akshagínni if/when s/he wrinkles it kax̱shagínx̱ I wrinkle it (regularly) akshagínx̱ s/he wrinkles it (regularly) Akshagínni du koodásʼi akagux̱shaxʼéelʼ. If he wrinkles his shirt, heʼll have to iron it. wrinkled O-ka-d-sh-géen~ (∅ event) for O to be wrinkled ka-shi-geen [does not occur] yaa kanashgín itʼs starting to get wrinkled kawjigín itʼs wrinkled tlél kawushgéen itʼs not wrinkled kakg̱washgéen it will be wrinkled tlél kakg̱washgéen it wonʼt get wrinkled kag̱ashgéen let it get wrinkled kooshgínch it gets wrinkled (every time) tlél kooshgínch it hasnʼt gotten wrinkled yet tlél aadé koox̱jigéeni yé no way can it get wrinkled koog̱ashgéenin it would have gotten wrinkled kashgínni if/when it gets wrinkled kashgínx̱ it wrinkles easily Ax̱ yá kawjigín. My face is wrinkled. Tlél tʼaa káx̱ eex̱eejíḵ, kakg̱washgéen. Donʼt throw it on the floor, it will get wrinkled. geet1 (7) fall, wake up, lost fall into it P-dé O-d-s-geet~ (na motion) for O (live creature) to fall into P dzi-geet Líl aadé yoo eesgítgiḵ! Donʼt fall there! [does not occur] aadé wdzigeet he/she/it fell there tlél aadé wusgeet he/she/it didnʼt fall there aadé kg̱wasgéet he/she/it will fall there tlél aadé kg̱wasgeet he/she/it wonʼt fall there aadé ng̱asgeet let him/her/it fall there aadé nasgítch he/she/it falls there (every time) tlél aadé unasgítch he/she/it hasnʼt fallen there yet tlél aadé aadé nax̱wsigeedi yé no way can s/he fall there aadé ng̱wasgeedín s/he would have fallen there aadé nasgítni if/when s/he falls there aadé yoo dzigítk he/she/it falls there (regularly) fall, trip P-náx̱ yei O-d-s-geet~ (∅ motion) for O (live creature) to fall down, trip over P dzi-geet To give the meaning trip over something, use N kaanáx̱ (over N). For example: A kaanáx̱ yei wdzigít. "S/he tripped over it." [does not occur] Líl anax̱ yei eesgítjiḵ! Donʼt fall down there! Líl anax̱ yei yee sgítjiḵ! Donʼt you all fall down there! [does not occur] anax̱ yei x̱at wudzigít I fell down there anax̱ yei wdzigít s/he fell down there tlél anax̱ yei x̱at wusgeet I didnʼt fall down there tlél anax̱ yei wusgeet s/he didnʼt fall down there anax̱ yei x̱at gug̱asgéet I will fall down there anax̱ yei kg̱wasgéet s/he will fall down there tlél anax̱ yei x̱at gug̱asgeet I wonʼt fall down there tlél anax̱ yei kg̱wasgeet s/he wonʼt fall down there anax̱ yei x̱at g̱asgeet let me fall down there anax̱ yei g̱asgeet let him/her fall down there anax̱ yei x̱at usgítch I fall down there (every time) anax̱ yei usgítch s/he falls down there (every time) tlél anax̱ yei x̱at usgítch I havenʼt fallen down there yet tlél anax̱ yei usgítch s/he hasnʼt fallen down there yet tlél aadé anax̱ yei x̱wdzigeedi yé no way can s/he fall down there anax̱ yei g̱wasgeedín s/he would have fallen down there anax̱ yei isgítni if/when s/he falls down there [does not occur] Yaa nashíxi áwé anax̱ yei wdzigít. When he was running, he fell down there. Du x̱ʼoos kaanáx̱ yei wdzigít. He tripped over his feet. fall into, against it P-t~ O-d-s-geet~ (∅ motion) for O (live creature) to fall into, against P dzi-geet [does not occur] [does not occur] át x̱at wudzigít I fell against it át wudzigít s/he fell against it tlél át x̱at wusgeet I didnʼt fall against it tlél át wusgeet s/he didnʼt fall against it aadé x̱at gug̱asgéet I will fall against it aadé kg̱wasgéet s/he will fall against it tlél aadé x̱at gug̱asgeet I wonʼt fall against it tlél aadé kg̱wasgeet s/he wonʼt fall against it át x̱at g̱asgeet let me fall against it át g̱asgeet let him/her fall against it át x̱at usgeetch I fall against it (every time) át usgeetch s/he falls against it (every time) tlél át x̱at usgeetch I havenʼt fallen against it yet tlél át usgeetch s/he hasnʼt fallen against it yet tlél aadé át g̱wadzigeedi yé no way can s/he fall against it át g̱wasgeedín s/he would have fallen against it át isgítni if/when s/he falls against it [does not occur] fall (esp. off of something) daak O-d-s-geet~ (∅ motion) for O to fall (esp. off of something) dzi-geet This verb is most commonly used to indicate falling off of something, such as in: Aadáx̱ daak wudzigít. "He fell down off of it." Tlél daak isgítjiḵ! Donʼt fall! Tlél daak yee sgítjiḵ! Donʼt you all fall! Daak tsá isgéet! See that you donʼt fall! Daak tsá yee sgéet! See that you all donʼt fall! [does not occur] [does not occur] daak x̱at wudzigít I fell daak wudzigít s/he fell tlél daak x̱at wusgeet I didnʼt fall tlél daak wusgeet s/he didnʼt fall daak x̱at gug̱asgéet I will fall daak gug̱asgéet s/he will fall tlél daak x̱at gug̱asgeet I wonʼt fall tlél daak gug̱asgeet s/he wonʼt fall daak x̱at g̱asgeet let me fall daak g̱asgeet let him/her fall daak x̱at usgeetch I fall (every time) daak usgeetch s/he falls (every time) tlél daak x̱at usgeetch I havenʼt fallen yet tlél daak usgeetch s/he hasnʼt fallen yet tlél aadé daak x̱at g̱wadzigeedi yé no way can I fall tlél aadé daak g̱wadzigeedi yé no way can s/he fall daak x̱at g̱asgeedín I would have fallen daak g̱wasgeedín s/he would have fallen daak x̱at isgítni if/when I fall daak isgítni if/when s/he falls daak x̱at isgítch I fall (regularly) daak isgítch s/he falls (regularly) Wé át .aayí aadáx̱ daak wudzigít. He fell from where he was sitting. Káayag̱ijeit kaax̱ daak wudzigít. She fell off the chair. wake him/her up; rouse him/her from sleep kei O-S-s-geet~ (∅ motion) for S to wake O up, rouse O from sleep kei si-geet Kei sageet! Wake him/her up! Kei ysageet! You all wake him/her up! Líl kei eesgítjiḵ! Donʼt wake him/her up! Líl kei yisagítjiḵ! Donʼt you all wake him/her up! [does not occur] [does not occur] kei x̱wsigít I woke him/her up kei yisigít you woke him/her up kei awsigít s/he woke him/her up kei wtusigít we woke him/her up kei yeeysigít you all woke him/her up kei (ha)s awsigít they woke him/her up kei wdudzigít someone woke him/her up tlél kei x̱wsageet I didnʼt wake him/her up tlél kei ysageet you didnʼt wake him/her up tlél kei awusgeet s/he didnʼt wake him/her up tlél kei wtusageet we didnʼt wake him/her up tlél kei yeeysageet you all didnʼt wake him/her up tlél kei (ha)s awusgeet they didnʼt wake him/her up tlél kei wdusgeet nobody woke him/her up kei kḵwasagéet I will wake him/her up kei kg̱isagéet you will wake him/her up kei agux̱sagéet s/he will wake him/her up kei gax̱tusagéet we will wake him/her up kei gax̱yisagéet you all will wake him/her up kei (ha)s agux̱sagéet they will wake him/her up kei gax̱dusgéet someone will wake him/her up tlél kei kḵwasageet I wonʼt wake him/her up tlél kei kg̱isageet you wonʼt wake him/her up tlél kei agux̱sageet s/he wonʼt wake him/her up tlél kei gax̱tusageet we wonʼt wake him/her up tlél kei gax̱yisageet you all wonʼt wake him/her up tlél kei (ha)s agux̱sageet they wonʼt wake him/her up tlél kei gax̱dusgeet nobody will wake him/her up kei ḵasageet let me wake him/her up kei ax̱sageet let him/her wake him/her up kei g̱atusageet let us wake him/her up kei x̱wsageetch I wake him/her up (every time) kei isageetch you wake him/her up (every time) kei oosgeetch s/he wakes him/her up (every time) kei tusageetch we wake him/her up (every time) kei yisageetch you all wake him/her up (every time) kei (ha)s oosgeetch they wake him/her up (every time) kei dusgeetch someone wakes him/her up (every time) tlél kei x̱wsageetch / tlél kei ux̱sageetch I havenʼt woken him/her up yet tlél kei isageetch you havenʼt woken him/her up yet tlél kei oosgeetch s/he hasnʼt woken him/her up yet tlél kei tusageetch we havenʼt woken him/her up yet tlél kei yisageetch you all havenʼt woken him/her up yet tlél kei (ha)s oosgeetch they havenʼt woken him/her up yet tlél kei dusgeetch nobody has woken him/her up yet tlél aadé kei oox̱sigeedi yé no way can s/he wake him/her up kei oox̱sageedín s/he would have woken him/her up kei asgítni if/when s/he wakes him/her up kei asgítch s/he wakes him/her up (regularly) I léelkʼu na.éexʼ - chʼa yeisú tlél kei ux̱sageetch. Call your grandmother - I havenʼt woken her up yet. I yeeg̱áa áyá - tlél kei ux̱sageetch. Iʼm waiting for you - I havenʼt woken him up yet. wake up kei O-s-geet~ (∅ motion) for O to wake up kei si-geet [does not occur] [does not occur] [does not occur] kei x̱at wudzigít I woke up kei iwdzigít you woke up kei wdzigít s/he woke up kei haa wudzigít we woke up kei yee wdzigít you all woke up kei (ha)s wudzigít they woke up kei ḵuwdzigít someone woke up tlél kei x̱at wusgeet I didnʼt wake up tlél kei iwusgeet you didnʼt wake up tlél kei wusgeet s/he didnʼt wake up tlél kei haa wusgeet we didnʼt wake up tlél kei yee wusgeet you all didnʼt wake up tlél kei (ha)s wusgeet they didnʼt wake up tlél kei ḵuwusgeet nobody woke up kei x̱at gug̱asgéet I will wake up kei ikg̱wasgéet you will wake up kei kg̱wasgéet s/he will wake up kei haa kg̱wasgéet we will wake up kei yee kg̱wasgéet you all will wake up kei (ha)s gug̱asgéet they will wake up kei ḵukg̱wasgéet someone will wake up tlél kei x̱at gug̱asgeet I wonʼt wake up tlél kei ikg̱wasgeet you wonʼt wake up tlél kei kg̱wasgeet s/he wonʼt wake up tlél kei haa kg̱wasgeet we wonʼt wake up tlél kei yee kg̱wasgeet you all wonʼt wake up tlél kei (ha)s gug̱asgeet they wonʼt wake up tlél kei ḵukg̱wasgeet nobody will wake up kei x̱at g̱asgeet let me wake up kei g̱asgeet let him/her wake up kei haa g̱asgeet let us wake up kei x̱at usgeetch I wake up (every time) kei eesgeetch you wake up (every time) kei usgeetch s/he wakes up (every time) kei haa usgeetch we wake up (every time) kei yee usgeetch you all wake up (every time) kei (ha)s usgeetch they wake up (every time) kei ḵoosgeetch someone wakes up (every time) tlél kei x̱at usgeetch I havenʼt woken up yet tlél kei eesgeetch you havenʼt woken up yet tlél kei usgeetch s/he hasnʼt woken up yet tlél kei haa usgeetch we havenʼt woken up yet tlél kei yee usgeetch you all havenʼt woken up yet tlél kei (ha)s usgeetch they havenʼt woken up yet tlél kei ḵoosgeetch nobody has woken up yet tlél aadé kei ux̱sigeedi yé no way can s/he wake up kei ux̱sageedín s/he would have woken up kei isgítni if/when s/he wakes up [does not occur] lost ḵut O-d-s-geet~ (ga motion) for O to lose oneself, be lost, usure of oneʼs location ḵut dzi-geet ḵut igasgeet! Get lost! [does not occur] ḵut tsá igasgéet! Be sure not to get lost! [does not occur] [does not occur] ḵut x̱at wudzigeet I got lost ḵut wudzigeet s/he got lost tlél ḵut x̱at wusgeet I didnʼt get lost tlél ḵut wusgeet s/he didnʼt get lost ḵut kei x̱at gug̱asgéet I will get lost ḵut kei kg̱wasgéet s/he will get lost tlél ḵut kei x̱at gug̱asgeet I wonʼt get lost tlél ḵut kei kg̱wasgeet s/he wonʼt get lost [does not occur] (chʼa) ḵut gag̱asgeet (just) let him/her get lost ḵut x̱at gasgítch I get lost (every time) ḵut gasgítch s/he gets lost (every time) tlél ḵut x̱at goosgítch I havenʼt gotten lost yet tlél ḵut goosgítch s/he hasnʼt gotten lost yet tlél aadé ḵut x̱at gax̱wdzigeedi yé no way can I get lost tlél aadé ḵut gax̱wdzigeedi yé no way can s/he get lost ḵut x̱at goox̱asgeedín I would have gotten lost ḵut goox̱asgeedín s/he would have gotten lost ḵut x̱at gasgítni if/when I get lost ḵut gasgítni if/when s/he gets lost ḵut kei x̱at isgítch I get lost (regularly) ḵut kei isgítch s/he gets lost (regularly) geet2 break (law), do violate, break a law; do something wrong at géit~ S-d-s-geet~ (∅ event) for S to violate, break (law or custom), to do something wrong a géi- + dzi-geet [does not occur] Líl at géix̱ eesgeedíḵ! Donʼt do anything wrong! Líl at géix̱ yisgeedíḵ! Donʼt you all do anythig wrong! [does not occur] at géide yaa nx̱asgít Iʼm doing something wrong at géide yaa nasgít s/heʼs doing something wrong at géit x̱wadzigít I did something wrong at géit wudzigít s/he did something wrong tlél at géit x̱wasgeet I didnʼt do anything wrong tlél at géit wusgeet s/he didnʼt do anything wrong at géide kḵwasgéet I will do something wrong at géide kg̱wasgéet s/he will do something wrong tlél at géide kḵwasgeet I wonʼt do anything wrong tlél at géide kg̱wasgeet s/he wonʼt do anything wrong (chʼa) at géit ḵasgeet (dé) (just) let me do something wrong (now) (chʼa) at géit g̱asgeet (dé) (just) let him/her do something wrong (now) at géit x̱wasgeetch I do something wrong (every time) at géit usgeetch s/he does something wrong (every time) tlél at géit x̱wasgeetch I havenʼt done anything wrong yet tlél at géit usgeetch s/he hasnʼt done anything wrong yet tlél aadé at géit ḵwadzigeedi yé no way can I do anything wrong tlél aadé at géit g̱wadzigeedi yé no way can s/he do anything wrong at géit ḵwasgeedín I would have done something wrong at géit g̱wasgeedín s/he would have done something wrong at géit x̱asgítni if/when I do something wrong at géit isgítni if/when s/he does something wrong [does not occur] geiʰ1 (2) big, many big, many (yéi) k-u-ya-geiʰ~ (na state) for a thing to be (so) big; for things to be (so) many ya-gei yéi koogéi itʼs that big tlél yéi koogei it isnʼt that big yéi kaawagei it got that big tlél yéi kawugei it didnʼt get that big yéi kakg̱wagéi it will get that big tlél yéi kakg̱wagei it wonʼt get that big yéi kung̱agei let it get that big yéi kunageich it gets that big (every time) tlél yéi koonageich it hasnʼt gotten that big yet tlél aadé yéi kung̱aageiyi yé no way can it be that big yéi kung̱ageiyín it would have gotten that big yéi kunagéini if/when it gets that big yéi koogeix̱ it gets that big (regularly) big (that big, of plural things) (yéi) + ka-u-d-geiʰ~ (na state) for (plural) things to be (so) big ya-gei yéi kwdigéi theyʼre that big tlél yéi koodagei theyʼre not that big yéi yaa kundagéin theyʼre getting that big [does not occur] yéi kagux̱dagéi they will be that big tlél yéi kagux̱dagei they wonʼt be that big yéi kunax̱dagei let them get that big yéi kundageich they get that big (every time) tlél yéi kundageich they havenʼt gotten that big yet tlél aadé yéi kunax̱digeiyi yé no way can they be that big yéi kunax̱dageiyín they would have been that big yéi kundagéini if/when they are that big [does not occur] gei1 (4) big big (of singular, spherical object) ka-∅-gei~ (na state) for a singular, usually spherical object to be big ka-ya-gei kayagéi itʼs big tlél koogé itʼs not big yaa kanagéin itʼs getting big [does not occur] kakg̱wagéi it will be big kanagéich it gets big (every time) tlél koonagéich it hasnʼt gotten big yet yoo kayagéik it gets big (regularly) (balloon, e.g.) kanagéini if/when it gets big tall, big O-l-gei~ (na state) for O (esp. live creature or building) to be big, tall li-gei [does not occur] [does not occur] x̱at ligéi Iʼm tall iligéi youʼre tall ligéi he/she/it is tall haa ligéi weʼre tall yee ligéi you all are tall has ligéi they are tall ḵuligéi people are tall tlél x̱at ulgé Iʼm not tall tlél eelgé youʼre not tall tlél ulgé he/she/it isnʼt tall tlél haa ulgé weʼre not tall tlél yee ulgé you all are not tall tlél has ulgé they arenʼt tall tlél ḵoolgé nobody is tall wé ligéiyi aa the tall one yaa x̱at nalgéin Iʼm getting tall yaa inalgéin youʼre getting tall yaa nalgéin he/she/it is getting tall yaa haa nalgéin weʼre getting tall yaa yee nalgéin you all are getting tall yaa (ha)s nalgéin they are getting tall yaa ḵunalgéin people are getting tall lagéiyin s/he used to be tall tlél ulgéiyin s/he didnʼt used to be tall x̱at wuligei I got tall iwligei you got tall wuligei he/she/it got tall haa wuligei we got tall yee wligei you all got tall has wuligei they got tall tlél x̱at wulgé I didnʼt get tall tlél iwulgé you didnʼt get tall tlél wulgé he/she/it didnʼt get tall tlél haa wulgé we didnʼt get tall tlél yee wulgé you all didnʼt get tall tlél has wulgé they didnʼt get tall tlél ḵuwulgé nobody got tall kei x̱at gux̱lagéi I will be tall kei igux̱lagéi you will be tall kei gux̱lagéi he/she/it will be tall kei haa gux̱lagéi we will be tall kei yee gux̱lagéi you all will be tall kei (ha)s gux̱lagéi they will be tall kei ḵugux̱lagéi people will be tall tlél kei ax̱ gux̱lagei I wonʼt be tall tlél kei igux̱lagei you wonʼt be tall tlél kei gux̱lagei he/she/it wonʼt be tall tlél kei haa gux̱lagei we wonʼt be tall tlél kei yee gux̱lagei you all wonʼt be tall tlél kei (ha)s gux̱lagei they wonʼt be tall tlél kei ḵugux̱lagei nobody will be tall [does not occur] has lagéi nooch they are always tall [does not occur] tlél x̱at unalgeich I havenʼt gotten tall yet tlél inalgeich you havenʼt gotten tall yet tlél unalgeich he/she/it hasnʼt gotten tall yet tlél haa unalgeich we havenʼt gotten tall yet tlél yee unalgeich you all havenʼt gotten tall yet tlél has unalgeich they havenʼt gotten tall yet tlél ḵoonalgeich nobody has gotten tall yet tlél aadé yéi koonax̱ligeiyi yé no way can he/she/it be that tall nax̱lageiyín he/she/it would have been tall nalgéini if/when he/she/it gets tall [does not occur] Tle yá x̱ʼeitakw kudasáa téel x̱ʼoosdé x̱wdayeeg̱é, tle ax̱ nalgeich. When I put on my high heeled shoes, I become tall. many, plenty, lots (of solid mass or abstracts) ∅-gei~ (na state) for a solid mass or abstracts to be plentiful, be lots, many ya-gei yagéi there are many tlél ugé there arenʼt many yaa nagéin itʼs increasing (in number) tlél yaa unagéin itʼs not increasing (in number) géiyin there used to be many tlél ugéiyin there didnʼt use to be many woogei there got to be many tlél wugei there werenʼt many gug̱agéi there will be many tlél gug̱agei there wonʼt be many nag̱agei let there be many géi nooch there are always many nageich there are many (every time) tlél unageich it hasnʼt increased (in number) yet tlél aadé ng̱waageiyi yé no way can there be many nag̱wageiyín there would have been many nagéini if/when there are many yoo yagéik there gets to be many (regularly) Yagéiyi yéi jiné áwé yan awsinei. S/he did a big job. Chʼa yéi koong̱agei. Leave it as it is (as in size, amount). g̱agaan eetináx̱ tlél gug̱agei shákw. Without sunshine, there wonʼt be many strawberries. A géide yéi a daaneiyí yoo yagéik. When he does it wrong, it gets to be more (work). small (of grain-like objects) (yéi) ka-u-d-s-gei~ (ga state) for grain-like objects to be small yéi + ka-dzi-gei yéi kwdzigéi theyʼre small tlél yéi koosgei theyʼre not small [does not occur] [does not occur] yéi kagoosgéini if/when theyʼre small gei2 (3) undertand, intelligent, foolish understand, comprehend N daa yaa ḵu-shu-s-géi (ga state) for N to understand, comprehend ḵaa daa + yaa ḵu-shu-si-gei I daa yaa ḵushuksagéi (dé)! Understand (now)! Yee daa yaa ḵushuksagéi (dé)! You all understand (now)! du daa yaa ḵushusigéi s/he understands tlél du daa yaa ḵushusgé s/he doesnʼt understand du daa kei yaa ḵushunasgéin s/he is beginning to understand du daa yaa ḵushuwsigéi s/he came to understand tlél du daa yaa ḵushuwusgéi s/he didnʼt come to understand du daa kei yaa ḵushugux̱sagéi s/he will understand tlél du daa kei yaa ḵushugux̱sagéi s/he wonʼt understand du daa yaa ḵushugax̱sagéi let him/her understand du daa yaa ḵushuksagéich s/he understands (every time) tlél du daa yaa ḵushuksagéich s/he doesnʼt understand yet tlél aadé du daa yaa ḵushux̱sigéiyi yé no way can s/he understand it du daa yaa ḵushux̱sageiyín s/he would have understood it du daa yaa ḵushuksagéini if/when s/he understands it du daa kei yaa ḵushusagéich s/he understands (quickly) foolish, dull, unwise, crazy tlél yaa ḵu-S-d-sh-géi (ga state) for S to be foolish, dull, unwise, or crazy tléil + yaa ḵu-ji-gei Leer 1973: f05/62 Líl yaa ḵeeshgéiḵ! Donʼt be foolish! Líl yaa ḵayeeshgéiḵ! Donʼt you all be foolish! tlél yaa ḵoox̱ashgé I am foolish tlél yaa ḵooshgé s/he is foolish tlél yaa ḵuwushgéi s/he became foolish tlél kei yaa ḵukg̱washgéi s/he is going to be foolish (chʼa) tlél yaa ḵukg̱ashgéi (dé) (just) let him/her be foolish (now) Tlél yaa ḵooshgé, tlél ax̱ x̱ʼéit wus.aax̱. Heʼs kind of crazy, he didnʼt listen to me. At wudanaayí tlél yaa ḵooshgé nooch. When he drinks he always gets crazy. Chʼa keetáanáx̱, líl yaa ḵeeshgéiḵ! Cool it, donʼt get crazy! intelligent, smart, wise yaa ḵu-S-d-s-géi (ga state) for S to be intelligent, smart, wise yaa ḵu-dzi-gei Leer 1973: f05/62 Yaa ḵugeesgéi! Be smart! Yaa ḵugayisgéi! You all be smart! yaa ḵux̱dzigéi I am smart yaa ḵudzigéi s/he is smart tlél yaa ḵoox̱asgé Iʼm not smart tlél yaa ḵoosgé s/he isnʼt smart kei yaa ḵunasgéin s/heʼs getting smart yaa ḵoowdzigéi s/he got smart tlél yaa ḵuwusgéi s/he didnʼt get smart kei yaa ḵukg̱wasgéi s/he is going to be smart tlél kei yaa ḵukg̱wasgéi s/he isnʼt going to be smart (chʼa) yaa ḵukg̱asgéi / (chʼa) yaa ḵukg̱asgéiyi (just) let him/her be smart yaa ḵugasgéich s/he gets smart (every time) tlél yaa ḵugoosgéich s/he hasnʼt gotten smart yet tlél aadé yaa ḵugoox̱dzigéiyi yé no way can s/he be smart yaa ḵugoog̱asgéiyin s/he would have been smart yaa ḵugasgéini if/when s/he gets smart kei yaa ḵusgéich s/he gets smart (regularly) Yaa ḵoosgeiyí yóo áwé yéi agux̱sanéi. If heʼs smart, heʼll do it this way. Adawóotl tóonáx̱ kei yaa ḵusgéich. Through hard times, he gets smart. geiḵ improper improper; against the law ku-d-géiḵ (ga state) --- kudigéiḵ itʼs improper tlél koodagéiḵ itʼs not improper kawdigéiḵ it became improper tlél kawdagéiḵ it didnʼt become improper kei kagux̱dagéiḵ it will be improper tlél kei kagux̱dagéiḵ it wonʼt be improper tlél aadé kagoox̱digéig̱i yé no way can it be improper kagoox̱dagéig̱in it would have been improper kakdagéiḵni if/when itʼs improper kei kadagéiḵch it becomes improper (regularly) Astʼeix̱ át shux̱dután kudigéiḵ adustʼeix̱í. Itʼs against the law to fish when theyʼve closed the fishery. Kudigéíḵ dei káxʼ at dunaayí. Itʼs illegal to drink on the street. Kudigéiḵ aan x̱ʼayee adulʼúkx̱u. Itʼs illegal to urinate on the street. Kagoox̱dagéig̱in x̱ʼax̱waawóosʼi. It would have been improper for me to ask him. goo1 (3) happy, want, like, fun happy, glad N toowú s-góo (ga state) for N to be happy, glad ḵaa toowoo + si-goo I toowú ksagóo! Be happy! Yee toowú ksagóo! You all be happy! [does not occur] ax̱ toowú sigóo I am happy du toowú sigóo s/he is happy tlél ax̱ tooshgú I am not happy tlél du tooshgú s/he isnʼt happy [does not occur] du toowú sagóowun s/he used to be happy ax̱ toowú wsigóo I became happy du toowú wsigóo s/he became happy tlél ax̱ toowú wushgóo I wasnʼt happy tlél du toowú wushgóo s/he wasnʼt happy ax̱ toowú kei gux̱sagóo I will be happy du toowú kei gux̱sagóo s/he will be happy tlél ax̱ toowú kei gux̱sagóo I wonʼt be happy tlél du toowú kei gux̱sagóo s/he wonʼt be happy ax̱ toowú gax̱sagóo let me be happy du toowú gax̱sagóo let him/her be happy du toowú sagóo nooch s/he is always happy ax̱ toowú ksagwéich I get happy (every time) du toowú ksagwéich s/he gets happy (every time) [does not occur] [does not occur] du toowú gax̱sagóowun s/he would have been happy du toowú ksagwéini if/when s/heʼs happy du toowú kei sagóoch s/he gets happy (regularly) want, like N tuwáa S-s-góo (ga state) for N to want, like, desire S; for S to be pleasing to N ḵaa toowáa + si-goo ax̱ tuwáa sigóo I want it i tuwáa sigóo you want it du tuwáa sigóo s/he wants it haa tuwáa sigóo we want it yee tuwáa sigóo you all want it has du tuwáa sigóo they want it ḵáa tuwáa sigóo he/she/it is liked tlél ax̱ tuwáa ushgú I donʼt want it tlél i tuwáa ushgú you donʼt want it tlél du tuwáa ushgú s/he doesnʼt want it tlél haa tuwáa ushgú we donʼt want it tlél yee tuwáa ushgú you all donʼt want it tlél has du tuwáa ushgú they donʼt want it tlél ḵáa tuwáa ushgú he/she/it isnʼt liked wé du tuwáa sigóowu aa the one who wants it ax̱ tuwáa kei nasgwéin I am beginning to want it i tuwáa kei nasgwéin you are beginning to want it du tuwáa kei nasgwéin s/he is beginning to want it haa tuwáa kei nasgwéin we are beginning to want it yee tuwáa kei nasgwéin you all are beginning to want it has du tuwáa kei nasgwéin they are beginning to want it ḵáa tuwáa kei nasgwéin it is beginning to be liked du tuwáa sagóowun s/he used to want it tlél du tuwáa ushgóowun s/he didnʼt used to want it ax̱ tuwáa wsigóo I wanted it i tuwáa wsigóo you wanted it du tuwáa wsigóo s/he wanted it haa tuwáa wsigóo we wanted it yee tuwáa wsigóo you all wanted it has du tuwáa wsigóo they wanted it ḵáa tuwáa wsigóo he/she/it was liked tlél ax̱ tuwáa wushgóo I didnʼt want it tlél i tuwáa wushgóo you didnʼt want it tlél du tuwáa wushgóo s/he didnʼt want it tlél haa tuwáa wushgóo we didnʼt want it tlél yee tuwáa wushgóo you all didnʼt want it tlél has du tuwáa wushgóo