Tlingit Verbs by Classifier


Crippen, James. "Tlingitology Seminar Notes: Background and Morphology" (2013) & "Tlingit Verbal Structure Handbook" (2013)

Edwards (Eggleston), Keri. Dictionary of Tlingit (2010)

Leer, Jeff. "Tlingit Verbs" (nd) & "Tlingit Stem List" (1978)

Story, Gillian and Constance M. Naish. Tlingit Verb Dictionary (1973)



Listing

Imperfective

Type

CP

Cl

Root

Keyword

Definition

Item Specific?

P

Notes






















?-(na)-∅-.ee


motion

na

∅-

.ee

cook

for food be cooked (general)




N daa + ya-(na)-S-∅-√.aa ⁵


event

na

∅-

√.aa

consider

for S to consider, think over, come to senses about N (after drinking)

after drinking



ka-(na)-∅-√.aa ³

ka.éix̱

act

na

∅-

√.aa

grow

for a plant to grow; for a stream of water to flow, pour forth

plant, stream



N yee-g̱áa + (?)-S-∅-√.aa


act

?

∅-

√.aa

wait for

for S to wait for N




ḵee-(na)-∅-√.aa ⁴


event

na

∅-

√.aa

daylight

to become daylight, dawn

daylight



()-∅-√.aa ¹

.áa

position


∅-

√.aa

sit

for (singlular) S to be seated


s


O-x̱ʼa-ya-(?)-S-∅-√.aa


act

?

∅-

√.aa

delay

for S to delay O in speech, interrupt




O-ya-(?)-S-∅-√.aa


act

?

∅-

√.aa

delay

for S to delay, hinder O




P-t~a-(∅)-S-∅-√.aak


act

∅-

√.aak

fire

for S to fix fire (using wood)

wood



O-(?)-S-∅-√.aak


act

?

∅-

√.aak

weave

for S to weave basket or mat (using tree roots or bark)

roots or bark



át + O-ka-(na)-S-∅-√.aaḵw ¹

át akaawa.aaḵw

event

na

∅-

√.aaḵw

command

for S to give orders to, command, instruct O




ka-(na)-S-∅-√.aaḵw ²


act

na

∅-

√.aaḵw

try

for S to try, attempt; for S to try out, test




yan~ + O-ka-(∅)-S-∅-√.aaḵw ¹

yan akaawa.áḵw

motion

∅-

√.aaḵw

decide

for S to make a decision about O; for S to finish planning O




a-ya-(na)-S-∅-√.aan ³


event

na

∅-

√.aan

sit

for S to sit quietly (meditating and esp. watching signs of the weather at sundown)




O-tu-(ga)-∅-√.aan ²

tuli.aan

state

ga

∅-

√.aan

kind

for O to be kind, gentle




N yáx̱ + O-(?)-∅-√.aas


state

?

∅-

√.aas

lonesome

for O to be lonesome for, wish to see N (someone)

person



O-(ga)-∅-√.aash


act

ga

∅-

√.aash

flow

for sap to run, flow

sap



gági + (∅)-S-∅-√.aat ¹

gági yaa (ha)s na.át

motion

∅-

√.aat

walk

for (plural) S to emerge, walk out into the open


p


héi-de + ya-u-(∅)-S-∅-√.aat ¹

héide yaa (ha)s wuna.át

motion

∅-

√.aat

walk

for (plural) S to move over (away from speaker)


p


N ít-x̱ + (na)-S-∅-√.aat ¹

du ítx̱ (ha)s na.át

motion

na

∅-

√.aat

walk

for (plural) S to follow, go behind (by walking or as a general term)


p


kei + (∅)-S-∅-√.aat ¹

áa kei (ha)s na.át

motion

∅-

√.aat

walk

for (plural) S to walk up, go up (by walking or as a general term)


p


N een + (∅)-S-∅-√.aat ¹

du een (ha)s na.át

motion

∅-

√.aat

walk

for S to walk, go with N (by walking or as a general term) to P


p


ḵut + (ga)-S-∅-√.aat ¹

ḵut kei (ha)s na.át

motion

ga

∅-

√.aat

lost

for (plural) S to get lost (on foot)


p


P-dé + (na)-S-∅-√.aat ¹

aadé yaa (ha)s na.át

motion

na

∅-

√.aat

walk

for (plural) S to walk, go (by walking or as a general term) to P


p


P-g̱aa + (na)-S-∅-√.aat ¹

aag̱áa yaa (ha)s na.át

motion

na

∅-

√.aat

walk

for (plural) S to go after P, go seeking P (on foot)


p


P-náx̱ + ya-u-(∅)-S-∅-√.aat ¹

anax̱ yaa (ha)s wuna.át

motion

∅-

√.aat

walk

for (plural) S to walk, go (by walking or as a general term) through, by way of P


p


P-t + (na)-S-∅-√.aat ¹

át has woo.aat

motion

na

∅-

√.aat

walk

for (plural) S to walk, go (by walking or as a general term) around at P


p


P-t~ + (∅)-S-∅-√.aat ¹

aadé yaa (ha)s na.át

motion

∅-

√.aat

walk

for (plural) S to walk, go (by walking or as a general term) to P


p


P-x̱ + (g̱a)-S-∅-√.aat ¹

áx̱ yei (ha)s na.át

motion

g̱a

∅-

√.aat

walk

for (plural) S to walk, go (by walking or as a general term) down along P


p


P-x̱ yaa + (ga)-S-∅-√.aat ¹

áx̱ yaa (ha)s na.át

motion

ga

∅-

√.aat

walk

for (plural) S to be walking, going (by foot or as general term) along P


p


(na)-S-∅-√.aat ¹

yaa (ha)s na.át

motion

na

∅-

√.aat

walk

for (plural) S to walk, go (by walking or as a general term)


p


tʼaa + O-(?)-S-∅-√.aat ²


motion

?

∅-

√.aat

carry

for S to take news, go or come carrying news

news

p


xee-(na)-∅-√.aat ²


motion

na

∅-

√.aat

daylight

for daylight to fade, be dusk

daylight



yaa + O-shu-(ga)-S-∅-√.aat ¹

yaa (ha)s ashuna.át

event

ga

∅-

√.aat

lead

for S to lead (plural) O (especially by walking ahead)


p


yei + (na)-S-∅-√.aat ¹

áa yei (ha)s na.át

motion

na

∅-

√.aat

walk

for (plural) S to descend, go down (by walking or as a general term)




O-ya-ka-(?)-∅-√.aatlʼ


state

?

∅-

√.aatlʼ

insufficient

for O to be insufficient, not enough; be just a little, few




N jee-t~ + O-(∅)-S-∅-√.aax̱ ²

du jeedé yaa ana.áx̱

motion

∅-

√.aax̱

give

for S to give, take, hand O (textile-like object) to N

textile-like object



O-(∅)-S-∅-√.aax̱ ¹

aawa.áx̱

event

∅-

√.aax̱

hear

for S to hear O




O-sa-(∅)-S-∅-√.aax̱ ¹

aseiwa.áx̱

event

∅-

√.aax̱

hear

for S to hear O (a voice, esp. singing)

voice, esp. singing



O-x̱ʼa-(∅)-S-∅-√.aax̱ ¹

ax̱ʼeiwa.áx̱

event

∅-

√.aax̱

hear

for S to hear O with understanding; for S to understand, comprehend O




P-t+O-(na)-S-∅-√.aax̱ ²

át aawa.aax̱

motion

na

∅-

√.aax̱

carry

for S to carry, take O (textile-like object) around at P

textile-like object



O-(?)-S-∅-√.aax̱ ²


motion

?

∅-

√.aax̱

carry

for S to carry, take O (textile·like object), often over oneʼs arm

textile-like object



sʼaan + O-(∅)-S-∅-√.aax̱w


act

∅-

√.aax̱w

tie

for S to tie up hands of O (a captive)

hands, captive



O-(∅)-S-∅-√.aax̱w


act

∅-

√.aax̱w

tie

for S to tie up O (esp. dog)




yán-de + O-(∅)-S-∅-√.aax̱w

yánde a.aax̱w

act

∅-

√.aax̱w

tie

for S to tie up, secure O (esp. a boat to shore)

esp. boat to shore



O-(?)-∅-√.áaxʼw ²


state

?

∅-

√.áaxʼw

fracture

for O to be fractured (of bone)

bone



P-t + ()-∅-√.áx̱ ²

át .áx̱

position


∅-

√.áx̱

lying

for a textile-like object to lie at P

textile-like object



O-(ga)-S-∅-√.áxch ¹

aya.áx̱ch

state

ga

∅-

√.áxch

hear

for S to be able to hear O




O-x̱ʼa-(ga)-S-∅-√.áx̱ch ¹

ax̱ʼaya.áx̱ch

state

ga

∅-

√.áx̱ch

hear

for S to hear O with understanding; for S to understand, comprehend O




yan~ + (∅)-∅-√.ee

yánde yaa na.éen

motion

∅-

√.ee

cook

for food to be cooked, done cooking

food



O-(∅)-S-∅-√.een

a.éen

act

∅-

√.een

pick

for S to pick O (esp. berries) into a container

berries, container



O-(?)-S-∅-√.een


act

?

∅-

√.een

kill

for S to kill, slaughter O (plural objects)




O-(na)-∅-√.eetʼ


state

na

∅-

√.eetʼ

soak

for O to be be soaked, waterlogged




kei + (na)-∅-√.éexʼ


event

na

∅-

√.éexʼ

growl

for a bear to growl




O-(g̱a)-S-∅-√.éexʼ

aawa.éexʼ

event

g̱a

∅-

√.éexʼ

invite

for S to invite O, ask O to a party




O-(na)-S-∅-√.éexʼ

aawa.éexʼ

event

na

∅-

√.éexʼ

call

for S to call out to, shout to, holler at O




a-ka-(na)-S-∅-√.eikw


act

na

∅-

√.eikw

whistle

for S to whisle




P-dáx̱ + ḵu-(?)-∅-√.oo ¹


state

?

∅-

√.oo

remain

for something to remain, be left over




N + sha-(na)-S-∅-√.oo ²


act

na

∅-

√.oo

dress

for S to dress, dress up O; for S to dress O in at.óow

clothing, at.óow



O-ka-(na)-S-∅-√.oo ³


event

na

∅-

√.oo

buy

for S to buy O

stick-like object



ḵu-(na)-S-∅-√.oo ¹

áa ḵuya.óo / áa ḵuwa.óo

act

na

∅-

√.oo

live at

for S to live, live at, dwell permanently




O-ka-(na)-S-∅-√.oo ³

akaawa.oo

event

na

∅-

√.oo

buy

for S to buy O (usually round, spherical object)

spherical object



O-(na)-S-∅-√.oo ³

aawa.oo

event

na

∅-

√.oo

buy

for S to buy O




P-xʼ yéi + O-(na)-S-∅-√.oo ²

áa yéi aawa.oo

event

na

∅-

√.oo

put at

for S to put, leave (plural) O at P




O-(na)-S-∅-√.oo ³


event

na

∅-

√.oo

buy

for S to buy O

spherical object



yéi + O-(na)-S-∅-√.oo ²

yéi aya.óo

state

na

∅-

√.oo

wear

for S to wear, put on, dress in O; for S to use O

clothing



P-t~ + ka-(na)-∅-√.ook ²


motion

na

∅-

√.ook

advance

advance (of glacier), grow, slide forward slowly

glacier



yoo + O-ka-(?)-∅-√.ook ²


event

?

∅-

√.ook

overflow

overflow, tumble forth (of contents of closet, etc.), tumble down (of rocks, etc. in pile); spout forth (of steam)




O-(∅)-S-∅-√.óon

aawa.ún

event

∅-

√.óon

shoot

for S to shoot O (with firearms)

firearms



O-ka-(na)-S-∅-√.óosʼ


act

na

∅-

√.óosʼ

wash

for S to wash O (usually surface of pot, table, etc.)




O-(na)-S-∅-√.óosʼ

a.úsʼk

act

na

∅-

√.óosʼ

wash

for S to wash O




O-(?)-S-∅-√.oot


act

?

∅-

√.oot

remove

for S to remove (splinter, shavings, etc.) from flesh, using instrument such as needle

needle



O-(?)-S-∅-√.óow

a.óow

act

?

∅-

√.óow

buy

for S to buy lots of O




wóosh + a-ya-(?)-S-∅-√.óow


act

?

∅-

√.óow

buy

for S to buy lots, buy many things (esp. when being sold off cheap)

cheap things



O-ka-(∅)-S-∅-√.oox


act

∅-

√.oox

blow

for S to blow up, inflate O




O-(∅)-S-∅-√.oox


act

∅-

√.oox

blow

for S blow; for S to blow on O




O-(na)-S-∅-√.únt

a.únt

act

na

∅-

√.únt

shoot

for S to shoot at O (with firearms)

firearms



O-sa-(ga)-S-∅-√áx̱ch ¹

asaya.áx̱ch

state

ga

∅-

√áx̱ch

hear

for S to hear O (voice)

voice



O-ka-(∅)-S-∅-√cháak

akacháak

act

∅-

√cháak

pile

for S to pile, stack away neatly, pack O (food, clothing, firewood, etc.)




O-ka-(∅)-S-∅-√choox

akachóox

act

∅-

√choox

knead

for S to knead, press, pat O with palm of hand




O-ka-(∅)-S-∅-√chʼáakʼw

akachʼáakʼw

act

∅-

√chʼáakʼw

carve

for S to carve O (usually smaller, detailed work) using a knife

smaller, detailed work



daaḵ + (∅)-∅-√daa ¹

daaḵ nadéin

motion

∅-

√daa

tide

for the tide to rise, come in

tide



ka-(na)-∅-√daa ¹

kaawadaa

motion

na

∅-

√daa

flow

for water, blood to flow; for a nose to run

water, blood



kei + (∅)-∅-√daa ¹

kei nadéin

motion

∅-

√daa

tide

for water level, tide to rise

water, tide



N x̱ʼéi-x̱ + (na)-∅-√daa ²

du x̱ʼéix̱ yaa nadéin

event

na

∅-

√daa

accustomed

for N to become used to, accustomed to it (of manner of speech or flavor of food)

manner of speech, flavor



N-x̱ + tu-ya-(na)-S-∅-√daa ²

áx̱ yaa tunadéin

event

na

∅-

√daa

accustomed

for N to become used to, accustomed to something (esp. in attitudes)

attitudes



N-x̱ / N eex̱ + (na)-∅-√daa ²

du eex̱ yaa nadéin

event

na

∅-

√daa

accustomed

for N to become used to, accustomed to something




P-náx̱ + ya-(∅)-∅-√daa ¹

anax̱ yaa nadéin

motion

∅-

√daa

tide

for water, the tide to flow through P; for water, the tide to flood P

water, tide



P-t~ + ka-(∅)-∅-√daa ¹

át kaawadáa

motion

∅-

√daa

flow

for water to flow, rise to P

water



P-t~ + (∅)-∅-√daa ¹

aadé yaa nadéin

motion

∅-

√daa

flow

for water to flow to P

water



P-x̱ + ka-(na)-∅-√daa ¹

áx̱ kanaadaa

motion

na

∅-

√daa

flow

for water, blood to flow, run along P

water, blood



O-(?)-S-∅-√daax̱

adaax̱

act

?

∅-

√daax̱

adze

for S to use adze; for S to make (esp. canoe) with adze

adze, canoe



O-(ga)-∅-√dál

yadál

state

ga

∅-

√dál

heavy

for O to be heavy (usually of inanimate things); (fig.) to be weighty, important (of abstracts)

inanimate things (usually)



O-x̱ʼe-(∅)-S-∅-√déexʼ

ax̱ʼeiwadíxʼ

event

∅-

√déexʼ

cork

for S to cork up O (bottle); for S to shut, cover mouth of O




O-ya-(na)-S-∅-√dlaaḵ

ayaawadlaaḵ

event

na

∅-

√dlaaḵ

win

for S to win, gain, get, obtain, acquire O; for S to succeed, accomplish O; for S to defeat, beat O




(ga)-∅-√dlaan

g̱aadlaan

state

ga

∅-

√dlaan

deep

for water to be deep; for snow to be piled thickly

water, snow



yan~ + ka-(∅)-∅-√dlaan

yánde yaa kanadlán

motion

∅-

√dlaan

deep

for grain-like objects, pine needles, snow to be deep, thick, pile up

grain-like objects



yéi + ka-(ga)-∅-√dláan

yéi kg̱waadláan

state

ga

∅-

√dláan

deep

for a body of water to be so deep

water body



yax̱ + (ga)-∅-√dláax̱ʼw

yax̱ woodláax̱ʼw

event

ga

∅-

√dláax̱ʼw

beached

for a boat, sea mammal to get stuck (on beach), be beached

boat, sea mammal



O-ka-u-(na)-S-∅-√dlénx̱aa

akoodlénx̱aa

act

na

∅-

√dlénx̱aa

tempt

for S to tempt, try out, test O




O-ka-(∅)-S-∅-√dóoxʼ

akadóoxʼ

act

∅-

√dóoxʼ

tie

for S to tie O in a knot




tʼaa + (∅)-S-∅-√éexʼ


act

∅-

√éexʼ

call

for S to call out a message, shout it out




O-ka-(na)-S-∅-√eitsʼ


motion

na

∅-

√eitsʼ

move

for S to move carefully and slowly




x̱ʼéi-t~ + shu-ka-(∅)-S-∅-√eitsʼ


motion

∅-

√eitsʼ

close

for S to close real quietly (usuallydoor)

door (us.)



x̱ʼéidáx̱ + ya-ka-(∅)-S-∅-√eitsʼ


motion

∅-

√eitsʼ

open

for S to open really quietly (usually door)

door (us.)



P-t~ + a-ka-(∅)-∅-√gaan

át akaawagán

motion

∅-

√gaan

light, burn

for P (light) to be on; for P (fire) to burn, catch alight




yan~ + O-ya-(∅)-∅-√gáasʼ ²

yan yaawagásʼ

motion

∅-

√gáasʼ

fall

for O to fall on face; for O to nod off, fall asleep while sitting up




(ga)-S-∅-√g̱áax̱

g̱áax̱

act

ga

∅-

√g̱áax̱

cry

for (singluar) S to cry


s


O-ya-(∅)-S-∅-√g̱éelʼ

ayag̱éelʼ

act

∅-

√g̱éelʼ

sharpen

for S to sharpen O (with a grindstone)




a-(na)-∅-√g̱éet

aawag̱éet

event

na

∅-

√g̱éet

precipitate

for rain, hail, snow to fall (often hard, in dark rainstorm)

precipitation



kei + O-ka-(∅)-S-∅-√g̱éexʼ

kei akaawag̱íxʼ

motion

∅-

√g̱éexʼ

throw

for S to throw O (esp. ball) up in the air

spherical object



ḵut + O-ka-(ga)-S-∅-√g̱éexʼ

ḵut akaawag̱éexʼ

motion

ga

∅-

√g̱éexʼ

lose

for S to lose O (round, spherical object)

spherical object



ḵut + O-(ga)-S-∅-√g̱éexʼ

ḵut kei anag̱íxʼ

motion

ga

∅-

√g̱éexʼ

lose

for S to lose O




O-ka-(na)-S-∅-√g̱éexʼ

akaawag̱éexʼ

event

na

∅-

√g̱éexʼ

donate

for S to donate O (esp. money); for S to load O (gun), put bullet in; for S to shoot O (basketball)

spherical object



(yéi) + ka-u-(na)-∅-√gei ¹

yéi koogéi

state

na

∅-

√gei

big

for a thing to be (so) big; for things to be (so) many




ka-(na)-∅-√gei ¹

kayagéi

state

na

∅-

√gei

big

for a singular, usually round, spherical object to be big

spherical object



(na)-∅-√gei ¹

yagéi

state

na

∅-

√gei

big

for a solid mass or abstracts to be big (in quantity), be lots, many, plenty

solid mass, abstract



P-náx̱ + ya-(na)-S-∅-√goo ²

anax̱ yaa (ha)s yanagwéin

motion

na

∅-

√goo

swim

for S (a group of cars, fleet of boats) to travel through P together (by motor); for a school of sea mammals to swim through P together

group of sea mammals, cars, boats



P-t + ya-(na)-∅-√goo ²

át has yaawagoo

motion

na

∅-

√goo

swim

for S (a group of cars, fleet of boats) to travel around at P (by motor); for a school of sea mammals to swim around at P

group of sea mammals, cars, boats



N itx̱ + O-lu-(na)-∅-√gooḵ

a ítx̱ yaa (ha)s lunagúḵ

motion

na

∅-

√gooḵ

run

for (plural) O to run after N




O-lu-(na)-∅-√gooḵ

yaa has lunagúḵ

motion

na

∅-

√gooḵ

run

for (plural) O to run




P-dé + O-lu-(na)-∅-√gooḵ

aadé yaa (ha)s lunagúḵ

motion

na

∅-

√gooḵ

run

for (plural) O to run toward P


p


P-t~ + O-lu-(∅)-∅-√gooḵ

aadé yaa (ha)s lunagúḵ

motion

∅-

√gooḵ

run

for (plural) O to run to P


p


daak + (∅)-S-∅-√goot ¹

daak yaa nagút

motion

∅-

√goot

Walk

for (singular) S to walk, go (by walking or as general term) into the open


s


gági + (∅)-S-∅-√goot ¹

gági yaa nagút

motion

∅-

√goot

emerge

for (singular) S to emerge, walk out into the open


s


héi-de + ya-u-(∅)-S-∅-√goot ¹

héide yaa wunagút

motion

∅-

√goot

move away

for (singular) S to move over (away from speaker)


s


ḵut + (ga)-S-∅-√goot ¹

ḵut kei nagút

motion

ga

∅-

√goot

lost

 for (singular) S to get lost (on foot)


s


N it-x̱ yaa + (ga)-S-∅-√goot ¹

a ítx̱ yaa nagút

motion

ga

∅-

√goot

follow

for (singular) S to follow N (on foot)


s


P-dáx̱ + (na)-S-∅-√goot ¹

aadáx̱ yaa nagút

motion

na

∅-

√goot

walk

for (singular) S to walk, go (by walking or as general term) away from P


s


P-dé + (na)-S-∅-√goot ¹

aadé yaa nagút

motion

na

∅-

√goot

walk

for (singular) S to walk, go (by walking or as general term) toward P


s


P-g̱aa + (na)-S-∅-√goot ¹

aag̱áa yaa nagút

motion

na

∅-

√goot

walk

for (singular) S to go after P, go seeking P (on foot)


s


P-náḵ + (na)-S-∅-√goot ¹

a náḵ yaa nagút

motion

na

∅-

√goot

leave behind

for (singular) S to leave P behind, walk away from P


s


P-náx̱ + (na)-S-∅-√goot ¹

anax̱ yaa wunagút

motion

na

∅-

√goot

walk

for (singular) S to walk, go (by walking or as general term) through P


s


P-t + (na)-S-∅-√goot ¹

át woogoot

motion

na

∅-

√goot

walk

for (singular) S to walk, go (by walking or as general term) around at P


s


P-t~ + ÿu-(na)-S-∅-√goot ¹

aadé yaa nagút

motion

na

∅-

√goot

walk

for (singular) S to arrive at P, go to P (by walking or as general term)


s


P-x̱ + (na)-S-∅-√goot ¹

áx̱ yaa nagút

motion

na

∅-

√goot

walk

for (singular) S to walk, go (by walking or as general term) along P


s


tʼaa + O-(?)-S-∅-√goot ³


motion

?

∅-

√goot

carry

for S to take news, go or come carrying news

news

s


yaax̱ + (g̱a)-S-∅-√goot ¹

yaax̱ woogoot

motion

g̱a

∅-

√goot

board

for (singular) S to go aboard (a boat)


s


O-ka-(∅)-S-∅-√g̱ootl

akag̱óotl

act

∅-

√g̱ootl

mash

for S to mash O by squeezing in the hand; for S to squeeze O tightly




yaa + (ga)-S-∅-√gút ¹

yaa nagút

motion

ga

∅-

√gút

walk

for (singular) S to be walking along, going along (by walking or as a general term)


s


O-(ga)-S-∅-√gwaal

agwáal

act

ga

∅-

√gwaal

beat

for S to beat O (esp. drum); for S to ring O (bell); for S to stab O




O-ya-(∅)-S-∅-√gwaal

ayaawagwál

event

∅-

√gwaal

hit

for S to hit O in the face (with fist), punch O

fist



P-t~ + ka-(∅)-∅-√gwáatl

aadé yaa kanagwátl

motion

∅-

√gwáatl

roll

for a spherical object to roll to P

spherical object



a-ka-(na)-S-∅-√haa ¹

akahéix̱

act

na

∅-

√haa

garden

for S to garden, dig




N ée-t~ + ḵu-(∅)-∅-√haa ²

du éet ḵuwaháa

motion

∅-

√haa

have turn

for N to have a turn




N ée-t~ yaan + (∅)-∅-√haa ²

du éet yaan uwaháa

event

∅-

√haa

hungry

for N to be hungry




O-ka-(na)-S-∅-√haa ¹

akahéix̱

act

na

∅-

√haa

plant

for S to plant O




P-t~ + ḵu-(∅)-∅-√haa ²

át ḵuwaháa

motion

∅-

√haa

time for

for the time to come for P




tlél + u-(ga)-∅-√haa ⁴

tlél gooháa

state

ga

∅-

√haa

obvious

for something to be obvious, clearly visible



(CP mandatory)

keiO-ka-(∅)-S-∅-√háa ¹

kei akanahéin

motion

∅-

√háa

dig

for S to dig O up




O-ka-(∅)-S-∅-√háa ¹

akaháa

act

∅-

√háa

dig

for S to dig O




yan~ + (∅)-S-∅-√haan

yan uwahán

motion

∅-

√haan

stand

for (singular) S to keep standing


s


O-(∅)-∅-√háasʼ

uwahásʼ

event

∅-

√háasʼ

vomit

for O to vomit




(?)-S-∅-√hán

hán

position

?

∅-

√hán

stand

for (singular) S to be standing


s


O-sha-(∅)-∅-√heek

yaa shanahík

event

∅-

√heek

full

for O to be filled, be full (general and abstract)

solid mass, abstract



N éekʼ + a-(ga)-S-∅-√heen

du éekʼ ayaheen

state

ga

∅-

√heen

believe

for S to believe, trust, believe in N




yan~ + (∅)-∅-√heen

yánde yaa nahín

motion

∅-

√heen

swim

for sea animal to swim ashore

sea animal



O-ka-(ga)-S-∅-√héesʼ

akahéesʼ

act

ga

∅-

√héesʼ

borrow

for S to borrow O (esp. round, spherical object)

spherical object



O-(ga)-S-∅-√héesʼ

ahéesʼ

act

ga

∅-

√héesʼ

borrow

for S to borrow O




P-t~ + O-(∅)-S-∅-√héesʼ

du éet aawahísʼ

motion

∅-

√héesʼ

lend

for S to lend O to P




O-(ga)-S-∅-√héin

ayahéin

state

ga

∅-

√héin

claim

for S to own, claim O (esp. clan property)

esp. clan property



(na)-S-∅-√héix̱waa

ahéix̱waa

act

na

∅-

√héix̱waa

magic

for S to make magic, perform rites to bring desirable results in nature or give youngsters power and confidence




yan~ + (∅)-S-∅-√hoo

yánde yaa nahú

motion

∅-

√hoo

wade

for (singular) S to wade ashore


s


O-(na)-S-∅-√hoon

ahóon

act

na

∅-

√hoon

sell

for S to sell O




O-shu-ka-(∅)-S-∅-√jaa

ashukoojeisʼ

act

∅-

√jaa

instruct

for S to instruct, show O (by word); for S to advise, give advice to, counsel O




O-(∅)-S-∅-√jaaḵ

yaa anajáḵ

event

∅-

√jaaḵ

kill (figuratively)

for S to kill (singular) O; (fig.) for S to let go of O without expecting any return (at party)


s


O-(na)-S-∅-√jáaḵw

ajáaḵw

act

na

∅-

√jáaḵw

beat up

for S to beat up, assault, violently attack O




O-ka-(na)-S-∅-√jeek

yoo akaajeek

act

na

∅-

√jeek

wonder

for S to wonder, be curious, anxious about O




P-dé + at-ka-(na)-S-∅-√jeil

aadé yaa at kanajél

motion

na

∅-

√jeil

carry

for S to carry, take things to P (esp. to one place, making several trips)

all of something



P-dé + O-ka-(na)-S-∅-√jeil

aadé yaa akanajél

motion

na

∅-

√jeil

carry

for S to carry, take O to P (esp. to one place, making several trips)

all of something



P-náx̱ + ya-u-(∅)-S-∅-√jeil

anax̱ yaawajél

motion

∅-

√jeil

reach through

for S to reach a hand through P

hand



ka-(ga)-∅-√joox

yaa kanajúx

event

ga

∅-

√joox

spin

for a wheel to roll, spin; for an engine to start, run

wheel



(yéi) + O-daa-ya-(act)-S-∅-√ḵá ¹

yéi adaayaḵá

act

act

∅-

√ḵá

tell

for S to tell O (that)



imperfective only

(yéi) + (x̱ʼa-)-ya-(na)-S-∅-√ḵaa ¹

yéi x̱ʼayaḵá

act

na

∅-

√ḵaa

say

for S to say (a certain thing); for S to confess, acknowledge, declare (a certain thing)




áa + O-ji-ka-(u)-(na)-S-∅-√ḵaa ¹

áa ajikaawaḵaa

event

na

∅-

√ḵaa

instruct

for S to instruct, give O orders (to do)




O-ka-(u)-(na)-S-∅-√ḵaa ¹

akaawaḵaa

event

na

∅-

√ḵaa

send

for S to send O (esp. on a mission or errand, or to deliver a message)

esp. mission, errand, delivery



O-ka-(∅)-S-∅-√ḵaa ²

a káa akaḵéisʼ

act

∅-

√ḵaa

sew

for S to sew beads, embroider O

beads, embroidery



O-(∅)-S-∅-√ḵaa ²

aḵéisʼ

act

∅-

√ḵaa

sew

for S to sew O




(g̱a)-S-∅-√ḵee

yei (ha)s naḵéen

event

g̱a

∅-

√ḵee

sit

for S (plural) to sit down


p


(?)-S-∅-√ḵee

has ḵéen

position

?

∅-

√ḵee

sit

for (plural) S to be seated


p


O-ji-(na)-S-∅-√ḵéi

ajiḵéi

act

na

∅-

√ḵéi

pay

for S to pay O (esp. a person, for work done); for S to pay for O

work



O-sha-(∅)-∅-√koox

shaawakúx

event

∅-

√koox

thirsty

for O to be thirsty; for O to be dry




daak + (∅)-S-∅-√ḵoox̱

daak naḵúx̱

motion

∅-

√ḵoox̱

go (boat, car)

for S to go out to sea (in a boat); for S to move into the open (in a boat, car)

boat, car



g̱unéi + (∅)-S-∅-√ḵoox̱

g̱unéi uwaḵúx̱

motion

∅-

√ḵoox̱

go (boat, car)

for S to begin traveling, going (by boat, car)

boat, car



ḵut + (ga)-S-∅-√ḵoox̱

ḵut kei naḵúx̱

motion

ga

∅-

√ḵoox̱

go (boat, car)

for S to get lost (going by motorized vehicle)

boat, car



daax̱ + ya-u-(∅)-S-∅-√ḵoox̱

a daax̱ yaa naḵúx̱

motion

∅-

√ḵoox̱

go (boat, car)

for S to circle, drive around N (by boat, car)

boat, car



P-dé + (na)-S-∅-√ḵoox̱

aadé yaa naḵúx̱

motion

na

∅-

√ḵoox̱

go (boat, car)

for S to travel, go toward P (in a boat, car)

boat, car



P-náx̱ + ya-u-(∅)-S-∅-√ḵoox̱

a tóonáx̱ yaa naḵúx̱

motion

∅-

√ḵoox̱

go (boat, car)

for S to travel, go through P (by boat, car)

boat, car



P-t + (na)-S-∅-√ḵoox̱

át wooḵoox̱

motion

na

∅-

√ḵoox̱

go (boat, car)

for S to travel, go around at P (by boat, car)

boat, car



P-t~ + (∅)-S-∅-√ḵoox̱

aadé yaa naḵúx̱

motion

∅-

√ḵoox̱

go (boat, car)

for S to travel, go to P (by boat, car)

boat, car



(na)-S-∅-√ḵoox̱

yaa naḵúx̱

motion

na

∅-

√ḵoox̱

go (boat, car)

for S to travel, go (by boat, car)




yaa + (ga)-S-∅-√ḵoox̱

yaa naḵúx̱

motion

ga

∅-

√ḵoox̱

go (boat, car)

for S to be going, traveling along (by boat, car)



progressive imperfective only (na-conj mandatory)

yan~ + (∅)-S-∅-√ḵoox̱

yánde yaa naḵúx̱

motion

∅-

√ḵoox̱

go (boat, car)

for S to go ashore (in a boat); for S to come to a rest, stop (in a boat, car)




ḵu-(∅)-S-∅-√kʼéetʼ

ḵukʼéetʼ

act

∅-

√kʼéetʼ

pick

for S to pick berries (esp. pick in quantity to take home)

berries



ḵu-(g̱a)-∅-√kʼéi

ḵuwakʼéi

state

g̱a

∅-

√kʼéi

good

for the weather to be good

weather



N too-wú + (ga)-∅-√kʼéi

du toowú yakʼéi

state

ga

∅-

√kʼéi

good

for N to be glad, happy, feel fine



imperf. -kʼéi/-kʼé

N x̱ʼéi + (ga)-∅-√kʼéi

du x̱ʼé yakʼéi

state

ga

∅-

√kʼéi

like

for N to like the taste of something




O-(ga)-∅-√kʼéi

yakʼéi

state

ga

∅-

√kʼéi

good

for O to be good, fine, pretty




O-(∅)-S-∅-√ḵʼéikʼw

aawaḵʼékʼw

event

∅-

√ḵʼéikʼw

cut

for S to cut O (human body), usually accidentally; for S to wound O with a sharp instrument

sharp object



kei + O-ka-(∅)-du∅-√kʼéin

kei (ha)s kandukʼén

motion

∅-

√kʼéin

jump

for (plural) O to jump


p


O-sha-(∅)-S-∅-√kʼéix̱ʼ

ashaawakʼéx̱ʼ

event

∅-

√kʼéix̱ʼ

hook

for S to hook O (fish) in the head

fish



P-x̱ + (g̱a)-∅-√laa

áx̱ yei naléin

motion

g̱a

∅-

√laa

tide

for the tide to ebb, go out from under P

tide



yan~ + (∅)-∅-√laa

yánde yaa naléin

motion

∅-

√laa

tide

for the tide to go out, be low

tide



O-(∅)-∅-√laaxw

yaa naláxw

event

∅-

√laaxw

starve

for O to be starving, starved




P-t~ + O-(∅)-S-∅-√leet

át aawalít

motion

∅-

√leet

throw

for S to throw O (usually with force so that object scatters) to P




(yéi) + ka-u-(na)-∅-√lei

yéi kunaaléi

state

na

∅-

√lei

far

for something to be (so) far, distant (in time or space)

time, space



(∅)-S-∅-√lóoxʼ

alóoxʼ


∅-

√lóoxʼ

urinate

for S to urinate

urine



(na)-∅-√lʼéexʼ

woolʼéexʼ

event

na

∅-

√lʼéexʼ

break

for a general, solid object to break

solid mass, abstract



O-(na)-S-∅-√lʼéexʼ

aawalʼéexʼ

event

na

∅-

√lʼéexʼ

break

for S to break O (general, solid object)

solid mass, abstract



a-(na)-S-∅-√lʼeix̱

alʼeix̱

act

na

∅-

√lʼeix̱

dance

for S to dance




daak + (∅)-S-∅-√lʼeix̱

daak analʼéx̱

motion

∅-

√lʼeix̱

dance

for S to dance out into the open




g̱unéi + (∅)-S-∅-√lʼeix̱

g̱unéi aawalʼéx̱

motion

∅-

√lʼeix̱

dance

for S to begin dancing




(∅)-S-∅-√lʼílʼ


act

∅-

√lʼílʼ

defecate

for S to defecate

feces



a-(na)-S-∅-√lʼóon

alʼóon

act

na

∅-

√lʼóon

hunt

for S to hunt




O-(na)-S-∅-√lʼóon

alʼóon

act

na

∅-

√lʼóon

hunt

for S to hunt O (wild game)

wild game



O-ka-u-(na)-S-∅-√náa ²

aadé akoonáa

act

na

∅-

√náa

order

for S to order (esp. to go), send, command O; (fig.) for S to give O (esp. in accordance with clan relationship)




O-ji-(∅)-S-∅-√naaḵ

ajeewanáḵ

event

∅-

√naaḵ

release

for S to let go, release, relinquish O; for S to leave, desert O; for S to hand over, deliver up O




yan + (∅)-S-∅-√naaḵ

yan has uwanáḵ

motion

∅-

√naaḵ

stand

for (plural) S to stand, stay standing


p


(?)-S-∅-√náḵ

has náḵ

position

?

∅-

√náḵ

stand

for (plural) S to be standing


p


O-(na)-S-∅-√néegwálʼ

anéegwálʼ

act

na

∅-

√néegwálʼ

paint

for S to paint O




(N ée-t~) + O-ka-(na)-S-∅-√neek

akanéek

act

na

∅-

√neek

tell

for S to tell about, report about, give facts about O; for S to witness to, tell about, testify about O




O-(ga)-∅-√néekw

yanéekw

state

ga

∅-

√néekw

sick

for O to be sick; for O to hurt, be in pain




(yéi) + at-(na)-∅-√nei ²

yéi at woonei

event

na

∅-

√nei

happen

for something to happen




(yéi) + O-daa-(na)-S-∅-√nei ²

yéi adaanéi

act

na

∅-

√nei

do

for S to do, perform O (a particular action); for S to work on O




(yéi) + O-(na)-∅-√nei ²

yéi yaa nanein

event

na

∅-

√nei

occur

for (that) to happen, occur to O




ḵáakwt~ + O-(∅)-∅-√nei ²

ḵáakwt uwanéi

motion

∅-

√nei

accident

for O to have an accident, get hurt; for something bad to happen to O




yan~ + O-(∅)-∅-√nei ²

yánde yaa nanein

motion

∅-

√nei

permanent

for O to be permanent, happen for good; for O to be finished, complete, ready; for O to be prepared, ready




yéi + ji-(na)-S-∅-√nei ²

yéi jiné

act

na

∅-

√nei

work

for S to work; for S to do




N yáa + a-ya-u-(ga)-S-∅-√néi ⁴

du yáa kei ayananéin

act

ga

∅-

√néi

respect

for S to respect, regard highly, think highly of N




O-(g̱a)-∅-√neix̱

yei nanéx̱

event

g̱a

∅-

√neix̱

save

for O to be saved; for O to be healed, cured, recover; for O to be satisfied




(yéi) + ḵu-(na)-S-∅-√nook ³

yéi ḵuwanóok

act

na

∅-

√nook

behave

for S to behave, do, act (in a certain way)




(∅)-du∅-√nook ³

yaa ndunúk

event

∅-

√nook

blow

for the wind to blow, be felt (esp. a breeze, light wind)

wind



N-t~ + (na)-S-∅-√nook ³


act

na

∅-

√nook

behave

for S to behave, act like N




(g̱a)-S-∅-√nook ²

woonook

event

g̱a

∅-

√nook

sit

for (singular) S to sit, sit down (esp. act of sitting)


s


xʼáan-t~ + (∅)-S-∅-√nook ²

xʼáande yaa nanúk

motion

∅-

√nook

angry

for S to be angry




at-ka-(∅)-S-∅-√nóots

at kanútst

act

∅-

√nóots

smile

for S to smile at something (often knowingly or sarcastically), grin





akaawanóotʼ

event

na

∅-

√nóotʼ

swallow

for S to swallow O (pill, etc.)




O-(∅)-S-∅-√ootʼ


act

∅-

√ootʼ

suck

for S (esp. octopus or suckerfish) to suck, hold on by suction

esp. octopus or suckerfish



O-(∅)-S-∅-√saa ²

yéi aawasáa

event

∅-

√saa

name

for S to name O; for S to nominate O




O-(na)-S-∅-√sáakw ²

yéi ayasáakw

state

na

∅-

√sáakw

name

for S to call O by a certain name




O-(ga)-∅-√sátk

yasátk

state

ga

∅-

√sátk

fast

for O to be fast (at doing things)

doing things



O-ya-(∅)-∅-√seek

yaawasík

event

∅-

√seek

delayed

for O to be delayed, prevented, held back from plans (often due to inclement weather)

weather



(∅)-du∅-√shaa

wuduwasháa

event

∅-

√shaa

marry

for O to get married




O-(∅)-S-∅-√shaa

aawasháa

event

∅-

√shaa

marry

for S to marry O




(g̱a)-∅-√sháash

yei nasháash

event

g̱a

∅-

√sháash

wear out

for something to wear out by continuous friction




O-(ga)-S-∅-√sháat

aawasháat

event

ga

∅-

√sháat

catch

for S to catch O; for S to grab, take hold of, snatch O; for S to arrest O; for S to trap O




P-t~ + a-ya-(∅)-∅-√shát

aadé yaa ayanashát

motion

∅-

√shát

move

for the wind, weather to move in gusts to P

wind, weather



at-(ga)-S-∅-√shee ⁴

at shí

act

ga

∅-

√shee

sing

for S to sing




á-t~ + (∅)-S-∅-√shee ²

át uwashée

motion

∅-

√shee

touch

for S to touch, take, pick up




O-(ga)-S-∅-√shee ⁴

ashí

act

ga

∅-

√shee

sing

for S to sing O




P-g̱aa + ḵu-(na)-S-∅-√shee ¹

aag̱áa ḵushée

act

na

∅-

√shee

search

for S to search for, look for, hunt for, seek P




P-t + ḵu-(∅)-S-∅-√shee ¹

át ḵushée

act

∅-

√shee

search

for S to search at P




O-ka-(∅)-S-∅-√shéix̱ʼ

akashéix̱ʼ

act

∅-

√shéix̱ʼ

praise

for S to praise, glorify O; for S to approve, commend O; for S to comment on O




P-x̱ + (g̱a)-∅-√shoo

áx̱ g̱aashóo

motion

g̱a

∅-

√shoo

hang

for a bulky item to hang, extend down along P

bulky item



P-x̱ + ya-u-(∅)-∅-√shoo

áx̱ yaawashóo

motion

∅-

√shoo

extend

for a slender item (esp. road) to extend around, along P

slender item, esp. road



at-(na)-S-∅-√shooḵ

at shooḵ

act

na

∅-

√shooḵ

laugh

for S to laugh; for S to smile (often with laughter)




ḵut + O-ka-(ga)-∅-√sóos

ḵut has kaawasóos

event

ga

∅-

√sóos

lost

for (plural) O (objects, people) to be lost




O-ka-(∅)-S-∅-√sʼeet

akasʼéet

act

∅-

√sʼeet

wrap

for S to bind up, wrap around, bandage O




O-ka-(g̱a)-S-∅-√sʼéilʼ

yaa anasʼélʼ

act

g̱a

∅-

√sʼéilʼ

tear

for S to tear, tear up, rip off O; for S to peel off O (bark from a tree)




O-(na)-S-∅-√sʼéilʼ

sh x̱ʼadasʼeiḵ

event

na

∅-

√sʼéilʼ

tear

for S to tear O




O-x̱ʼa-(∅)-S-∅-√sʼéilʼ

akasʼélʼt

act

∅-

√sʼéilʼ

tear

for S to tear O away (from hook); for S to stretch or hold O (opening) open




O-x̱ʼa-(∅)-S-∅-√sʼéilʼ

ax̱ʼasʼélʼx̱

act

∅-

√sʼéilʼ

tear away; hold open

for S to tear O away (from hook); for S to stretch or hold O (opening) open




O-(na)-S-∅-√sʼoow

asʼúw

act

na

∅-

√sʼoow

chop

for S to chop O (esp. chopping down trees, chopping off branches)

esp. trees, branches



(na)-S-∅-√taa

act

na

∅-

√taa

sleep

for (singular) S to sleep, sleep alone


s


a yáanáx̱ + ya-u-(∅)-S-∅-√táa

a yáanáx̱ yaawatáa

motion

∅-

√táa

sleep

for S to oversleep


s


O-(∅)-S-∅-√taaḵ

aawatáḵ

event

∅-

√taaḵ

spear

for S to spear, prod, poke, jab at O




N yax̱ + O-(∅)-S-∅-√taan ¹

áa yax̱ aawatán

motion

∅-

√taan

turn

for S to turn O (usually container, hollow object) over

container (empty)



at-(g̱a)-S-∅-√taan ²

a yanáax̱ at wootaan

event

g̱a

∅-

√taan

cover

for S to cover (esp. pot) with something

esp. pot



héi-de / a x̱ʼéi-tx̱ + shu-(na)-S-∅-√taan ²


motion

na

∅-

√taan

open

for S to open O (a hinged container)

hinged object



ḵut + O-(ga)-S-∅-√taan ¹

ḵut aawataan

motion

ga

∅-

√taan

lose

for S to lose, misplace O (usually a container or hollow object)

container (empty)



ḵux̱ + O-(∅)-S-∅-√taan ¹

ḵux̱ aawatán

motion

∅-

√taan

return

for S to return O (usually a container or hollow object)

container (empty)



N daa yoo + tu-(∅)-S-∅-√taan ⁵

a daa yoo tuwatánk

act

∅-

√taan

decide

for (singular) S to think over, consider, make up oneʼs mind about N


s


N éet~ + x̱ʼa-(∅)-S-∅-√taan ⁶

du éet x̱ʼeiwatán

motion

∅-

√taan

speak to

for S to speak, talk to N




N jee-t~ + O-(∅)-S-∅-√taan ¹

du jeedé yaa anatán

motion

∅-

√taan

give

for S to give, take, hand O (usually container or hollow object) to N

container (empty)



N ji-kaa-dáx̱ + O-ya-u-(∅)-S-∅-√taan ¹

du jikaadáx̱ ayaawatán

motion

∅-

√taan

move away

for S to move O (usually container or hollow object) out of Nʼs way

container (empty)



O-ka-(na)-S-∅-√taan ⁸

yaa akanatán

event

na

∅-

√taan

bend

for S to bend O (usually long, simple object) over




O-(ga)-S-∅-√taan ¹

yaa anatán

motion

ga

∅-

√taan

carry

for S to carry, take O (usually a container or hollow object)

container (empty)



P-t + O-(na)-S-∅-√taan ¹

át aawataan

motion

na

∅-

√taan

carry

for O to carry O (usually container or hollow object) around at P

container (empty)



P-t~ + O-(∅)-S-∅-√taan ¹

aadé yaa anatán

motion

∅-

√taan

carry

for S to carry, take O (usually a container or hollow object) to P

container (empty)



x̱ʼéi-t~ + shu-(∅)-S-∅-√taan ²


motion

∅-

√taan

close

for S to close O (a hinged container)

hinged object



yaax̱ + O-(g̱a)-S-∅-√taan ¹

yaax̱ aawataan

motion

g̱a

∅-

√taan

carry

for S to carry O (usually container or hollow object) aboard (a boat)

container (empty)



yan + shu-ka-(∅)-∅-√taan ³

áa yan shukaawatán

event

∅-

√taan

end

for something to end




yan~ + O-(∅)-S-∅-√taan ¹

yánde yaa anatán

motion

∅-

√taan

put down

for S to put down, lay down, leave, place O (usually container or hollow object)

container (empty)



yoo + x̱ʼa-(∅)-S-∅-√taan ⁶

yoo x̱ʼayatánk

act

∅-

√taan

speak

for S to talk, speak


s


O-(∅)-S-∅-√táaw

atáaw

act

∅-

√táaw

steal

for S to steal O




(na)-∅-√táax̱ʼw

yei natáx̱ʼw

event

na

∅-

√táax̱ʼw

sink

for something to sink




P-t + ()-∅-√tán ¹

át tán

position


∅-

√tán

sit

for a container or hollow object to sit at P

container (empty)



P-t + shu-ka-()-∅-√tán ³

át shukatán

position


∅-

√tán

extend

for something to extend to, end at P




yóo + ka-()-∅-√tán ⁸

yóo katán

position


∅-

√tán

bend

for something to be bent




(yéi) + ḵu-(na)-∅-√tee ¹

yéi ḵuwatee

state

na

∅-

√tee

be

for the weather to be (that way)

weather



(yéi) + O-(na)-∅-√tee ¹

yéi yatee

state

na

∅-

√tee

be

for O to be (that way)




(yéi) + O-tu-(na)-∅-√tee ¹

yéi tuwatee

state

na

∅-

√tee

want

for O to want to do, feel like doing (that); for O to feel a certain way




héen-t~ + O-ya-(∅)-S-∅-√tee ²

héent ayaawatée

motion

∅-

√tee

baptize

for S to baptize, immerse (singular) O in water or pour water upon O as a religious rite


s


ḵaa tóo-g̱aa + *(na)-*∅-√tee ¹

ḵaa tóog̱áa yatee

state

na

∅-

√tee

acceptable

for something to be acceptable, satisfactory, well-liked




kei + O-(∅)-S-∅-√tee ³

kei aawatée

motion

∅-

√tee

bring out

or S to bring out, unearth O (general, often compact object)(esp. from a box or other container or place which O is kept); for S to pick up, lift up O

solid mass, abstract, esp. from container



N een + (g̱a)-∅-√tee ¹

du een yatee

state

g̱a

∅-

√tee

affected

for N to be affected, involved




N eetée-náx̱ + O-(na)-∅-√tee ¹

a eetéenáx̱ yatee

state

na

∅-

√tee

need

for O to need, lack, require N




N jee-t~ + O-ka-(∅)-S-∅-√tee ⁵

du jeedé yaa akanatéen

motion

∅-

√tee

give

for S to give, take, hand O (round object) to N

spherical object



N jee-t~ + O-(∅)-S-∅-√tee ³

du jeet aawatée

motion

∅-

√tee

give

for S to give, take, hand O (general, esp. abstract object) to N

solid mass, abstract



N waḵshiyeexʼ yéi + O-(na)-∅-√tee ¹

du waḵshiyeexʼ yéi yatee

state

na

∅-

√tee

appear

for O to appear to N; for O to be apparent to N




N x̱ʼéi-x̱ + at-(na)-S-∅-√tee ³

du x̱ʼéix̱ yaa at natéen

event

na

∅-

√tee

feed

for S to feed N, give food to N (for immediate consumption)

food



N x̱ʼéi-x̱ + O-(na)-S-∅-√tee ³

du x̱ʼéix̱ aawatee

event

na

∅-

√tee

feed

for S to feed O to N; for S to give O to N to eat

food



N yáx̱ + O-(na)-∅-√tee ¹

a yáx̱ yatee

state

na

∅-

√tee

like

for O to be like, similar to N




neil + O-(∅)-S-∅-√tee ³

neil aawatée

motion

∅-

√tee

carry

for S to carry, take O (general, often compact object) home, inside

solid mass, abstract



P-dáx̱ + O-(ga)-S-∅-√tee ³

aax̱ aawatée

motion

ga

∅-

√tee

pick

for S to pick O (general, compact object) up off of P

solid mass, abstract



P-dé + O-(na)-S-∅-√tee ³

aadé yaa anatéen

motion

na

∅-

√tee

carry

for S to carry, take O (general, often compact object) to P

solid mass, abstract



P-t~+O-shu-(∅)-S-∅-√tee ⁶

du kát ashuwatée

motion

∅-

√tee

blame, bring on

for S to bring O (abstract, esp. shame, blame, joy) onto P



without noun means “blame”

P-x̱ + O-(g̱a)-S-∅-√tee ²

áx̱ aawatee

motion

g̱a

∅-

√tee

hang

for S to install, hang, place O at P




P-x̱ + O-sha-ya-(∅)-S-∅-√tee ²

áx̱ ashayaawatée

motion

∅-

√tee

hang

for S to hang up O at P (esp. to dry)




P-xʼ+O-(na)-∅-√tee ¹

áa yéi yatee

state

na

∅-

√tee

be (at)

for O to be, stay, remain at P; for O to dwell, live at P




N x̱án-xʼ+O-(na)-∅-√tee ¹

du x̱ánxʼ yéi yatee

state

na

∅-

√tee

be (at)

for O to be, stay, remain with N




tleiyéi yéi + O-(na)-∅-√tee ¹

tleiyéi yéi yatee

state

na

∅-

√tee

still

for O to be still, quiet; for O to stop (car, clock, e.g.)




yan~ + O-ka-(∅)-S-∅-√tee ⁵

yan akaawatée

motion

∅-

√tee

put down

for S to put down, lay down, leave, place O (round, spherical object)

spherical object



yan~ + O-(∅)-S-∅-√tee ³

yan aawatée

motion

∅-

√tee

put down

for S to put down, lay down, leave, place O (general, often compact object)

solid mass, abstract



O-(ga)-S-∅-√teen ²

ayatéen

state

ga

∅-

√teen

see

for S to see, perceive O (often abstract)



imperfective only

P-dé + ḵu-(na)-S-∅-√teen ¹

aadé yaa ḵunatín

motion

na

∅-

√teen

travel

for S to travel, go on a trip to P




P-t~ + ḵu-(∅)-S-∅-√teen ¹

át ḵuwatín

motion

∅-

√teen

travel

for S to travel, go on a trip to P




ḵu-(ga)-S-∅-√téen ²

ḵuwatéen / ḵuyatéen

state

ga

∅-

√téen

see

for S to have sight (see people)




O-ka-(na)-S-∅-√tlaakw

yaa akanatlákw

event

na

∅-

√tlaakw

investigate

for S to investigate, make inquiry into, research O




O-(∅)-S-∅-√tlaakw

ḵoon atláakw

act

∅-

√tlaakw

tell

for S to tell, recount, narrate O (legend, myth, fairy tale, etc.)




P-dé + (na)-S-∅-√tlooxʼ

aadé wootlóoxʼ

motion

na

∅-

√tlooxʼ

creep

for S to creep, crawl on hands and toes with body close to ground (usually when stalking game) toward P




P-t + (na)-S-∅-√tlooxʼ

át wootlóoxʼ

motion

na

∅-

√tlooxʼ

creep

for S to creep, crawl around on hands and toes with body close to ground (usually when stalking game) at P; for S to squirm around on the ground at P




O-(na)-S-∅-√tóow

atóow

act

na

∅-

√tóow

read

for S to read O




O-(∅)-S-∅-√tseix̱

atséx̱t

act

∅-

√tseix̱

kick

for S to kick O; for S to stamp O, put foot down on O violently




g̱agaan P-t~ x̱ʼoos(∅)-∅-√tsóow

g̱agaan át x̱ʼoos uwatsóow

event

∅-

√tsóow

shine

for the sun rays to shine on P (lit. sun is poking its feet at P)




ḵu-(∅)-∅-√tʼaa

ḵuwatʼáa / ḵuyatʼáa

state

∅-

√tʼaa

warm

for the weather to be warm, hot

weather


might be the only CP state verb 

(∅)-∅-√tʼaa

yaa natʼéin

event

∅-

√tʼaa

warm

for something to be warm, hot




ya-(∅)-∅-√tʼaa

yaa yanatʼéin

event

∅-

√tʼaa

warm

for something to be hot, heated




O-(∅)-S-∅-√tʼaach

atʼácht

act

∅-

√tʼaach

slap

for S to slap O; for S to tag O (as in game of tag)




ka-(ga)-∅-√tʼéexʼ

kayatʼéexʼ

state

ga

∅-

√tʼéexʼ

hard

for something to harden, cake up




(ga)-∅-√tʼéexʼ

yatʼéexʼ

state

ga

∅-

√tʼéexʼ

hard

for something to be hard (abstract), difficult

solid mass, abstract



O-ka-(ga)-S-∅-√tʼei

akaawatʼei

event

ga

∅-

√tʼei

find

for S to find O (usually round, spherical object)




O-(ga)-S-∅-√tʼei

aawatʼei

event

ga

∅-

√tʼei

find

for S to find O (usually as the result of searching)




O-ka-(∅)-S-∅-√tʼéix̱ʼ

akatʼéix̱ʼ

act

∅-

√tʼéix̱ʼ

smash

for S to smash O up by pounding; for S to mash O by pounding with something heavy; for S to pound, hammer on O




O-(∅)-S-∅-√tʼóok

aawatʼúk

event

∅-

√tʼóok

shoot

for S to shoot O (with bow and arrow); for S to choose O (in gambling with sticks)




O-(∅)-∅-√wáat

kei nawát

event

∅-

√wáat

grow up

for O to grow up (size and maturity) (esp. of human and animal)

child, animal, plant



P-g̱aa+a-(∅)-S-∅-√wóo

aag̱áa aawawóo

event

∅-

√wóo

order

for S to send for, order P (usually from a catalog)

us. from catalog



O-x̱ʼa-(na)-S-∅-√wóosʼ

ax̱ʼawóosʼ

act

na

∅-

√wóosʼ

ask

for S to ask, question O




(ga)-∅-√wúx̱ʼ

yawúx̱ʼ

state

ga

∅-

√wúx̱ʼ

wide

for something to be wide, broad



imperfective only

P-dé + O-ka-(na)-S-∅-√xaa

aadé akawsixaa

motion

na

∅-

√xaa

pour

for S to pour O into P, pour O out at P; for S to dump, empty O in one mass (by turning over container) at P

one mass



a-(∅)-S-∅-√x̱aa ²

ax̱áa

act

∅-

√x̱aa

paddle

for S to paddle, row




at-(∅)-S-∅-√x̱aa ¹

at x̱á

act

∅-

√x̱aa

eat

for S to eat




O-(∅)-S-∅-√x̱aa ¹

ax̱á

act

∅-

√x̱aa

eat

for S to eat O




P-t + O-ya-(na)-S-∅-√x̱aa ²

át ayaawax̱aa

motion

na

∅-

√x̱aa

transport

for S to transport O around P by boat or car




P-t~ + O-ya-(∅)-S-∅-√x̱aa ²

át ayaawax̱áa

motion

∅-

√x̱aa

transport

for S to transport O by boat or car to P; for S to bring, take or fetch O by boat or cartoP

boat, car



O-(na)-S-∅-√x̱aach

yaa anax̱ách

motion

na

∅-

√x̱aach

tow

for S to tow O (usually by boat)

boat (usually)



O-ka-(g̱a)-S-∅-√xaash

yei akanaxásh

event

g̱a

∅-

√xaash

cut

for S to cut O in several pieces; for S to carve O (on surface); for S to slice O (e.g., bread)




O-(na)-S-∅-√xaash

axáash

act

na

∅-

√xaash

cut

for S to cut O with knife; for S to saw O




O-(∅)-S-∅-√xaash

aax̱ axáash

act

∅-

√xaash

cut

for S to cut, saw O (esp. cutting something off or cutting wood)

esp. cutting off



O-(∅)-S-∅-√xáasʼ

axáasʼ

act

∅-

√xáasʼ

scrape

for S to scrape O




N yáx̱ + ka-(∅)-∅-√xaat

a yáx̱ kaaxát

state

∅-

√xaat

resemble

for something to resemble N (esp. in shape)




O-ya-(na)-S-∅-√x̱áaxʼw

ayax̱áaxʼw

act

na

∅-

√x̱áaxʼw

transport

for S to regularly transport, haul O (mail, newspaper, e.g.) by boat or car




O-(∅)-S-∅-√xeech

aawaxích

event

∅-

√xeech

exert

for S to exert oneʼs full strength on, strive for O; for S to concentrate on, put effort into O




O-sha-(∅)-S-∅-√x̱eech

ashaawax̱ích

event

∅-

√x̱eech

hit

for S to club, hit O on the head

head



P-t~ + O-ka-(∅)-S-∅-√x̱eech

át akaawax̱ích

motion

∅-

√x̱eech

throw

for S to throw O (esp. liquid) to P

esp. liquid



yáx̱ + O-ka-(∅)-S-∅-√x̱eech

yax̱ akaawax̱ích

event

∅-

√x̱eech

spill

for S to spill, upset O




O-ka-(∅)-S-∅-√xéelʼ

yaa akanaxílʼ

event

∅-

√xéelʼ

trouble

for S to bother, trouble, cause trouble or anxiety for O




O-(g̱a)-S-∅-√xéetʼ

tʼaa ká axítʼkw

act

g̱a

∅-

√xéetʼ

sweep

for S to sweep O (esp. floor)

esp. floor



daak + (∅)-∅-√xeex ²

daak uwaxíx

motion

∅-

√xeex

move

for the sun, moon to move through the sky into the open; for something (esp. a small, compact object) to fall, drop

esp. small, compact object



kei + (∅)-∅-√xeex ²

kei uwaxíx

motion

∅-

√xeex

rise

for the sun, moon to rise

sun, moon



N jee-t~ + shu-(∅)-∅-√xeex ¹

du jeedé yaa shunaxíx

event

∅-

√xeex

run

for N to run out of something




N káa + (g̱a)-∅-√xeex ²

a káa wooxeex

motion

g̱a

∅-

√xeex

fall

for an object (usually small, compact) to fall on N

small, compact object (usually)



N tóo-t + O-(na)-∅-√xeex ²

du tóot wooxeex

motion

na

∅-

√xeex

worry

for O to worry N; for N to have O constantly on the mind




P-náx̱ + ka-(g̱a)-∅∅-√xeex ²

anax̱ kaawaxeex

motion

g̱a

∅-

√xeex

fall

for something (usually a round object) to fall, drop through P




P-t + (na)-∅-√xeex ²

át wooxeex

motion

na

∅-

√xeex

fall

for something to fall around at P (esp. inside a container)

esp. inside container



P-t~ + (∅)-∅-√xeex ²

át kaawaxíx

motion

∅-

√xeex

fall

for something (usually a round object) to fall, drop into P

round object (usually)



P-t~ + (∅)-∅-√xeex ²

át uwaxíx

motion

∅-

√xeex

fall

for something to fall or drop on P; for a bullet to hit P; for a rumor, news to spread, go around at P




shu-(na)-∅-√xeex ¹

yaa shunaxíx

event

na

∅-

√xeex

end

for something to end, come to an end, pass; for something to be used up (of supplies, etc.)




ya-(na)-∅-√xeex ³

yaa yanaxíx

event

na

∅-

√xeex

occur

for something to take place, occur, happen




yín-de + (na)-∅-√xeex ²

yínde yaa naxíx

motion

na

∅-

√xeex

set

for the sun, moon to set

sun, moon



O-(∅)-∅-√x̱ei

(áa) uwax̱éi

event

∅-

√x̱ei

stay

for O to stay overnight, spend the night, camp out overnight




(na)-S-∅-√x̱éixʼw

has x̱éxʼw

act

na

∅-

√x̱éixʼw

sleep

for (plural) S to sleep, sleep in company with others, go to bed


p


O-(∅)-S-∅-√xook

asxook

act

∅-

√xook

dry

for S to dry O (by any method)




(∅)-∅-√xook

yaa naxúk

event

∅-

√xook

dry

for something to be dry, dried




P-dé + O-(na)-S-∅-√x̱ootʼ ¹

aadé yaa nax̱útʼ

motion

na

∅-

√x̱ootʼ

drag

for S to drag, pull O (esp. light object or solid, stiff object) to P; for S to pull O in quick movements to P

esp. light object or solid, stiff object



P-dé + O-(na)-S-∅-√x̱ootʼ ¹

át aawax̱óotʼ

motion

na

∅-

√x̱ootʼ

drag

for S to drag, pull O (esp. person) around at P; for S to pull O in quick movement around at P

esp. person



yan~ + O-(∅)-S-∅-√x̱ootʼ ¹

yánde yaa anax̱útʼ

motion

∅-

√x̱ootʼ

drag

for S to drag, pull O (esp. light object or solid, stiff object) in, to shore; for S to pull O in to shore in quick movement

esp. light object or solid, stiff object



O-(∅)-S-∅-√x̱óotʼ ²

ax̱útʼt

act

∅-

√x̱óotʼ

chop

for S to chop O (wood); for S to chip O out (with adze)

wood, adze



P-t~ + (∅)-S-∅-√xʼaak

át uwaxʼák

motion

∅-

√xʼaak

swim

for S to swim under water to P




N ká-t~ + O-sa-(∅)-∅-√xʼaaḵw

a kát seiwaxʼáḵw

state

∅-

√xʼaaḵw

forget

for O to forget N




at-(∅)-S-∅-√x̱ʼaan

at x̱ʼáan

act

∅-

√x̱ʼaan

dry

for S to dry (fish, meat) over fire, smoke lightly

fish, meat



O-ya-(∅)-S-∅-√xʼaat

ayaxʼáat

act

∅-

√xʼaat

sharpen

for S to sharpen O (an edge) with a file

edge



at-(ga)-S-∅-√yaa ²


event

ga

∅-

√yaa

carry

for S to carry things on back; for S to pack things




O-(ga)-S-∅-√yaa ²

yaa anayáan / yaa anayéin

event

ga

∅-

√yaa

carry

for S to carry O on back; for S to pack O




O-u-(g̱a)-S-∅-√yaa ⁶

oowayáa

state

g̱a

∅-

√yaa

resemble

for S to resemble, look like O; for S to be almost identical with O




P-x̱ + O-ka-(g̱a)-S-∅-√yaa ⁴

áx̱ yei akanayéin

motion

g̱a

∅-

√yaa

spread out

for S to spread out, unfold, lay out (singular) O along P




(yéi) + ka-u-(na)-∅-√yáatʼ

yéi koowáatʼ

state

na

∅-

√yáatʼ

long

for an object (usually stick-like) to be (so) long

stick-like (usually)



(na)-∅-√yáatʼ

yayátʼ

state

na

∅-

√yáatʼ

long

for an object (usually stick-like) to be long

stick-like (usually)



yee-(na)-∅-√yáatʼ

yeeyayátʼ

state

na

∅-

√yáatʼ

long

for something to be long (of time)

time



O-(ga)-S-∅-√yeeḵ

aawayeeḵ

event

ga

∅-

√yeeḵ

bite

for S to bite O; for S to carry O in mouth (of animal)




N ká-x̱ + O-(g̱a)-S-∅-√yeesh

a káx̱ yei anayísh

motion

g̱a

∅-

√yeesh

pull

for S to pull O (fairly light object) over N; for S to cover N with O

light object



P-dáx̱ kei + O-(∅)-S-∅-√yeesh

aax̱ kei aawayísh

motion

∅-

√yeesh

pull

for S to pull O (a fairly light object) out of P

light object



ka-(∅)-∅-√yéilʼ

yaa kanduyélʼ

event

∅-

√yéilʼ

calm

for something (esp. bodies of water) to be calm, peaceful

esp. bodies of water



ḵu-ka-(∅)-du-∅-√yéilʼ

yaa ḵukanduyélʼ

event

∅-

√yéilʼ

calm

for the weather to be calm, peaceful, without storm

weather



O-ka-(∅)-S-∅-√yeix̱

akayéix̱

act

∅-

√yeix̱

whittle

for S to whittle, plane O; for S to make O (kindling)

wood



ka-(∅?)-du-∅?-√.eetʼ


act

∅?

∅?-

√.eetʼ

soak

to soak (esp. dried foods in fresh water in preparation for eating)

food, dried



P-t + O-ka-(∅?)-S-∅?-√téen ⁵

át akatéen

position

∅?

∅?-

√téen

lying

for S to have (round, spherical) O lying at P

spherical object



(ga)-∅?-√yék

liyék

state

ga

∅?-

√yék

contain

for something to hold more, contain more; for something to hold a lot

container


imperfective only

d (∅+d)











O-x̱ʼa-ya-(?)-S-d-√.aa


act

?

d-

√.aa

delay

for S to delay to speak, hold back in speech, be slow to speak




shóo-t~ + a-(∅)-S-d-√.aak

shóot awdi.ák

event

d-

√.aak

fire

for S to build a fire (using wood)

wood



a-ya-u-(∅)-S-d-√.aat ¹

yaa (ha)s ayanda.át

motion

d-

√.aat

turn back

for (plural) S to turn back, go back, retreat (by walking or as general term)


p


ji-(∅)-S-d-√.aat ⁸

ḵaa éet has jiwdi.át

event

d-

√.aat

attack

for (plural) S to attack, assault, fall upon


p


kei + a-ya-u-(∅)-S-d-√.aat ¹


motion

d-

√.aat

escape

for (plural) S to escape, flee (by walking or as general term)


p


woosh kaa-náx̱ + (ga)-S-d-√.aat ¹

woosh kaanáx̱ kei (ha)s nada.át

motion

ga

d-

√.aat

assemble

or (plural) S to assemble, congregate, gather together (for meetings)


p


woosh x̱oo-t~ + (∅)-S-d-√.aat ¹

woosh x̱oodé yaa (ha)s nada.át

motion

d-

√.aat

assemble

for (plural) S to assemble, congregate, gather together (for meetings)


p


N x̱ʼéi-de + ḵu-(na)-S-d-√.aax̱ ¹

du x̱ʼéide ḵuwdzi.aax̱

motion

na

d-

√.aax̱

listen

for S to listen to N




P-g̱aa + ḵu-(na)-S-d-√.aax̱ ¹

a kayéikg̱aa ḵoowdzi.aax̱

motion

na

d-

√.aax̱

listen

for S to listen for P




O-(?)-d-√.áaxʼw ²


state

?

d-

√.áaxʼw

crack

for O to be cracked on the surface (esp. of dishes, rock)

esp. dishes, rock



O-(?)-S-d-√.een


act

?

d-

√.een

take

for S to take home (food from party)

food from ḵu.éexʼ



ḵʼa-(?)-S-d-√.ees


act

?

d-

√.ees

whistle

for S to whistle softly under the breath




a-(na)-d-√.ei


act

na

d-

√.ei

answer

for S to answer, reply to a greeting or to oneʼs name




O-(?)-d-√.eik


state

?

d-

√.eik

paralyzed

for O to be be paralyzed, panic, be incapable of action (with fright, shock, or surprise)

fright, shock, surpise



O-x̱ʼa-(∅)-d-√.ék


state

d-

√.ék

worthless

for O to be worthless (of speech), have no good in it, be full of lies




tlél + O-(?)-d-√.ét


state

?

d-

√.ét

empty

for O to be empty, contain nothing




tlél + O-(?)-d-√.ét


state

?

d-

√.ét

empty

for O to be empty (of container with small opening)

container with smal opening



naa yéi + (?)-S-d-√.oo ²


event

?

d-

√.oo

wear

for S to wear, put on, dress in

clothing



O-tu-(ga)-d-√.oos


state

ga

d-

√.oos

sulk

for O to sulk, be sulky, refuse to speak; for O to refuse to run (of machine)




sh daa + (na)-S-d-√.óosʼ

aka.úsʼk

act

na

d-

√.óosʼ

wash

for S to bathe, take a bath




sha-(∅)-S-d-√.óosʼ


act

d-

√.óosʼ

wash

for S to wash (own) hair

hair



O-(∅)-d-√choon

wudichún

event

d-

√choon

wound

for O to be wounded, injured, bruised; for O to be hurt (emotionally)




O-ka-(?)-d-√éiyaḵw


state

?

d-

√éiyaḵw

injure

for O to be injured (very general, covering dislocation, tom ligament, etc., rendering the limb useless)




a-(g̱a)-d-√gaan

awdigaan

event

g̱a

d-

√gaan

shine

for the sun to shine

sun



ka-(∅)-d-√gaan

kawdigán

event

d-

√gaan

shine

for something to shine, produce light by burning




P-t~ + ka-(∅)-d-√gaan

a kát kawdigán

event

d-

√gaan

shine

for a light to shine on P




ka-(ga)-S-d-√g̱áax̱

kadag̱áax̱

act

ga

d-

√g̱áax̱

cry

for S to cry loudly (of child, or person in great pain), to cry out or scream (in fear or pain)




O-(g̱a)-S-d-√g̱áax̱

asg̱áax̱

act

g̱a

d-

√g̱áax̱

cry

for S to cry for, ask for O




sh káa + x̱ʼe-(∅)-S-d-√gáaxʼ

sh káa x̱ʼadagáaxʼ

act

d-

√gáaxʼ

pray

for S to pray




P-dé + ya-(na)-d-√g̱eech

aadé yawdig̱eech

motion

na

d-

√g̱eech

pierce

for a sharp object to pierce, enter, prick P; for an animal to bite P

sharp object

s


P-t~ + ya-(∅)-d-√g̱eech

át yawdig̱ích

motion

d-

√g̱eech

pierce

for a sharp object to pierce, enter, prick P; for an animal to bite P

sharp object

s


ya-(∅)-d-√g̱eel

yaa yandag̱íl

event

d-

√g̱eel

dull

for an edge to be blunt, dull

edge



ka-(na)-S-d-√g̱éexʼ

kawdig̱éexʼ

event

na

d-

√g̱éexʼ

donate

for S to donate, contribute




P-t~ + ka-(∅)-S-d-√g̱éexʼ

át kawdig̱íxʼ

motion

d-

√g̱éexʼ

donate

for S to donate, contribute, add to P




(yéi) + ka-u-(na)-d-√gei ¹

yéi kwdigéi

state

na

d-

√gei

big

for (plural) objects to be (so) big




P-dé + a-(na)-S-d-√g̱ein

aadé awdlig̱ein

motion

na

d-

√g̱ein

look at

for S to look in the direction of P




(ga)-d-√géixʼ

digéixʼ

state

ga

d-

√géixʼ

big

for (plural) objects to be big


p


ka-(ga)-d-√géixʼw

kadigéixʼ

state

ga

d-

√géixʼw

big

for plural, usually spherical objects to be big

spherical object

p


a-ya-u-(∅)-S-d-√goot ¹

yaa ayandagút

motion

d-

√goot

turn back

for (singular) S to turn back, go back (by walking or as general term)


s


sh + (∅)-d-√gwaal

sh dagwáal

act

d-

√gwaal

ring

for a telephone or bell to ring

telephone, bell



ḵu-(∅)-d-√gwáasʼ

ḵoowdigwásʼ

event

d-

√gwáasʼ

foggy

for the weather to be foggy

weather



daaḵ + (∅)-S-d-√g̱wáatʼ

daaḵ wudig̱wátʼ

motion

d-

√g̱wáatʼ

crawl

for S (esp. child) to crawl up (from beach), away (from open) on hands and knees

esp. child



P-t + (na)-S-d-√g̱wáatʼ

át wudig̱wáatʼ

motion

na

d-

√g̱wáatʼ

crawl

for S (esp. child) to crawl around on hands and knees at P

esp. child



O-sha-ya-(na)-d-√haa ¹

shayadihéin

state

na

d-

√haa

many

for O to be many, plenty, lots




P-t~ + O-ya-(∅)-d-√haa ¹

át has yawdiháa

motion

d-

√haa

move in

for O (large numbers, esp. people, birds) to move in, come around to P

birds, people

p


(ga)-S-d-√haan

kei ndahán

event

ga

d-

√haan

stand

for (singular) S to stand up, rise


s


(na)-S-d-√hoon

yaa nalhún

event

na

d-

√hoon

shop

for S to go spending, go shopping




(∅)-S-d-√ḵaa ²

daḵéisʼ

act

d-

√ḵaa

sew

for S to sew




P-t + (na)-S-d-√ḵeen

át wudiḵeen

motion

na

d-

√ḵeen

fly

for (singular) S (bird, or persons in a plane) to fly around at P

bird, plan

s


a-ya-u-(∅)-S-d-√ḵoox̱

ayawdiḵúx̱

motion

d-

√ḵoox̱

go (boat, car)

for S to turn back, return (by boat, car)

boat, car



P-dé + O-ka-(na)-d-√kʼéetʼ

aadé yaa (ha)s kandakʼítʼ

motion

na

d-

√kʼéetʼ

go

for O (group of people) to all go or come to P

group of people



P-t~ + O-ka-(∅)-d-√kʼéetʼ

aadé yaa (ha)s kandakʼítʼ

motion

d-

√kʼéetʼ

go

for O (group of people) to all leave, go or come to P

group of people



sh + (∅)-S-d-√ḵʼéikʼw

sh wudiḵʼékʼw

event

d-

√ḵʼéikʼw

cut

for S to cut himself/herself, usually accidentally; for S to wound himself/herself with a sharp instrument

sharp object



at-(∅)-S-d-√naa ¹

at daná

act

d-

√naa

drink

for S to drink (alcohol)

alcohol



O-(∅)-S-d-√naa ¹

adaná

act

d-

√naa

drink

for S to drink O




ya-(∅)-S-d-√naaḵw

yadanáḵwsʼ

act

d-

√naaḵw

bait

for S to bait hooks, put bait on fish hooks

fish hooks



yan~ sh + (∅)-S-d-√nei ²

yánde yaa sh nasnein

event

d-

√nei

dress

for S to dress up




(yéi) sh + tu-(na)-S-d-√nook ³

yéi sh tudinook

act

na

d-

√nook

feel

for S to feel (that way) (esp. physical sensation)

physical sensation



(g̱a)-d-√nook ¹

áa wdinook

event

g̱a

d-

√nook

situated

for a building to be situated

building



jee + O-(∅)-S-d-√nook ³

jée adinook

state

d-

√nook

touch

for S to feel, touch O (esp. with hands)

hand



sha-(∅)-S-d-√nook ¹

shawdinúk

event

d-

√nook

get up

for (singular) S to get up, rise


s


N x̱ʼéi + O-(∅)-S-d-√nook ³

x̱ʼéi adinook

state

d-

√nook

taste

for S to taste, sample O




O-ka-(∅)-d-√séiḵʼw

kawdiséḵʼw

event

d-

√séiḵʼw

stain

for O to be stained, dyed




ka-(g̱a)-d-√sʼéilʼ

kawdisʼéilʼ

event

g̱a

d-

√sʼéilʼ

tear

for something to be torn up

roots



wooch + (∅)-S-d-√shaa

wooch has wudisháa

event

d-

√shaa

marry

for S (two people) to marry each other




O-(∅)-d-√shaan

yaa ndashán

event

d-

√shaan

age

for O to show signs of old age (esp. grey hair), for O to become old, age

esp. gray hair



át + a-(∅)-S-d-√shee ¹

át awdishée

event

d-

√shee

hope

for S to hope, desire and expect something




N ée-t~ + (∅)-S-d-√shee ³

ax̱ eedé yaa ndashéen

event

d-

√shee

help

for S (person, medicine, etc.) to help, give help to, assist N




(∅)-S-d-√shooch

dashóoch

act

d-

√shooch

bath

for S to take a bath




(yéi) + tu-(na)-S-d-√taan ⁵

a daa toowditaan

event

na

d-

√taan

decide

for (singular) S to decide, make up oneʼs mind (that way)


s


N jee-dé + x̱ʼa-(na)-S-d-√taan ⁶

du jeedé x̱ʼawditaan

motion

na

d-

√taan

call

for S to call N on telephone

telephone



N jee-t~ + x̱ʼa-(∅)-S-d-√taan ⁶

du jeet x̱ʼawditán

motion

d-

√taan

call

for S to call N on telephone

telephone



x̱ʼa-(na)-S-d-√taan ⁶

yaa x̱ʼandatán

event

na

d-

√taan

speak

for S to speak, talk, make a speech


s


a-ya-(g̱a)-d-√tee ²

ayawditee

event

g̱a

d-

√tee

stormy

for the weather to be stormy, rough

weather



ká-t + O-()-S-d-√tee ⁶

kát adatéen

position


d-

√tee

wear

for S to wear O

clothing



ká-x̱ + O-(g̱a)-S-d-√tee ⁶

káx̱ awditee

event

g̱a

d-

√tee

wear

for S to put on O (shirt, dress, etc.)

clothing



sh tóo-g̱áa + O-(na)-d-√tee ¹

sh tóog̱áa ditee

state

na

d-

√tee

grateful

for O to be grateful, thankful, satisfied




(yéi)+ka-u-(na)-d-√tlaa

yéi kwditláa

state

na

d-

√tlaa

big

for something to be (so) big around, in girth




(∅)-d-√tlaax̱

yaa ndatláx̱

event

d-

√tlaax̱

moldy

for something to be moldy




O-(∅)-d-√tlʼaakʼ

yaa ndatlʼákʼ

event

d-

√tlʼaakʼ

wet

for O to be wet (may be thoroughly wet, but not by actual immersion)




(na)-S-d-√tóow

datóow

act

na

d-

√tóow

read

for S to read




ka-(∅)-d-√tóox̱ʼ

du x̱ʼóolʼ kadatóox̱ʼ

act

d-

√tóox̱ʼ

growl

for the stomach to growl, gurgle

stomach


imperfective only

tléil yan/yax̱(?)-S-d-√tsʼein



?

d-

√tsʼein

active

for S to never stop, be always on the go, constantly active




(na)-S-d-√xaash

daxáash

act

na

d-

√xaash

cut

for S to cut




ka-(∅)-S-d-√xeet

kashxeet

act

d-

√xeet

write

for S to write, draw,or paint; for S to take a photograph




(g̱a)-S-d-√xéetʼ

daxítʼkw


g̱a

d-

√xéetʼ

sweep

for S to sweep




O-(∅)-d-√xweitl ¹

yaa ndaxwétl

event

d-

√xweitl

tired

for O to be tired, weary




(∅)-d-√xʼeesʼ

yaa ndaxʼísʼ

event

d-

√xʼeesʼ

swollen

for something to swell, be swollen locally; for something to be matted, tangled in lumps




O-(∅)-d-√x̱ʼéixʼ

wudix̱ʼéx̱ʼ

event

d-

√x̱ʼéixʼ

burn

for O to be burned (of flesh, skin), become shriveled and brittle through burning

flesh, skin



P-dáx̱ + O-ka-(na)-d-√yaa ¹

aadáx̱ kawdiyaa

motion

na

d-

√yaa

disappear

for O to disappear from P; for O to move (often almost imperceptably) from P; for O to travel (indefinite as to method) from P




yan~ + ka-(∅)-d-√yaa ⁵

yan kawdiyáa

motion

d-

√yaa

happen

for an event to happen, take place




x̱ʼoos-dé~ + a-(∅)-S-d-√yeeḵ

x̱ʼoosdé adayeeḵ

act

d-

√yeeḵ

put on

for S to put on, pull on O (shoes, trousers)

clothing & shoes over feet



O-ka-(∅)-d-√yéisʼ

kawdiyésʼ

event

d-

√yéisʼ

colored

for O to be colored, discolored, bruised




s











N-ch + O-x̱ʼa-ya-(?)-s-√.aa


state

?

s-

√.aa

delay

for O to be delayed in speaking by N




ka-(na)-s-√.aa ³

kasa.éix̱

act

na

s-

√.aa

grow

for a plant to grow




O-ḵee-(?)-S-s-√.aa ⁴


event

?

s-

√.aa

celebrate

for S to celebrate, set apart (a particular day) for O

day



O-ka-(na)-S-s-√.aa ³

aksa.éix̱

act

na

s-

√.aa

grow

for S to cause O (plant) to grow; for S to turn on O (hose), cause O to flow

plant, hose



P-t + O-()-S-s-√.aa ¹

át as.áa

position


s-

√.aa

sit

for S to have O (live creature) seated at P

live creature



O-(?)-s-√.aan ¹


state

?

s-

√.aan

weaken

for O to weaken, lose strength (by lying down too much) (rare)




O-ya-ka-(?)-s-√.aan ²


state

?

s-

√.aan

pleasant

for O to be pleasant-faced (rare)




a tóo daak + O-(∅)-S-s-√.aat ¹


act

s-

√.aat

appoint

for S to appoint O, select O for a certain position


p


neil + O-(∅)-S-s-√.aat ¹


act

s-

√.aat

let in

for S to welcome in, receive, let in O


p


O-(∅)-S-s-√.aat ¹


act

s-

√.aat

let in

for S to let O in or out, to cause O to come or go (esp animals)

esp. animals

p


ḵu-(ga)-s-√.aatʼ

ḵusi.áatʼ

state

ga

s-

√.aatʼ

cold

for the weather to be cold

weather



O-(∅)-S-s-√.áatʼ

as.áatʼ

act

s-

√.áatʼ

cold

for S to make O cold, cool




O-ya-(∅)-s-√.áatʼ


state

s-

√.áatʼ

cold

feel cold (of person)

person



O-ya-(∅)-s-√.áatʼ


state

s-

√.áatʼ

cold

for O to be cold (of face)

face



N x̱ʼéi-t~ + (∅)-S-s-√.aax̱ ¹

du x̱ʼéit wusi.áx̱

motion

s-

√.aax̱

listen

for S to listen to, obey, give heed to N




P-t~ + (∅)-S-s-√.aax̱ ¹

át wusi.áx̱

motion

s-

√.aax̱

listen

for S to listen to P

sound



O-sa-(na)-S-s-√.aax̱ ¹


motion

na

s-

√.aax̱

sing

sound forth, cry out, sing out, raise voice

singing



O-(?)-S-s-√.aax̱ ¹


motion

?

s-

√.aax̱

sing

prolong the note, lengthen in hold on to note

singing



O-kʼi-ka-(∅)-S-s-√.aax̱w


act

s-

√.aax̱w

tie

for S to tie O (stems) together in a bundle

stems, bundle



O-daa-(∅)-S-s-√.aax̱w

adaasa.áax̱w

act

s-

√.aax̱w

tie

for S to tie O together in a bundle; for S to wrap O up

bundle



O-x̱ʼa-(∅)-S-s-√.aax̱w


act

s-

√.aax̱w

tie

tie up mouth (esp. of sack)

sack



O-(ga)-s-√.áaxʼw ¹

si.áaxʼw

state

ga

s-

√.áaxʼw

bitter

for O to be bitter, sour (of taste); for O to be spicy hot

food



at-(∅)-S-s-√.ee

at sa.ée

act

s-

√.ee

cook

for S to cook

food



O-(∅)-S-s-√.ee

as.ée

act

s-

√.ee

cook

for S to cook O

food



N jee-t~ + O-(∅)-S-s-√.een

du jeet awsi.ín

motion

s-

√.een

give

for S to give, take, hand O (container full of liquid or small objects) to N

container (full)



neil + O-(∅)-S-s-√.een

neil awsi.ín

motion

s-

√.een

carry

for S to bring O (container full of liquid or small objects) inside

container (full)



P-t~ + O-(∅)-S-s-√.een

át awsi.ín

motion

s-

√.een

carry

for S to carry O (container full of liquid or small objects) to P

container (full)



yan~ + O-(∅)-S-s-√.een

yan awsi.ín

motion

s-

√.een

put down

for S to put down, lay down, leave, place O (a container full of liquid or small objects)

container (full)



(na)-S-s-√.éexʼ


motion

na

s-

√.éexʼ

sound off

for S to sound off (horn, whistle, hooter), give a blast

horn, whistle, hooter



(g̱a)-s-√.ei


act

g̱a

s-

√.ei

ask for

for S to ask for more, demand more in payment for services




N-ch + (?)-S-s-√.oo ⁴


act

?

s-

√.oo

give

for S to give (to take away) N




O-ka-(∅)-S-s-√.ook ²


act

s-

√.ook

fill

fill, be full (esp. to point of overflowing?) (esp. with berries, salt, etc.)




ya-(∅)-S-s-√.únx̱aa


act

s-

√.únx̱aa

miss

for S to miss O (the target) when shooting with a gun

gun



kei + O-(∅)-s-√daaḵ

kei wsidáḵ

motion

s-

√daaḵ

move

for O to move household (permanently), migrate




kei + O-(∅)-S-s-√gaan

kei anasgán

motion

s-

√gaan

burn

for S to burn O up




kei + O-(∅)-S-s-√geet

kei awsigít

motion

s-

√geet

wake

for S to wake O up, rouse O from sleep

sleeping creature



Nᴾ daa yaa + ḵu-shu-(ga)-s-√géi ²

du daa yaa ḵushusigéi

state

ga

s-

√géi

understand

for Nᴾ to understand, comprehend




a-(na)-S-s-√g̱eiwú

asg̱eiwú

act

na

s-

√g̱eiwú

fish

for S to fish with net, seine

net



P-t~ + ya-(∅)-s-√goo ²

át yawsigóo

motion

s-

√goo

swim

for sea mammals to swim in a school to P

group of sea mammals



ḵʼa(ga)-s-√góo ¹

ḵʼasigóo

state

ga

s-

√góo

fun

for something to be enjoyable, fun, make one happy (esp. of speeches or songs at party); for something to be appealing to the eye




N tóo-wú + (ga)-s-√góo ¹

du toowú sigóo

state

ga

s-

√góo

happy

for N to be happy, glad




N tuwáa (tóo-ÿá) + (ga)-s-√góo ¹

du tuwáa sigóo

state

ga

s-

√góo

want

for N to want, like, desire S; for S to be pleasing to N




a tóo daak + O-(∅)-S-s-√goot ²


act

s-

√goot

appoint

for S to appoint O, select O for a certain position


s


neil + O-(∅)-S-s-√goot ²


act

s-

√goot

let in

for S to welcome in, receive, let in O


s


O-(∅)-S-s-√goot ²


act

s-

√goot

let in

for S to let O in or out, to cause O to come or go (esp animal)

esp. animal

s


O-(∅)-S-s-√goot ³

yaa anasgút

motion

s-

√goot

carry

for S to carry O on one shoulder, pack




N géi-dei + ka-(∅?)-S-s-√haa ²


act

∅?

s-

√haa

accuse

for S to accuse, blame N




O-ya-(∅)-S-s-√haa ²

ayasahéix̱

act

s-

√haa

gather

for S to gather up, pick up, take up O




()-s-√haa ³


act


s-

√haa

agree

agree to, be willing




(yoo) + O-ya-(na)-S-s-√ḵaa ¹

yoo ayanasḵá

event

na

s-

√ḵaa

tell

for S to tell, say (that) to O; for S to ask O to do (that)




(yéi) + ka-u-(na)-s-√kaak

yéi kwsikaak

state

na

s-

√kaak

thick

for a board, cloth, etc. to be (so) thick

esp. cloth, board, food


imperfective only

(ga)-s-√kaak

sikaak

state

ga

s-

√kaak

thick

for something to be thick (cloth, board, food, etc.)

esp. cloth, board, food



O-ka-(g̱a)-S-s-√kei

aksakéikw

act

g̱a

s-

√kei

follow

for S to trail, follow tracks of O; for S to untangle O; for S to rip back, undo O (sewing, knitting)

tracks, sewing, knitting



O-(∅)-S-s-√koo

yaa anaskwéin

event

s-

√koo

know

for S to know, be acquainted with, make known O (esp. people, facts); for S to learn O (esp. facts)

esp. people, facts



O-(na)-S-s-√ḵoox̱

yaa anasḵúx̱

motion

na

s-

√ḵoox̱

go (boat, car)

for S to drive O (car); for S to skipper O (boat)

boat, car



P-dé + O-(na)-S-s-√ḵoox̱

aadé yaa anasḵúx̱

motion

na

s-

√ḵoox̱

go (boat, car)

for S to drive O (boat, car) to P

boat, car



P-t~ + O-(∅)-S-s-√ḵoox̱

aadé yaa anasḵúx̱

motion

s-

√ḵoox̱

go (boat, car)

for S to drive O (boat, car) to P

boat, car



P-t + ji-(na)-s-√kwaan

át jiwsikwaan

motion

na

s-

√kwaan

swim

for a bird or insect to swim around on surface of water at P (esp. aimlessly or in circles)

birds, insects



P-t + (na)-s-√kwaan

át has wusikwaan

motion

na

s-

√kwaan

swim

for birds to swim around on surface of water at P

birds



O-(∅)-S-s-√néexʼ

asinéexʼ

act

s-

√néexʼ

smell

for S to smell O




(yéi) + O-(na)-S-s-√nei ²

yéi yaa anasnéin

event

na

s-

√nei

do

for S to do (that) to O; for S to fix, cause (that) to happen to O




N jee-t~ yéi + O-(∅)-S-s-√nei ¹

du jeet yéi awsinei

motion

s-

√nei

give

for S to give, take, hand (plural) O to N

plural objects



N waḵshiyeexʼ + O-(na)-S-s-√nei ²

du waḵshiyeexʼ yéi awsinei

event

na

s-

√nei

demonstrate

for S to demonstrate, perform publicly, show N how to do O by action




O-ka-(na)-S-s-√nei ³

aksané

act

na

s-

√nei

make

or S to make O (cloth of any kind) (by weaving, knitting, or crocheting); for S to make or mend O (net)

cloth, net



P-dáx̱ yéi + O-(ga)-S-s-√nei ¹

aax̱ yéi awsinei

motion

ga

s-

√nei

pick up

for S to pick up, lift up, take (plural) O (objects) up off of P

plural objects



wooch yáx̱ + O-(na)-S-s-√nei ²

wooch yáx̱ yaa anasnéin

event

na

s-

√nei

straighten

for S to straighten out O, smooth O over (literal or abstract)




yan~ + O-(∅)-S-s-√nei ²

yánde yaa anasnein

motion

s-

√nei

finish

for S to finish, complete O




yan~ yéi + O-ka-(∅)-S-s-√nei ¹

yan yéi akawsinéi

motion

s-

√nei

put down

or S to put down, leave O (plural round objects)

round object

p


O-(g̱a)-S-s-√neix̱

awsineix̱

event

g̱a

s-

√neix̱

save

for S to save O; for S to heal, cure O




kei + O-(∅)-S-s-√nook ¹

kei awsinúk

motion

s-

√nook

lift

for S to lift up O (live creature)

live creature



O-(g̱a)-S-s-√nook ²

yaa anasnúk

event

g̱a

s-

√nook

sit

for S to seat O




P-t + O-(na)-S-s-√nook ²

át awsinook

motion

na

s-

√nook

carry

for S to carry, take O (live creature) around at P

live creature



yan~ + O-(∅)-S-s-√nook ²

yan awsinúk

motion

s-

√nook

put down

for S to put down O (live creature)

live creature



O-(∅)-S-s-√taa

asteix̱

act

s-

√taa

steam

for S to boil, steam O (food, esp. meat)

food, esp. meat, organic matter



(precip) daak + (∅)-s-√taan ⁷

(precipitation) daak nastán

event

s-

√taan

precipitate

for precipitation to fall

precipitation



ji-(na)-s-√taan ⁴

yaa jinastán

event

na

s-

√taan

rough

for the ocean to be rough

ocean



kei + ji-(∅)-S-s-√taan ³

kei jiwsitán

motion

s-

√taan

raise

for S to raise a hand

hand



kei + O-(∅)-S-s-√taan ¹

kei awsitán

motion

s-

√taan

bring out

for S to bring out, unearth O (usually long, complex object)(esp. from a box or other container or place which O is kept); for S to pick up, lift up O

long, complex object (usually), esp. from container or place kept



N jee-t~ + O-(∅)-S-s-√taan ³

du jeet awsitán

motion

s-

√taan

give

for S to give, take, hand O (usually long, complex object) to N

long, complex object (usually)



N ka-náx̱ + ji-ya-(∅)-s-√taan ⁴

a kanax̱ yaa jiyanastán

motion

s-

√taan

wash over

for waves to wash over N

waves



P-t + O-()-S-s-√taan ³

át astán

position


s-

√taan

lie

for S to have O (usually long, complex object) lying at P

long, complex object (usually)



yan~ + ji-(∅)-S-s-√taan ³

yan jiwsitán

motion

s-

√taan

lower

for S to lower a hand

hand



yan~ + ji-(∅)-s-√taan ⁴

yan jiwsitán

motion

s-

√taan

wash over

for waves to reach the beach

waves



yan~ + O-ka-(∅)-S-s-√taan ³

yan akawsitán

motion

s-

√taan

put down

for S to put down, lay down, leave, place O (usually quite small, stick-like object)

small, stick-like object



yan~ + O-(∅)-S-s-√taan ³

yan awsitán

motion

s-

√taan

put down

for S to put down, lay down, leave, place O (usually long, complex object)

long, complex object (usually)



O-(ga)-s-√taaxʼ

ash wusitáaxʼ

event

ga

s-

√taaxʼ

bite

for an insect to bite O

insect



O-(ga)-S-s-√tee ⁴

yaa anastéen

motion

ga

s-

√tee

carry

for S to carry, take O (solid, often complex object)

complex object



O-shu-(na)-S-s-√tee ¹

ashusitee

state

na

s-

√tee

anticipate

for S to anticipate, foresee O; for S to expect, consider O likely to happen or arrive




O-x̱ʼa-(na)-S-s-√tee ¹

ax̱ʼatee

act

na

s-

√tee

imitate

for S to imitate O; for S to mimic Oʼs speech; for S to quote O




P-dé + O-(na)-S-s-√tee ⁴

aadé yaa anastéen

motion

na

s-

√tee

carry

for S to carry, take O (solid, often complex object) to P

complex object



P-x̱ + O-(na)-s-√tee ¹

(noun)-x̱ sitee

state

na

s-

√tee

be

for O to be P (a member of a group); for O to become P




yan~ + O-(∅)-S-s-√tee ⁴

yan awsitée

motion

s-

√tee

put down

for S to put down, lay down, leave, place O (solid, often complex object)

complex object



át + sha-(?)-s-√teen ¹

shasitin

state

?

s-

√teen

located

for a group, crowd, or swarm to be lovated there (often a reef)

reef

p


O-(g̱a)-S-s-√teen ²

awsiteen

event

g̱a

s-

√teen

see

for S to see, behold O (usually specific)




P-t + ()-s-√téen ⁴

át satéen

position


s-

√téen

sit

for a solid, often complex object to sit at P

complex object



ka-(∅)-S-s-√tóox̱ʼ

du x̱ʼóolʼ kastóox̱ʼ

act

s-

√tóox̱ʼ

growl

for the stomach to growl, gurgle

stomach



O-(∅)-S-s-√tʼaa

astʼeix̱

act

s-

√tʼaa

warm

for S to warm O (water, etc.)




(∅)-s-√tʼáax̱ʼ

wusitʼáax̱ʼ

event

s-

√tʼáax̱ʼ

heat

for a fire, etc. to be hot, radiate, throw out heat




ka-(ga)-s-√tʼéexʼ

kasitʼéexʼ

state

ga

s-

√tʼéexʼ

hard

for something to be hard (esp. of round object)

spherical object



O-(∅)-S-s-√wáat

aswáat

act

s-

√wáat

raise

for S to raise O (child, animal); for S to grow O (plant)

child, animal, plant



P-dé + O-ya-(na)-S-s-√xaa

a kaadé yaa ayanasxéin

motion

na

s-

√xaa

pour

for S to pour O on/in P




P-t~ + O-ka-(∅)-S-s-√xaa

át akawsixáa

motion

s-

√xaa

pour

for S to pour, dump, empty O at P




yáx̱ + O-ya-(∅)-S-s-√x̱aa ¹

yax̱ yaa ayanasx̱éin

event

s-

√x̱aa

eat

for S to eat up, finish, consume O (eating lots of pieces)




P-dé~ + ka-(∅)-s-√xaat

aadé ksixát

state

s-

√xaat

connect

for something to be connected, attached, tied (to) P




P-dé + O-ka-(∅)-S-s-√xaat

aadé akawsixát

event

s-

√xaat

connect

for S to connect, attach O to P




O-ka-(∅)-S-s-√xaatʼ

kʼidéin akawsixát

event

s-

√xaatʼ

tighten

for S to tighten, pull on O (something fastened at the other end)




O-(na)-S-s-√xaatʼ

yaa anasxátʼ

motion

na

s-

√xaatʼ

drag

for S to drag, pull O (esp. heavy object or limp object such as dead animal); for S to haul, transport O (by non-motor power)

esp. heavy object or limp object



P-dáx̱ + O-(na)-S-s-√xaatʼ

aadáx̱ yaa anasxátʼ

motion

na

s-

√xaatʼ

drag

for S to drag, pull O (esp. heavy object or limp object such as dead animal) away from P; for S to haul, transport O (by non-motor power) away from P

esp. heavy object or limp object



P-dé + O-(na)-S-s-√xaatʼ

aadé yaa anasxátʼ

motion

na

s-

√xaatʼ

drag

for S to drag, pull O (esp. heavy object or limp object such as dead animal) toward P; for S to haul, transport O (by non-motor power) toward P

esp. heavy object or limp object



O-(ga)-S-s-√x̱án

asix̱án

state

ga

s-

√x̱án

love

for S to love O




O-(∅)-S-s-√x̱eiḵ

ash wusix̱éḵ

event

s-

√x̱eiḵ

awake

for S to keep O awake




O-(ga)-S-s-√x̱eit

kei anasx̱ét

event

ga

s-

√x̱eit

breed

for S to breed O

animals



P-dé + O-(na)-S-s-√x̱ootʼ ¹

aadé yaa anasx̱útʼ

motion

na

s-

√x̱ootʼ

drag

for S to drag, pull O to P; for S to haul, transport O (by motor power) to P

motor power



O-(g̱a)-S-s-√x̱oox̱

ax̱oox̱

act

g̱a

s-

√x̱oox̱

call

for S to call, summon O




O-ka-(∅)-S-s-√xʼoo

aadé yaa akanasxʼwéin

event

s-

√xʼoo

nail

for S to nail O




O-sha-(na)-S-s-√yaa ³


event

na

s-

√yaa

anchor

for S to anchor O

anchor



kei + O-(∅)-S-s-√yeeḵ

kei anasyíḵ

motion

s-

√yeeḵ

pull up

for S to pull, haul O (esp. of line) up; for S to hoist O up

esp. line



P-t~ + O-(∅)-S-s-√yeeḵ

aadé yaa anasyíḵ

motion

s-

√yeeḵ

pull up

for S to pull, hoist O up to P




dz (s+d)











N daa + ya-(na)-S-dz-√.aa ²

a daa yas.éix̱

act

na

dz-

√.aa

examine

for S to examine, inspect, look into, judge, assess N




N x̱ʼéi-t~ + ya-(∅)-S-dz-√.aa ²

ax̱ x̱ʼéide yaa yanas.éin

motion

dz-

√.aa

kiss

for S to kiss N




ya-(?)-S-dz-√.aa ²


motion

?

dz-

√.aa

swim

for S to swim under water but with head emerging every so often




(?)-S-dz-√.aan ⁴


act

?

dz-

√.aan

settle

settle, make oneʼs village




O-(∅)-dz-√.aax̱ ¹


state

dz-

√.aax̱

echo

echo, resound

sound



(g̱a)-dz-√.ei


act

g̱a

dz-

√.ei

ask for

for S (esp. medicine man) to ask for more, demand more in payment for services

medicine person



ḵu-(?)-S-dz-√.ookʼ


act

?

dz-

√.ookʼ

play

for S to entertain, amuse oneself (while stationary); for S to play quietly (while stationary, of children)

hands



at géit + (∅)-S-dz-√geet

at géit wudzigít

event

dz-

√geet

violate

for S to violate, break (law or custom), do something wrong




daak + O-(∅)-dz-√geet

daak wudzigít

motion

dz-

√geet

fall

for O to fall (of live creature)(esp. off of something)

live creature



kei + O-(∅)-dz-√geet

kei wdzigít

motion

dz-

√geet

wake

for O to wake up

sleeping creature



ḵut + O-(ga)-dz-√geet

ḵut wudzigeet

motion

ga

dz-

√geet

lost

for O to lose oneself, be lost, usure of oneʼs location




P-dé + O-(na)-dz-√geet

aadé wdzigeet

motion

na

dz-

√geet

fall

for O (live creature) to fall into P

live creature



P-náx̱ yei + O-u-(∅)-dz-√geet

anax̱ yei wdzigít

motion

dz-

√geet

fall

for O (live creature) to fall down, trip over P

live creature



P-t~ + O-(∅)-dz-√geet

át wudzigít

motion

dz-

√geet

fall

for O (live creature) to fall into, against P

live creature



(yéi) + ka-u-(na)-dz-√gei ¹

yéi kwdzigéi

state

na

dz-

√gei

small

for grain-like objects to be small

grain-like objects



a-u-(ga)-S-dz-√kaa

oodzikaa

state

ga

dz-

√kaa

lazy

for S to be lazy, slow




ka-(∅)-S-dz-√néi ³

kasné

act

dz-

√néi

knit

for S to knit, weave, or crochet




O-ḵu-(g̱a)-dz-√tee ¹

ḵudzitee

state

g̱a

dz-

√tee

exist

for O to be, be in existence, live; for O to be born




O-ka-(∅)-dz-√téex̱ʼ

kawdzitíx̱ʼ

event

dz-

√téex̱ʼ

crooked

for O to be crooked, wicked




yóot~ + ḵʼa(∅)-S-dz-√tóox̱

yóot ḵʼawdzitúx̱

motion

dz-

√tóox̱

spit

for S to spit, spit out




a-(na)-S-dz-√tʼéix̱

astʼeix̱

act

na

dz-

√tʼéix̱

fish

for S to fish with hooks, catch on a hook, troll

fish



N daa + (ga)-dz-√x̱áaw

daadzix̱áaw

state

ga

dz-

√x̱áaw

hairy

for N to have a hairy body




(ga)-dz-√x̱eit

kei (ha)s nasx̱ét

event

ga

dz-

√x̱eit

breed

for something to multiply, increase in numbers; for animals to produce young, breed

animals



sha-(na)-S-dz-√yaa ³

ashawsiyaa

event

na

dz-

√yaa

anchor

for S to anchor, lower anchor

anchor



l











P-t + ()-l-√.áa ¹

át la.áa

position


l-

√.áa

situated

for a building to be situated at P

building



N daa + x̱ʼa-(∅)-S-l-√.aat ⁶


act

l-

√.aat

talk over

for (plural) S to talk over together

speech

p


N káa daak + tu-(∅)-S-l-√.aat ⁵


act

l-

√.aat

remember

for (plural) S to remember (esp. while thinking consciously about) N

thought

p


N yík~ + O-(na)-S-l-√.aat ²


motion

na

l-

√.aat

carry

for S to load, take aboard (plural) O (esp. baggage and personal belongings) to P

esp. baggage and personal belongings

p


a-náx̱ + ka-(∅)-S-l-√.aat ³


motion

l-

√.aat

give

for S to button up (esp. shirt or clothing) (based on small, round or hoop-like objects)

small, round or hoop-like objects; clothing



N daa + ji-ka-()-S-l-√.aat ³


act


l-

√.aat

serve

for S to serve, wait on, minister to N




héi-de / a x̱ʼéi-tx̱ + shu-(na)-S-l-√.aat ⁹


motion

na

l-

√.aat

open

for S to open (plural, hinged doors)

hinged objects

p


O-ji-()-S-l-√.aat ²




l-

√.aat

take hand

for S to take O by hand, lead; work (often at housework or small varied tasks)

hand

p


N géi-t~ + x̱ʼa-(∅)-S-l-√.aat ⁶


act

l-

√.aat

accuse

for S (plural) to accuse, speak against N


p


N toowú yaa-de + x̱ʼa-(∅)-S-l-√.aat ⁶


act

l-

√.aat

discourage

for S to discourage, try to stop from doing


p


kei + O-ya-(∅)-S-l-√.aat ⁷

kei ayawli.át

event

l-

√.aat

turn

for S to turn O (boat)

boat



tu-(∅)-S-l-√.aat ⁵


act

l-

√.aat

decide

for (plural) S to decide, make up oneʼs mind

thought

p


N daa yoo + tu-(∅)-S-l-√.aat ⁵

a daa yoo (ha)s tuli.átk

act

l-

√.aat

consider

for (plural) S to think over, consider, make up oneʼs mind about N

thought

p


N jee-t~ + ka-(∅)-S-l-√.aat ³

du jeet akawli.át

motion

l-

√.aat

give

for S to give, take, hand O (small, round or hoop-like objects) to N

small, round or hoop-like objects



N jee-t~ + O-(∅)-S-l-√.aat ²

du jeet awli.át

motion

l-

√.aat

carry

for S to give, take, hand (plural) O (esp. baggage and personal belongings) to N

esp. baggage and personal belongings



P-dé + O-(na)-S-l-√.aat ²

aadé yaa anal.át

motion

na

l-

√.aat

carry

for S to carry, take (plural) O (esp. baggage and personal belongings) to P

esp. baggage and personal belongings

p


shu-(na)-S-l-√.aat ⁹


motion

na

l-

√.aat

open

for S to open (plural, hinged objects)

hinged objects

p


woosh yá~ + shu-(∅)-S-l-√.aat ⁹


motion

l-

√.aat

close

for S to close (plural hinged objects, esp. books) 

hinged objects

p


yan~ + ka-(∅)-S-l-√.aat ³


motion

l-

√.aat

give

for S to put down, lay down O (small, round or hoop-like objects) to N

small, round or hoop-like objects



yan~ + O-(∅)-S-l-√.aat ²

yan awli.át

motion

l-

√.aat

put down

for S to put down, lay down, leave (plural) O (esp. baggage and personal belongings)

esp. baggage and personal belongings

p


yei + O-(na)-S-l-√.aat ²


motion

na

l-

√.aat

carry

for S to unload, take ashore (plural) O (esp. baggage and personal belongings) to P

esp. baggage and personal belongings

p


yoo + x̱ʼa-(∅)-S-l-√.aat ⁶

yoo (ha)s x̱ʼali.átk

act

l-

√.aat

speak

for (plural) S to speak, talk, converse

speech

p


O-ka-(∅)-S-l-√.áax̱ ¹


event

l-

√.áax̱

hear

for S to barely hear O, mis·hear O




O-(∅)-S-l-√.áax̱ ¹

awli.áx̱

event

l-

√.áax̱

play

for S to play O (musical instrument)

musical instrument



O-x̱ʼa-ka-(?)-l-√.aax̱chʼán ¹


state

?

l-

√.aax̱chʼán

listen

be fascinating to listen to, be a compelling storyteller




O-(?)-S-l-√.áaxʼw ²


act

?

l-

√.áaxʼw

crack

for S to cause O to be cracked on the surface (rare)




P-t + ()-l-√.át ⁴

át la.át

position


l-

√.át

lie

for several things to lie at P; for several persons or animals to lie dead, unconscious, or incapacitated at P

things; dead or unconcious creatures

p

imperfective only

P-t + O-ka-()-S-l-√.át ³

át akla.át

position


l-

√.át

have

for S to have O (small, round or hoop-like objects) lying at P

small, round or hoop-like objects



O-(x̱ʼa-)ka-(∅)-S-l-√.eesh

akla.eesh

act

l-

√.eesh

thread

for S to thread, string together O (esp. beads)

esp. beads



O-ya-(?)-l-√.eesháan


state

?

l-

√.eesháan

sad

for O to be be long-faced, look sad, dismal




O-(?)-l-√.eesháan


state

?

l-

√.eesháan

poor

for O to be poor (in spirit and ability as much as in possessions)




O-ka-(ga)-S-l-√.éexʼ


act

ga

l-

√.éexʼ

call

for S to call out at, holler at O repeatedly




O-(ga)-S-l-√.eilʼ



ga

l-

√.eilʼ

salt

for S to salt O; for S to store O in salt




O-ka-(ga)-S-l-√.eilʼ


act

ga

l-

√.eilʼ

salt

for S to put salt on O (for preserving)

preserving



ya-(?)-S-l-√.eis


motion

?

l-

√.eis

stagger

sfor S to stagger (esp. of young child or drunkard)

young child or drunk



()-S-l-√.oo ⁴


act


l-

√.oo

give

fo S to give (at pay-off party, an amount over and above payment)




O-(∅)-S-l-√.ook ¹

awli.úk

event

l-

√.ook

boil

for S to boil O (esp. water)

esp. water



O-(∅)-S-l-√.óon


act

l-

√.óon

shoot

for S to fire (gun, etc.), shoot off, blast




O-ji-(ga)-l-√.oos


act

ga

l-

√.oos

meddle

for O to meddle, handle too much




O-(ga)-l-√.oos

li.oos

state

ga

l-

√.oos

noisy

for O to be crazy, lively, noisy, never still




O-x̱ʼa-(ga)-l-√.oos


state

ga

l-

√.oos

talkative

for O to be talkative, gossipy, noisy




O-(∅)-S-l-√.óosʼ


act

l-

√.óosʼ

wash

for S to wash O (often meat or feet)

meat or feet (usually)



kei + O-(?)-S-l-√.oot


act

?

l-

√.oot

remove

for S to remove (splinter, shavings, etc.) from flesh, using instrument such as needle

needle



O-(?)-S-l-√.oox


act

?

l-

√.oox

blow

for S to blow O




O-ya-ka-(?)-S-l-√.oox


act

?

l-

√.oox

blow

for S to blowout O (light)

light



P-t + ka-()-l-√át ³

át kala.át

position


l-

Çt

lying

for small, round or hoop-like objects to lie at P

small, round or hoop-like objects


imperfective only

O-(ga)-S-l-√áx̱ch ¹

ali.áx̱ch

state

ga

l-

√áx̱ch

play

for S to play O (musical instrument) regularly

musical instrument



O-ka-(∅)-S-l-√chaa

aklachéix̱

act

l-

√chaa

strain

for S to strain, filter, drain off O




O-(ga)-l-√chán

lichán

state

ga

l-

√chán

stink

for O to stink, have unpleasant odor, smell bad; for O to smell strongly




O-(∅)-S-l-√choon

awlichún

event

l-

√choon

wound

for S to wound, injure, bruise O




O-(∅)-l-√chʼéix̱ʼw

yaa nalchʼéx̱ʼw

event

l-

√chʼéix̱ʼw

dirty

for O to be dirty




O-(∅)-S-l-√chʼéix̱ʼw

yaa analchʼéx̱ʼw

event

l-

√chʼéix̱ʼw

dirty

for S to dirty, soil O (esp. clothing or person)

esp. person or clothing



O-ka-(∅)-S-l-√dáalʼ

akladáalʼ

act

l-

√dáalʼ

type

for S to type O




O-(ga)-l-√dzée

lidzée

state

ga

l-

√dzée

hard

for O to be difficult, frustrating




yan~ + O-ka-(∅)-S-l-√gáa

yánde yaa akanalgéin

motion

l-

√gáa

store

for S to put up, store up, accumulate O (esp. food for winter); for S to finish distributing things (esp. at party)

esp. food for winter, things at party



P-t~ + a-ka-(∅)-S-l-√gaan

át akawligán

motion

l-

√gaan

light, burn

for S to light, set fire to, cause P to shine; for S to turn on P (light)




P-dé + O-(na)-l-√gáasʼ ¹

aadé wligáasʼ

motion

na

l-

√gáasʼ

move

for O to move household (with future plans unspecified) to P

household



P-t~ + O-(∅)-l-√gáasʼ ¹

át wuligásʼ

motion

l-

√gáasʼ

move

for O to move household (with future plans unspecified) to P

household



O-sa-(ga)-l-√gaaw

saligaaw

state

ga

l-

√gaaw

loud

for O to be loud-voiced, noisy in speech

voice



O-(na)-l-√gei ¹

ligéi

state

na

l-

√gei

big

for O (esp. live creature or building) to be big, tall

live creature, building



N too-wú + ka-(ga)-l-√g̱éi

du toowú klig̱éi

state

ga

l-

√g̱éi

proud

for N to be proud of, highly pleased with




O-ka-(ga)-l-√g̱éi

kalig̱éi

state

ga

l-

√g̱éi

fancy

for O to be fancy, prominent (esp. in appearance), conspicuous, attracting attention




O-sha-ka-(ga)-l-√g̱éi

shaklig̱éi

state

ga

l-

√g̱éi

pretty

for O to be pretty, cute




O-(g̱a)-S-l-√g̱oo

alg̱éikw

act

g̱a

l-

√g̱oo

wipe

for S to wipe, mop, clean O by wiping




ḵu-(ga)-l-√góosʼ

ḵuligóosʼ

state

ga

l-

√góosʼ

cloudy

for the sky to be cloudy

weather



sha-(na)-l-√haa ¹


act

na

l-

√haa

add to

for S to add to, increase, make more




daak + O-(∅)-l-√haash

daak wulihásh

motion

l-

√haash

drift

for O to float, drift out to sea




P-t + O-(na)-l-√haash

át wulihaash

motion

na

l-

√haash

drift

for O to float, drift around at P




P-t~ + O-(∅)-l-√haash

aadé yaa nalhásh

motion

l-

√haash

drift

for O to float, drift to P




O-sha-(∅)-S-l-√heek

yaa ashanalhík

event

l-

√heek

fill

for S to fill O (with solids or abstracts)

solid mass, abstract



yan~ + O-sha-(∅)-S-l-√heek

yan ashawlihík

motion

l-

√heek

finish

 for S to finish, complete O




O-(na)-S-l-√hoon

yaa analhún

event

na

l-

√hoon

sell

for S to go selling, peddle, hawk O




O-ka-(u)-(ga)-l-√jée

kalijée / kulijée

state

ga

l-

√jée

awful

for O to be awful, terrible, eerie (in appearance), unattractive




P-dé + O-ka-(na)-S-l-√joox

aadé akawlijoox

motion

na

l-

√joox

wheel

for S to wheel O to P

wheel



P-t~ + O-ka-(∅)-S-l-√joox

át akawlijúx

motion

l-

√joox

wheel

for S to wheel O to P

wheel



P-t~ + O-ka-(∅)-S-l-√ḵaa ²

a kaadé yaa akanalḵéin

motion

l-

√ḵaa

sew

for S to sew O on P




O-ya-ka-(∅)-S-l-√kéesʼ

ayakawlikísʼ

event

l-

√kéesʼ

extinguish

for S to put out, extinguish O (fire); for S to turn off O (light)

fire, light



ya-ka-(∅)-l-√kéesʼ

yaa yakanalkísʼ

event

l-

√kéesʼ

extinguish

for a fire, light to go out

fire, light



O-ka-(∅)-S-l-√keil

yaa akanalkél

event

l-

√keil

soak

for S to soak O




daak + O-(∅)-l-√keilʼ

daak analkélʼ

motion

l-

√keilʼ

chase

for S to chase O into the open, out to sea




ka-(na)-l-√koox

yaa kanalkúx

event

na

l-

√koox

drain out

for a kettle, container etc. to drain out, go dry

container



ya-(ga)-l-√kʼaatsʼ

yalikʼátsʼ

state

ga

l-

√kʼaatsʼ

sharp

for an edge to be sharp

edge



O-(ga)-S-l-√kʼéi

kei analkʼéin

event

ga

l-

√kʼéi

improve

for S to improve O; for S to make peace, make up with O (after quarrel)




Nᴾ yáa + O-(?)-S-l-√ḵʼei


state

?

l-

√ḵʼei

admire

for Nᴾ to admire, think highly of something




O-(na)-S-l-√kʼoots

awlikʼoots

event

na

l-

√kʼoots

break

for S to break O (esp. rope-like objects)

rope-like objects



(∅)-l-√laa

yaa nalléin

event

l-

√laa

melt

for something to melt, dissolve, thaw




(na)-l-√lʼéexʼ

wulilʼéexʼ

event

na

l-

√lʼéexʼ

break

for a long object to break

long object



O-(na)-S-l-√lʼéexʼ

awlilʼéexʼ

event

na

l-

√lʼéexʼ

break

for S to break O (often by bending) (usually long objects)

long object



O-(ga)-l-√náalx̱

lináalx̱

state

ga

l-

√náalx̱

rich

for O to be rich, wealthy, profitable




N káx̱ + O-ka-(∅)-S-l-√neek

a káx̱ akawliník

event

l-

√neek

defraud

for S to defraud, talk O out of N




O-ka-(na)-S-l-√neek

aklaneek

act

na

l-

√neek

tell

for S to tell the story of O; for S to talk into O




O-(ga)-l-√núkts

linúkts

state

ga

l-

√núkts

sweet

for O to be sweet




(∅)-S-l-√saa ³

(tlákw) yaa nalséin

event

l-

√saa

rest

for S to rest




yéi + ka-u-(?)-l-√saa ¹

yéi kwlisáa

state

?

l-

√saa

narrow

for something (esp. container) to be narrow

container


imperfective only

O-(∅)-S-l-√seen

awlisín

event

l-

√seen

hide

for S to hide, conceal, put O out of sight




O-ka-(∅)-S-l-√séiḵʼw

aklaséḵʼw

act

l-

√séiḵʼw

stain

for S to stain, dye, color the surface of O




O-(g̱a)-S-l-√sháat

alshát

act

g̱a

l-

√sháat

hold

for S to hold, retain O in oneʼs grasp; for S to capture, hold O captive




P-x̱ kei + (∅)-l-√shoo

áx̱ kei wlishóo

motion

l-

√shoo

extend

for a complex object (esp. road) to extend up to P

complex object, esp. road



ḵut + O-ka-(ga)-S-l-√sóos

ḵut akaawlisóos

motion

ga

l-

√sóos

lose

for S to lose (plural) O


p


P-t + O-(na)-l-√sʼees

át wulisʼees

motion

na

l-

√sʼees

blow

for O to be blown around at P (by wind), to sail

wind



P-dé + ka-(na)-l-√sʼées

aadé yaa kanalsʼís

motion

na

l-

√sʼées

blow

for an object to be blown in the wind to P

wind



(∅)-l-√sʼeex

yaa nalsʼíx

event

l-

√sʼeex

spoil

for animal matter to age, spoil to stage where still firm, but smelly

organic matter



P-t~+O-ka-(∅)-S-l-√sʼéexʼw

át akawlisʼíxʼw

motion

l-

√sʼéexʼw

stick to

or S to stick O (esp. paper) to P

esp. paper



áx̱ + a-ka-(na)-S-l-√sʼeiḵ

áx̱ akawlisʼeiḵ

event

na

l-

√sʼeiḵ

tan

for S to tan, smoke, cure something by placing in smoke




x̱aat+O-(∅)-S-l-√sʼéilʼ

x̱aat alsʼéilʼ

act

l-

√sʼéilʼ

tear up; pull up

for S to tear up, pull up O (roots)




O-ka-(∅)-S-l-√sʼook

aklasʼúk

act

l-

√sʼook

toast

for S to toast O (bread); for S to fry O (usually till crisp)

food



daak + O-ya-(∅)-S-l-√taaḵ

(yaakw) daak ayanaltáḵ

motion

l-

√taaḵ

pole

for S to pole, push O (canoe, boat) out away from the shore with a pole




O-(∅)-S-l-√teen ²

altín

act

l-

√teen

look at

for S to look at, gaze at, watch O; for S to watch, take care of, mind, look after O




ka-u-(ga)-l-√téesʼshán

kulitéesʼshán

state

ga

l-

√téesʼshán

fascinating

for something to be fascinating to watch, to be a wonderful sight



-shán stem suffix

P-t~ + (na?)-l-√teet

aadé naltít

motion

na?

l-

√teet

afloat

for something to be afloat, be carried by waves, drift




P-t~ + O-ka-(∅)-S-l-√téex̱ʼ

aadé yaa akanaltíx̱ʼ

event

l-

√téex̱ʼ

screw

for S to screw O in to P



~tʼéix̱

x̱ʼéi-t~ + O-ka-(∅)-S-l-√téex̱ʼ

x̱ʼéide yaa akanaltíx̱ʼ

event

l-

√téex̱ʼ

lock

for S to lock O



~téix̱ʼ

O-(?)-Sl-√tlʼeet


event

?

l-

√tlʼeet

abandon

for S to abandon, desert, leave O




O-sha-(∅)-S-l-√tlʼéetʼ

yaa ashanaltlʼítʼ

event

l-

√tlʼéetʼ

fill

for S to fill O (with liquid)

liquid



P-xʼ + at-(∅)-S-l-√tóow

du éexʼ at latóow

act

l-

√tóow

teach

for S to teach P




P-xʼ + O-(∅)-S-l-√tóow

du éexʼ altóow

act

l-

√tóow

teach

for S to teach O to




kei + ji-(∅)-S-l-√tsaaḵ

kei jiwlitsáḵ

event

l-

√tsaaḵ

raise

for (singular) S to raise the hand (in voting, etc.)


s


O-(∅)-S-l-√tseek

altséek

act

l-

√tseek

broil

for S to broil O slowly, cook O directly over live coals, barbecue




O-(ga)-l-√tseen

litseen

state

ga

l-

√tseen

strong

for O to be strong, powerful




tlél + O-(ga)-l-√tseen

tléil ultseen

state

ga

l-

√tseen

weak

for O to be weak; for O to be mild (of weather); for O to be anemic




x̱ʼa-(ga)-l-√tseen

x̱ʼalitseen

state

ga

l-

√tseen

expensive

for something to be expensive, high-priced; for something to be precious, of great value




O-x̱ʼa-(ga)-S-l-√tseen

ax̱ʼalitseen

act

ga

l-

√tseen

cherish

for S to value, cherish O




O-(ga)-l-√tsʼaa

litsʼáa

state

ga

l-

√tsʼaa

fragrant

for O to be fragrant, sweet-smelling




N too-wú + (∅)-S-l-√tʼaa

du toowú altʼeix̱

act

l-

√tʼaa

comfort

for S to comfort N




O-(na)-S-l-√xaash

alxáash

act

na

l-

√xaash

cut

for S to cut O (esp. rope-like object)

rope-like object



O-(ga)-l-√x̱eitl

lix̱éitl

state

ga

l-

√x̱eitl

blessed

for O to be blessed, be lucky




O-ka-u-(ga)-l-√x̱éitlʼshán

kulix̱éitlʼshán

state

ga

l-

√x̱éitlʼshán

scary

for O to be scary, dangerous




O-ka-(g̱a)-S-l-√x̱óotʼ ²

aklax̱útʼt

act

g̱a

l-

√x̱óotʼ

chop

for S to chop up O; for S to split O (wood)

wood



shu-ka-(na)-S-l-√x̱oox̱

shukawlix̱oox̱

event

na

l-

√x̱oox̱

call

for S to call forth a response (from opposite clan, by means of a song); for S to compose a song

song



O-(∅)-S-l-√xwaach

alxwácht

act

l-

√xwaach

soften

for S to soften, make O flexible; for S to scrape O (hide) to soften it

hide (usually)



ka-(∅)-S-l-√xweitl ²

yaa kanalxwétl

event

l-

√xweitl

itch

for S to itch, tickle




O-(∅)-S-l-√xweitl ¹

yaa ash nalxwétl

event

l-

√xweitl

tired

for S to tire O, make O tired (either physically or emotionally)




ka-(∅)-l-√xʼáas

yaa kanalxʼáas

event

l-

√xʼáas

drip

for something to drip, leak (at fairly fast rate)




P-x̱ + O-ka-(na)-l-√x̱ʼéexʼ

áx̱ kawlix̱ʼéexʼ

motion

na

l-

√x̱ʼéexʼ

stuck

for O to get stuck, be squeezed at P




O-(∅)-S-l-√x̱ʼéixʼ

awlix̱ʼéx̱ʼ

event

l-

√x̱ʼéixʼ

burn

for S to burn O (flesh, skin); for S to scald O

flesh, skin



(na)-l-√xʼwásʼḵ

yaa naxʼwásʼḵ

event

na

l-

√xʼwásʼḵ

numb

for something to be numb, have no feeling




(yéi) + ka-u-(na)-l-√yáatʼ

yéi kwliyáatʼ

state

na

l-

√yáatʼ

long

for a general object to be (so) long

general objects



(na)-l-√yátʼ

liyátʼ

state

na

l-

√yátʼ

long

for something to be long (of time or physical objects)

time, physical objects



O-sha-ka-(∅)-S-l-√yéin

ashakawliyén

event

l-

√yéin

wag

for S to wag O (tail); for S to wave O (hand, etc.); for S to twirl, spin O around above oneʼs head




Nᴾ aayí + O-(∅)-S-l-√yeix̱

du aayí alyéix̱

act

l-

√yeix̱

adopt

For S (Nᴾ) adopt O; for S (Nᴾ) to make O oneʼs own




yát-x̱ + O-(∅)-du-l-√yeix̱

yátx̱ alyéix̱

act

l-

√yeix̱

adopt

for O to be adopted




O-(∅)-S-l-√yeix̱

alyéix̱

act

l-

√yeix̱

build

for S to build O; for S to make, construct O




P-x̱ + O-(∅)-S-l-√yeix̱

átx̱ alyéix̱

act

l-

√yeix̱

use

for S to use O for P; for S to make O into P




O-(?)-S-l-g̱aas

lig̱aas


?

l-

g̱aas

forbidden

For S to abstain, refrain from, keep from doing (usually for ceremonial or religious reasons, esp. of Lent); to be forbidden, taboo




dl (l+d)











P-xʼ sh + (?)-S-dl√x̱án


motion

?

dl

√x̱án

accompany

for S to accompany, take to one, follow around, go around with




ḵux̱ + tu-(∅)-S-dl-√.aat ⁵


act

dl-

√.aat

convert

for (plural) S to be converted, turn round, change in oneʼs thinking; repent

thought

p


sh + (?)-S-dl-√.aat ⁴


act

?

dl-

√.aat

lie

lie down (of human)

human

p


sh tóo + O-ka-(∅)-S-dl-√.áax̱ ¹


act

dl-

√.áax̱

rehearse

rehearse (songs or music)




ka-(na)-dl-√.ítʼch

kadli.ítʼch

state

na

dl-

√.ítʼch

sparkle

for something to sparkle, reflect light




(∅)-dl-√.óok ¹

yaa nal.úk

event

dl-

√.óok

boil

for something to boil




sh + O-ḵʼa-(?)-dl-√.oosh


state

?

dl-

√.oosh

sulk

for O to sulk; for O to refuse to talk and have mouth puckered in bad feeling




ka-(?)-dl-√chʼáchʼx̱

kadlichʼáchʼx̱

state

?

dl-

√chʼáchʼx̱

spotted

for a natural object (wood, rock, etc.) to be spotted

natural object



O-(∅)-S-dl-√dáasʼ

awdlidásʼ

event

dl-

√dáasʼ

snare

for S to snare O




(g̱a)-dl-√dées

awdlidées

event

g̱a

dl-

√dées

shine

for the moon to shine




P-t~ sh + (∅)-S-dl-√gáasʼ ²

a kát sh wudligásʼ

motion

dl-

√gáasʼ

leap

for S to leap, pounce on P




ka-(?)-dl-√g̱áasʼ

kadlig̱áasʼ

state

?

dl-

√g̱áasʼ

striped

for something to be striped




P-t~ + ya-(∅)-dl-√g̱eech

át yawdlig̱ích

motion

dl-

√g̱eech

pierce

for (plural) sharp objects to pierce, enter, prick P

sharp object

p


sh + tu-ka-(ga)-S-dl-√g̱éi

sh tukdlig̱éi

state

ga

dl-

√g̱éi

proud

for S to be proud (esp. of oneself), conceited; for S to be particular, picky, snooty




a-(na)-S-dl-√ḵáa ³

alḵáa

act

na

dl-

√ḵáa

gamble

for S to gamble (by means of gambling sticks, dice, etc.); for S to play cards




(∅)-dl-√ḵéetʼ

yaa nalḵítʼ

event

dl-

√ḵéetʼ

infected

for a wound to be infected, have pus

wound



(na)-S-dl-√ḵoo

ilḵú

act

na

dl-

√ḵoo

vomit

 for S to vomit, throw up




a-(∅)-dl-√kʼwaatʼ

awdlikʼwátʼ

event

dl-

√kʼwaatʼ

lay

for birds to lay eggs, nest

birds



sh + ka-(na)-S-dl-√neek

sh kalneek

act

na

dl-

√neek

preach

for S to preach, narrate, tell a story




a-(∅)-S-dl-√seen

awdlisín

event

dl-

√seen

hide

for S to hide oneself, remain out of sight




O-ka-(∅)-dl-√shóokʼ

kawdlishúkʼ

event

dl-

√shóokʼ

cramps

or O to have cramps; for O to get shocked (by electricity)




N daa-x̱ kei + (∅)-S-dl-√tlʼeitʼ

a daax kei naltlʼétʼ

motion

dl-

√tlʼeitʼ

climb

for S to climb up along N (tree, rope, etc.) by holding on tightly




N yáx̱ + (ga)-S-dl-√tlʼéitʼ

a yáý kei naltlʼétʼ

motion

ga

dl-

√tlʼéitʼ

climb

for S to climb up along the face of N (mountain, cliff, fence, etc.)




sh tóo + at-(∅)-S-dl-√tóow

sh tóo at iltóow

act

dl-

√tóow

study

for S to study, teach oneself




sh tóo + O-(∅)-S-dl-√tóow

sh tóo altóow

act

dl-

√tóow

study

for S to study, learn O; for S to practice, rehearse O




(∅)-dl-√tʼéexʼ

yaa naltʼíxʼ

event

dl-

√tʼéexʼ

hard

for something to harden, solidify; for something to freeze




ka-(?)-dl-√x̱átʼ

kadlix̱ʼátʼ

state

?

dl-

√x̱átʼ

unripe

for berries to be unripe, green and hard

berries


imperfective only

N x̱ʼéi-t~ + a-ka-u-(ga)-S-dl-√x̱éitlʼ

du x̱ʼéit akwdlix̱éitlʼ

state

ga

dl-

√x̱éitlʼ

afraid

for S to be afraid of, fear the words of N




P-xʼ + a-ka-u-(ga)-S-dl-√x̱éitlʼ

áa akwdlix̱éitlʼ

state

ga

dl-

√x̱éitlʼ

afraid

for S to be afraid of, fear P




 + sha-(na)-S-dl-√x̱óotʼ ¹

shalx̱óotʼ

act

na

dl-

√x̱óotʼ

fish

for S to fish with rod, sportfish

fish



a-shka-u-(na)-S-dl-√yát

ash koolyát

act

na

dl-

√yát

play

for S to play (esp. active games, with body)

body



(ga)-dl-√yátʼxʼ

dliyátʼxʼ

state

ga

dl-

√yátʼxʼ

long

for (plural, general) objects to be long

general objects

p


P-náḵ + ka-(na)-dl-√yeech

anáḵ yaa kanalyích

motion

na

dl-

√yeech

fly

for creatures (that flap wings visibly) to fly away from P

birds



P-t + ka-(na)-dl-√yeech

át kawdliyeech

motion

na

dl-

√yeech

fly

for creatures (that flap wings visibly) to fly around at P

birds



P-t~ + ka-(∅)-dl-√yeech

aadé yaa kanalyích

motion

dl-

√yeech

fly

for creatures (that flap wings visibly) to fly to P

birds



sh + ḵʼa(∅)-S-dl-√yeil

sh ḵʼawdliyél

event

dl-

√yeil

lie

for S to lie, decieve