∅- ⁓ a- (object pronoun) her; him | object pronoun | third person object (3.O) in a verb phrase, the object is impacted by the verb, and is not the subject the standard in Tlingit is to write all single letter object pronouns as part of the verb prefix and all pronouns more than one letter as part of the preverb, except for « ḵu- » open object pronouns (ending in a vowel) will cause contraction in the verb prefix the default form is « ∅- » but will change to « a- » if the subject is also third person [∅-] and there is no ergative marker in the verb phrase other object pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

x̱at | me [object] →  first person singular object (1s.O)

haa | us [object] →  first person plural object (1p.O)

i- | you [object] →  second person singular object (2s.O)

yee | you all [object] →  second person plural object (2p.O)

∅- ⁓ a- | her/him →  third person object (3.O)

has + ∅- ⁓ a- | them (p) [object] →  third person pluralizer (3pl)

ash | this person [object] →  third person proximal object (3prx.O)

ḵaa ⁓ ḵu- | someone [object] →  fourth person human object (4h.O)

at | something [object] →  fourth person nonhuman object (4n.O)

aa- | one, some [object] →  partitive object (part.O)

sh ⁓ ∅- | -self →  reflexive object (rflx.O)

woosh, wooch | each other, together [object] →  reciprocal object (recip.O)

∅- ¹ (classifier) | ∅ group classifier; (–d,∅,–i) | Tlingit classifiers combine with verb roots and optional thematic prefixes to form a verb the verb root contains meaning, and the classifier communicates what the verb does classifiers change group and become a different verb when the activity the verb describes changes, and examples would be « ayatéen (∅, "seeing") and « altín » (l, "watching") which have the same root but a different classifier a Tlingit classifier is –i for incomplete activity and +i for complete activity a Tlingit classifier is –d by default and +d for middle voice (subject is also object, which includes reflexive and reciprocal forms), antipassives that remove the embedded object pronoun, and fourth person human (« 4H ») subjects for l, s, & sh classifiers it helps to think of default form as –d & –i, and the classifier changes from there to move into certain modes ∅ group is the default group, and then s group, and then l group, and then the rare sh group

–i verb modes

act imperfective (+) | they-(s) is doing it; they-(s) does it

imperfective (–) | they-(s) is not doing it; they-(s) does not do it

progressive imperfective (+) | they-(s) is in the process of doing it

perfective (–) | they-(s) didnʼt do it

imperative | do it!

perfective habitual (+) | they-(s) does it (every time)

perfective habitual (–) | they-(s) hasnʼt done it yet

future (+) | they-(s) will do it; it will happen

future (–) | they-(s) wonʼt do it; they-(s) is not going to do it; it wonʼt happen

hortative | let her/him do it; let us do it

repetitive imperfective | they-(s) does it (regularly)

potential decessive | they-(s) would have done it

conditional | if/when they-(s) does it

+i verb modes

state imperfective (+) | they-(s) is doing it; they-(s) does it

perfective (+) | they-(s) did it

potential (+) | they-(s) might do it

potential (–) | they-(s) might not do it

potential attributive | no way they-(s) can do it

∅ group

∅- | (–d,∅,–i)

ÿa- | (–d,∅,+i)

da- | (+d,∅,–i)

di- | (+d,∅,+i)

s group

sa- | (–d,∅,–i)

si- | (–d,∅,+i)

s- | (+d,∅,–i)

dzi- | (+d,∅,+i)

l group

la- | (–d,∅,–i)

li- | (–d,∅,+i)

l- | (+d,∅,–i)

dli- | (+d,∅,+i)

sh group

sha- | (–d,∅,–i)

shi- | (–d,∅,+i)

sh- | (+d,∅,–i)

ji- | (+d,∅,+i)

∅- ² (subject pronoun) she; he | third person subject (3.S) in a verb phrase, the subject is the agent in the verb other subject pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

x̱a- | i [subject] →  first person singular subject (1s.S)

tu- | we [subject] →  first person plural subject (1p.S)

i- | you [subject] →  second person singular subject (2s.S)

yi- | you all [subject] →  second person plural subject (2p.S)

∅- | they-(s) [subject] →  third person subject (3.S)

has + ∅- | they (p) [subject] →  third person pluralizer (3pl)

du- | someone [subject] →  fourth person human subject (4h.S)

woosh, wooch | each other, together [subject] →  reciprocal subject (recip.S)

∅ conjugation motion preverbs | these preverbs create motion verbs using the ∅ conjugation prefix

motion towards a terminus

N-{t,x̱,de} | arriving at N; coming to N

neil(t) ⁓ neilx̱ ⁓ neildé | moving inside; coming home

N-xʼ + neil(t) | moving inside house at N

haat ⁓ haax̱ ⁓ haa(n)dé | coming to our vicinity

yóo-{t,x̱,de} | going away; going off somewhere

kux ⁓ kuxx̱ ⁓ kúxde | moving aground; into shallow water

ÿan ⁓ ÿax̱ ⁓ ÿánde | moving ashore; to rest; completing

N-xʼ + ÿan | coming to rest at N

N-náx̱ + ÿan | moving across N; to the other side of N

ÿan + kʼi- | setting up; erecting

ÿan + sha- | setting up; leaning against

motion toward area

kei | moving up

ux̱ + kei | moving out of control, blindly, amiss

N-x̱ʼé-xʼ + kei | catching up with N

yei | disembark, exit boat or other vehicle

yeiḵ ⁓ yeeḵ | moving down to shore

héeni + yeiḵ | moving down into water

daaḵ | moving up from shore; back from open

dáag̱i + daaḵ | moving farther up from shore

ḵwáaḵx̱ + daaḵ | moving by mistake, wrongly

daak | seaward; out into open; falling from sky

ḵux̱ ⁓ ḵúx̱de [+d] | reverting; returning

N-xʼ ḵux̱ [+d] | reverting to N; returning to N

motion confined to a location

N-xʼ | coming near N

N-ÿa | coming up to N

N + gunaÿa- | separating from N

N + jishá- | getting ahead of N

gági | emerging; coming out into open

dáagi | coming out of water

héeni | going into water

g̱unayéi ⁓ g̱unéi | beginning

N-x̱ | moving in place at N; while stuck at N

N-xʼ + ÿax̱ | turning over by N

áa + ÿax̱ | turning over

shú + ÿax̱ | turning over end by end

ÿetx̱ | starting, taking off, picking up

oscillating motion

yoo | moving back and forth; to and fro

ÿan + yoo | moving up and down (from surface)

hanging

N-x̱ sha-ÿa-oo | hanging up at N

ÿax̱ + sha-ÿa-oo | hanging up

revertive motion

a-ÿa-oo [+d] | reverting, turning back

kei + a-ÿa-oo [+d] | escape, flee, run away

oblique unbounded motion

N-x̱ + ÿa-oo ⁓ ÿaa | moving obliquely, circuitously along N

N + daa-x̱ | circling around N

N-dé + ÿa-oo ⁓ ÿaa | moving obliquely, circuitously toward N

hé-dé | moving over that way, aside, out of the way

N-dáx̱ + ÿa-oo ⁓ ÿaa | moving obliquely, circuitously away from N

N + jikaa-dáx̱ | getting out of Nʼs way

N-náx̱ + ÿa-oo ⁓ ÿaa | moving obliquely, circuitously along, through N

N-xʼ + ÿa-oo ⁓ ÿaa | moving obliquely, circuitously at N

N + daséi-xʼ | exchanging places with N

woosh + kaanáx̱ [+d] | gathering together, assembling

?

a- (subject pronoun) someone | fourth person human subject (4h.S) in a verb phrase, the subject is the agent in the verb used to indicate an unspecified person is the pronoun, and best translated as “someone” as a subject in verbs, it translates to “the verb occurs,” as in « yoo duwasáakw » (it is called), « hít wududliyéx̱ » (a house was built), and « adulʼeix̱ ax̱áa » (dance paddle) will make all ∅ classifiers –d and all non-∅ classifiers (s,l,sh) +d regardless of verb theme or mode will appear as « a- » in the object position for motion verbs other subject pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

x̱a- | i [subject] →  first person singular subject (1s.S)

tu- | we [subject] →  first person plural subject (1p.S)

i- | you [subject] →  second person singular subject (2s.S)

yi- | you all [subject] →  second person plural subject (2p.S)

∅- | they-(s) [subject] →  third person subject (3.S)

has + ∅- | they (p) [subject] →  third person pluralizer (3pl)

du- | someone [subject] →  fourth person human subject (4h.S)

woosh, wooch | each other, together [subject] →  reciprocal subject (recip.S)

a- ⁓ ∅- (object pronoun) her/him [object]; her/him [object] | third person object (3.O) in a verb phrase, the object is impacted by the verb, and is not the subject the standard in Tlingit is to write all single letter object pronouns as part of the verb prefix and all pronouns more than one letter as part of the preverb, except for « ḵu- » open object pronouns (ending in a vowel) will cause contraction in the verb prefix the default form is « ∅- » but will change to « a- » if the subject is also third person [∅-] and there is no ergative marker in the verb phrase other object pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

x̱at | me [object] →  first person singular object (1s.O)

haa | us [object] →  first person plural object (1p.O)

i- | you [object] →  second person singular object (2s.O)

yee | you all [object] →  second person plural object (2p.O)

∅- ⁓ a- | her/him →  third person object (3.O)

has + ∅- ⁓ a- | them (p) [object] →  third person pluralizer (3pl)

ash | this person [object] →  third person proximal object (3prx.O)

ḵaa ⁓ ḵu- | someone [object] →  fourth person human object (4h.O)

at | something [object] →  fourth person nonhuman object (4n.O)

aa- | one, some [object] →  partitive object (part.O)

sh ⁓ ∅- | -self →  reflexive object (rflx.O)

woosh, wooch | each other, together [object] →  reciprocal object (recip.O)

a ¹ (possessive pronoun) its | third person nonhuman possessive (3N.P) used to show a relationship between things, including ownership (« haa aaní » – “our land”), kinship term origination (« du éesh » – “their father”), the link to a relational base (« ax̱ x̱áni » – “next to me”), and conjugation of certain verbs (« du toowú sigóo » – “s/he is happy”) other possessive pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

ax̱ | my →  first person singular possessive (1s.P)

haa | our →  first person plural possessive (1p.P)

i | your →  second person singular possessive (2s.P)

yee | you allʼs →  second person plural possessive (2p.P)

du | their →  third person human singular possessive (3Hs.P)

has du ⁓ s du | their (p) →  third person plural possessive (3p.P)

a | its →  third person nonhuman possessive (3N.P)

ash | this galʼs/guyʼs →  third person proximal possessive (3prx.P)

a | that other galʼs/guyʼs →  third person obviate possessive (3obv.P)

ḵaa | someoneʼs →  fourth person human possessive (4h.P)

at | somethingʼs →  fourth person nonhuman possessive (4n.P)

aa | oneʼs, someʼs →  partitive possessive (part.P)

chush ⁓ sh- | -selfʼs →  reflexive possessive (rflx.P)

woosh, wooch | each otherʼs →  reciprocal possessive (recip.P)

a ² (possessive pronoun) her; his | their (a secondary character of a narrative or event) | third person obviate possessive (3obv.P) used to show a relationship between things, including ownership (« haa aaní » – “our land”), kinship term origination (« du éesh » – “their father”), the link to a relational base (« ax̱ x̱áni » – “next to me”), and conjugation of certain verbs (« du toowú sigóo » – “s/he is happy”) other possessive pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

ax̱ | my →  first person singular possessive (1s.P)

haa | our →  first person plural possessive (1p.P)

i | your →  second person singular possessive (2s.P)

yee | you allʼs →  second person plural possessive (2p.P)

du | their →  third person human singular possessive (3Hs.P)

has du ⁓ s du | their (p) →  third person plural possessive (3p.P)

a | its →  third person nonhuman possessive (3N.P)

ash | this galʼs/guyʼs →  third person proximal possessive (3prx.P)

a | that other galʼs/guyʼs →  third person obviate possessive (3obv.P)

ḵaa | someoneʼs →  fourth person human possessive (4h.P)

at | somethingʼs →  fourth person nonhuman possessive (4n.P)

aa | oneʼs, someʼs →  partitive possessive (part.P)

chush ⁓ sh- | -selfʼs →  reflexive possessive (rflx.P)

woosh, wooch | each otherʼs →  reciprocal possessive (recip.P)

a dákx̱u (compound noun) food | steamed food | a + √dákw-x̱-u →  its-(3n.p) + √cooked-in-pit.repetitive.relational (JL)

a daax̱ yaa dulsheech át (compound noun) banister; railing | "thing people go along touching around it" | a + daa-x̱ + yaa + du-l-√shee-ch + át →  its-(4n.P) + around/about.along/repeatedly + along + someone-(4h.S).cl-(–d,l,–i).√touch.repetitive + thing-(4n.i) (KE)

a déinde aa (compound noun) close ²; rest ²; vicinity | the one(s) in the vicinity of it; the rest of it/them (p) | a + déin-de + aa →  its-(3N.P) + vicinity.towards + one(s)-(part.i) (KE)

a déinnáx̱ (preverb) right ² | the right way | a déinnáx̱ yéi nasní! →  do it the right way! (JL)

a géit yaa nasgít (verbal noun) shenanigans | "violating it (law or custom)" | a + géi-t + yaa + na-s-√gít →  its-(3n.P) + against/opposing.at-(arrived) + along + (progressive).cl-(+d,s,–i).√acts-so (SE)

a ít aa (compound noun) • variants: e ítde aa (C) • after | the following one; the next one | a + ít + aa →  its-(4n.P) + following + one(s)-(part.i) (KE)

a ee- ⁓ a- (postpositional pronoun) her; him; to | to her/him (a non-main character of a narrative or event) | third person obviate postpositional (3obv.PP) used in certain verbs where something is going towards the object (literally or figuratively) a special type of pronoun that combines three things: possessive pronoun, empty base, and relational suffix other possessive pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

ax̱ ee- ⁓ x̱aan ⁓ x̱áat | (to) me →  first person singular postpositional (1s.PP)

haa ee- ⁓ haan | (to) us →  first person plural postpositional (1p.PP)

i ee- | (to) you →  second person singular postpositional (2s.PP)

yee ee- | (to) you all →  second person plural postpositional (2p.PP)

du ee- ⁓ u- | (to) her/him →  third person human singular postpositional (3s.PP)

has du ee- ⁓ s du ee- | (to) them (p) →  third person plural postpositional (3p.PP)

a ee- ⁓ aan | (to) it →  third person nonhuman postpositional (3p.PP)

ash ee- | (to) this person →  third person proximal postpositional (3prx.PP)

a ee- ⁓ a- | (to) that other person →  third person obviate postpositional (3obv.PP)

ḵaa ee- ⁓ ḵu ee- ⁓ ḵoon | (to) someone →  fourth person human postpositional (4h.PP)

at ee- | (to) something →  fourth person nonhuman postpositional (4n.PP)

aa ee- | (to) one, some →  partitive postpositional (part.PP)

chush | (to) -selfʼs →  reflexive postpositional (rflx.PP)

woosh, wooch | (to) each other →  reciprocal postpositional (recip.PP)

a ee- ⁓ aan (postpositional pronoun) it | (to) it | third person nonhuman postpositional (3p.PP) used in certain verbs where something is going towards the object (literally or figuratively) a special type of pronoun that combines three things: possessive pronoun, empty base, and relational suffix other possessive pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

ax̱ ee- ⁓ x̱aan ⁓ x̱áat | (to) me →  first person singular postpositional (1s.PP)

haa ee- ⁓ haan | (to) us →  first person plural postpositional (1p.PP)

i ee- | (to) you →  second person singular postpositional (2s.PP)

yee ee- | (to) you all →  second person plural postpositional (2p.PP)

du ee- ⁓ u- | (to) her/him →  third person human singular postpositional (3s.PP)

has du ee- ⁓ s du ee- | (to) them (p) →  third person plural postpositional (3p.PP)

a ee- ⁓ aan | (to) it →  third person nonhuman postpositional (3p.PP)

ash ee- | (to) this person →  third person proximal postpositional (3prx.PP)

a ee- ⁓ a- | (to) that other person →  third person obviate postpositional (3obv.PP)

ḵaa ee- ⁓ ḵu ee- ⁓ ḵoon | (to) someone →  fourth person human postpositional (4h.PP)

at ee- | (to) something →  fourth person nonhuman postpositional (4n.PP)

aa ee- | (to) one, some →  partitive postpositional (part.PP)

chush | (to) -selfʼs →  reflexive postpositional (rflx.PP)

woosh, wooch | (to) each other →  reciprocal postpositional (recip.PP)

a eetí aa (phrase) next; following | the next one(s); the following one(s) | a eetí aa ḵutaan →  the following summer; next summer (GD) a eetí aa haat ḵutootéeni →  the next time we visit (NR) a + eet-í + aa →  its-(3n.p) + remains + one(s)-(part.i)

a jáḵwti (verbal noun) thing; beat up | beat up old thing | a + √jáḵw-t-i →  its-(3n.p) + √beat-up.repetitive.relational (JL)

a káa ḵududziteeyi yoo x̱ʼatánk (compound noun) law; ordinance | words one lives by | a + ká + ḵu-du-dzi-√tee-yi + yoo + x̱ʼa-∅-√tán-k →  its-(3n.P) + on + areal.someone- (4h.S).cl-(+d,s,+i).√be.relational + along + mouth.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√communicate.repetitive (KE)

a kachóox (compound noun) dough; clay | dough shaped with hands; clay shaped with hands; something shaped by hands and clay-like or dough-like; "its thing shaped by hand" | a + ka-∅-√chóox →  its-(3n.p) + hsf.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√rub/massage (JL)

a kagaadí (compound noun) • variants: hít kagaadí • rafter | a + ka-∅-√gaat-í →  its-(3n.p) + hsf.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√rafter.relational (JL)

a kagúḵxʼu (noun) • variants: góoḵ • egg | dried salmon eggs | usually dried in stomach or gunnysack strung in tree | a + ka-∅-√gúḵ-xʼ-u →  its-(3n.p) + hsf.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√dry-salmon-eggs.repetitive.relational (JL)

a kaxóowu (compound noun) rock ¹; stone | big rock used as a weight | a + ka-∅-√xóow-u →  its-(3n.p) + hsf.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√weigh-down-with-rocks.relational (JL)

a kát dul.usʼku át (compound noun) • variants: a káa dul.usʼku át • washboard | "thing on which people wash" | ká-t + du-l-√.usʼ-k-u + át →  on.at-(arriving) + someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,l,–i).√wash.repetitive.relational + thing-(4n.i) (KE)

a kát sh is.éex̱ át (compound noun) crockpot; cooker | slow cooker | a + ká-t + sh + i-s-√.ée-x̱ + át →  its-(4n.p) + on.at-(arrived) + self-(rflx.O) + [peg vowel].cl-(+d,s,–i).√cook.repetitive + thing-(4n.i) (JL)

a kát sh kadultsex̱t át (compound noun) bicycle | "thing a person kicks themselves around on" | a + ká-t + sh + ka-du-l-√tsex̱-t + át →  its-(3n.P) + on.at-(arrived) + [reflexive] + hsf.someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,l,–i).√kick.repetitive + thing-(4n.i) (KE)

a kát yadu.usʼgu át (compound noun) • variants: a kát yat.usʼkw át, a kát yadu.usʼgu sʼíxʼ • wash ²; basin | wash basin (for face); "thing on which the face is washed" | a + ká-t + ya-du-∅-√.usʼ-k-u + át →  its-(3n.p) + on.at-(arrived) vsf.someone-(4h.S).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√wash.repetitive.relational + thing-(4n.i) (JL)

a káxʼ yóok duwahéigi át (compound noun) stirrer; stirring stick | a + ká-xʼ + yóo-k + du-ÿa-√háa-k-i + át →  its-(3n.P) + on.at-(residing) + along.repetitive + someone-(4h.S).cl-(–d,∅,+i).√move-(small parts).repetitive.relational + thing-(4n.i) (EM)

a káx̱ ash kudushx̱ʼílʼaa át (compound noun) slide ³ | slide (for playing) | (JM) a + ka-x̱ + a-sh + ka-u-sh-√x̱ʼílʼ-aa + át →  somethingʼs-(4n.P) + on.at-(repeatedly) + it-[inst] + comparitive.irrealis.cl-(+d,sh,–i).√slip.one(s)-(part.i) + thing-(4n.i)

a káa dulséix̱ yagee (compound noun) • variants: a káa dulséix̱ yakyee • Sunday; day | "a day of rest" | a + káa + du-l-√sáa-x̱ + yagee →  its-(3n.p) + on + someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,l,–i)-√rest.repetitive + day (JL)

a káa dul.usʼku át (compound noun) washboard | "thing on which things are washed" | a + ká + du-l-√.usʼ-k-u + át →  its-(3n.P) + on + someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,l,–i).√wash.repetitive.relational + thing-(4n.i) (KE) • variants: kát dul.usʼku át •

a káa kadusné át (compound noun) loom | a + káa + ka-du-s-√né + át →  its-(4n.P) + on + hsf.someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,s,–i).√weave-(yarns) + something-(4n.i)

a káa kadushxeedí dáanaa (compound noun) money; check | check (from a bank account)

a kinaa kashxeedí (compound noun) character; marking | high tone marker in writing | a + keenaa + ka-sh-√xeet-í →  its-(3h.P) + above + hsf.cl-(–d,sh,–i).√furrow.relational (FS)

a náax̱ adux̱aa át (compound noun) oarlock | "thing through which a person oars" | originally two sturdy pegs or sticks inserted into sides of boat | a + náax̱ + a-du-∅-√x̱aa + át →  its-(3n.p) + ? + a-theme.someone-(4h.S).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√paddle + thing-(4n.i) (JL)

a siyeiḵ (compound noun) • variants: a sayeiḵ (T), a siyeix̱ • day; next | the next day | usually with a « -xʼ » relational suffix | (JL)

a tayee dusyeig̱í kashxeedí (compound noun) character; marking | underline of a character in writing | a + tayee + du-s-√yeiḵ-í + ka-sh-√xeet-í →  its-(3h.P) + underneath + someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,s,–i).√mark-line.relational + hsf.cl-(–d,sh,–i).√furrow.relational (FS)

a tayeex̱ nasyéḵ (compound noun) • variants: a tayeex̱ nasyíḵ • underline | "marking underneath it" | a + tayee-x̱ + na-s-√yéḵ →  its-(4n.p) + underneath-repeatedly/along + na-md.cl-(–d,s,–i).√mark (FS)

a tuḵ akoogaanjí (compound noun) firefly | "its butt is always lit" | a + tuḵ + a-ka-ÿu-∅-ÿa-√gaan-ch-í →  its-(4n.P) + butt/bottom + them-(s)/it-(3.O).hsf.[perfective].they-(s)-(3.S).cl-(–d,∅,+i).√burn/light.[repeatedly].relational

a tóo at dultʼixʼx̱i át (compound noun) • variants: a tóo at iltʼixʼx̱ át • freezer | "thing that freezes something inside of it" | a + tóo + at + du-l-√tʼixʼ-x̱-i + át →  its-(4n.P) + inside + something-(4n.O) + someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,l,–i).√freeze/harden.repetitive.relational + thing-(4n.i) (JL)

a tóo at is.atʼx̱i át (compound noun) refrigerator | "thing in which things are chilled" | a + tóo + at + i-s√.atʼ-x̱-i + át →  its-(3n.p) + inside + something-(4n.O) + peg-vowel.cl-(+d,s,–i).√cold.[repeatedly].relational + thing-(4n.i) (JL)

a tóo sh isxuk át (compound noun) dryer | "thing in which things dry themselves" | a + tóo + sh + i-s-√xuk + át →  its-(3n.p) + inside + self-(rflx.O) + peg-vowel.cl-(+d,s,–i).√dry + thing-(4n.i) (JL)

a tóo yoo kawdzigít (compound noun) experience | something a person has been through; "they-(s) fell through it" | a + tóo + yoo + ka-ÿu-dzi-√gít →  its-(3n.p) + inside + too/fro + hsf.pfv.cl-(+d,s,+i).√fall/occur (GD, MD)

a tóonáx̱ héen naadaayi át (compound noun) pipe | pipe for carrying water; "thing through which water flows" | a + tóo-náx̱ + héen + na-∅-√daa-yi + át →  its-(3n.p) + inside.through/via + water + na-md.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√flow/run.relational + thing-(4n.i) (JL)

a tóonáx̱ kadusʼíḵsʼ át (compound noun) straw | "thing that somone draws through it by sucking" | a + tóo-náx̱ + ka-du-∅-√sʼíḵ-sʼ + át →  its-(4n.P) + inside.through + hsf.someone-(4h.S).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√draw-out-(by suction).repetitive + thing-(4n.i) (KE) • variants: kaxéesʼ •

a tóonáx̱ yoo x̱ʼadul.átgi át (compound noun) phone; telephone | "thing through which someone talks" | a + tú-náx̱ + yoo + x̱ʼa-du-l-√.át-k-i + át →  its(3n.P) + inside.through + along + mouth.someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,l,–i).√communicate.repetitive.relational + thing-(4n.i) (RD)

a wanáade aa (compound noun) excess; left ²; more; surplus | amount in excess of it or left over from it; surplus more than it

a x̱oo aa (compound noun) some | some of them (p) | a + x̱oo + aa →  its-(4n.P) + among + one(s)-(part.i) (JL)

a x̱ʼéix̱ yei sheich katíx̱ʼaa (compound noun) padlock | "key that joins it at the mouth" | a + x̱ʼéi-x̱ + yei + sheich + katíx̱ʼaa →  its-(3n.p) + mouth.at-(repeatedly) + downward + ? + key (JL)

a yáx̱ (particle) like: itʼs like that | often appears with « áwé » as in « a yáx̱ áwé! » (thatʼs what itʼs like!)

ach kooshx̱ʼílʼaa yeit (compound noun) • variants: ach koolx̱ʼílʼaa yeit • sled | sled (for recreational sledding); "the one(s) beneath to slide with” | áa-ch + ka-ÿu-sh-√x̱ʼílʼ-aa + yee-át →  something-(4n.i).erg-(inst) + hsf.[perfective].cl-(+d,sh,–i).√slip/slide.the-one(s)-(part.i) + beneath.thing-(4n.i) (KE, JL)

adawóotl (verbal noun) trouble; rush; hurry | conflict, war; trouble (between opposing factions); “s/he troubled/warred” | a-∅-da-√wóotl →  them-(s)/it-(3.O).they-(s)-(3.S).cl-(+d,∅,–i).√agitated/trouble/war || conflict; war | (JL)

adawóotl yuwaa.át (compound noun) armor; breast | body armor; breastplate; "war abdoment thing" | a-∅-da-√wóotl + yuwaa-át →  them-(s)/it-(3.O).they-(s)-(3.S).cl-(+d,∅,–i).√agitated/trouble/war + abdoment.thing-(4n.i) (JL)

adátxʼi (compound noun) • variants: atyátxʼi, atyétxʼi (T), adétxʼi (T), edétxʼi (C) • child | children; “somethingʼs children” | this could be translated as "somethingʼs children" but always refers to human children | (KE) at + yát-xʼ-i →  [somethingʼs-(4n.P) + child.pos]

adátxʼi áa dultini yé (compound noun) daycare; preschool | "place where children are watched / cared for" | at-yát-xʼ-i + áa + du-l-√tin-i + yé →  somethingʼs-(4n.p).child.[plural].relational + place + someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,l,–i).√see.relational + place (NJ, WA)

adátxʼi daat yawustaag̱i ḵáa (compound noun) guardian at liedem | "protects & serves the children" | adátxʼi + daat + ya-ÿu-s-√taaḵ-i + ḵáa →  children + about + vsf.pfv.cl-(+d,s,–i)√care-for.relational + person-(4h.i) (GD, MD)

adéli (verbal noun) • variants: at káx̱ adéli • guard ²; watchman | (JL) a-∅-∅-√dél-i →  it-(4n.O).they-(s)-(3.S).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√protect.relational

adeendaa (borrowed noun) beaver | half-grown beaver | from an Athabascan language young beaver old enough to leave home, or smaller beaver | (JL)

adulʼeix̱ ax̱áa (compound noun) paddle ²; dance ²; regalia | dance paddle | a-du-∅-√lʼeix̱ + a-∅-√x̱áa →  a-theme.someone-(4h.S).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√dance + a-theme.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√paddle

ag̱anáa (interjection) oh no! | often used to express grief or regret; sometimes used for pretend grief | (KE)

akahéix̱i (verbal noun) • variants: táay kahéix̱i • farmer | "digger of it" | a-ka-∅-√háa-x̱-i →  it/her/him-(3.O).hsf.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√move-small-parts.repetitive.relational (JL)

akoolx̱éitlʼ (verbal noun) • variants: akoolx̱éetlʼ • fear | a-ka-ÿu-l-√x̱éitlʼ →  a-theme.hsf.pfv.cl-(+d,l,–i).√afraid (JL)

akoo.éikw (verbal noun) whistle ² | the act or sound of whistling | a-ka-u-∅√.éikw →  a-theme.comparative.irr.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√whistle (JL)

aldaawáa (noun) checkers; games played using string in the hands | (KE)

aldís (verbal noun) light; moon | moonlight | for some speakers in Carcross this can also mean "the moon" | a-l-√dís →  a-theme.cl-(+d,l,–i).√moon aldís káaxʼ →  by moonlight (JL)

algáaxʼw (verbal noun) • variants: gáaxʼw • riddle | (JL)

alg̱áḵ (verbal noun) gambling | gambling with gambling sticks that are tossed (g̱ag̱áḵ) | a-l-√g̱áḵ →  a-theme.cl-(+d,l,–i).√gamble-(with gambling sticks) (JL)

alḵáa (verbal noun) • variants: at ilḵáa • stick game; gambling; bingo; game of chance | gambling | a-l-ḵáa →  a-theme.cl-(+d,l,–i).√gamble (KE)

alḵáa xʼúxʼ (compound noun) cards | playing cards | a-l-√ḵáa + xʼúxʼ →  a-theme.cl-(+d,l,–i).√gamble + paper/membrane

altsʼíxaa (verbal noun) • variants: altsʼíxwaa, tsʼíxaa • sneeze | a-l-√tsʼíxaa →  a-theme.cl-(+d,l,–i).√sneeze (JL)

alʼeix̱ (verbal noun) dance ² | a-∅-√lʼeix̱ →  a-theme.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√dance (KE)

alʼóon (verbal noun) hunt | a-∅-√lʼóon →  a-theme.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√hunt (KE)

alʼóoni (verbal noun) hunter | a-∅-√lʼóon-i →  a-theme.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√hunt.relational (KE)

anahoo (noun) rutabaga; turnip | (KE)

anax̱ (particle) through; along | through it; along it | áa-náx̱ →  it.through/along (KE) || (preverb) | for motion verbs, creates a na-conjugation motion verb (unbounded)

anax̱ daséigu yé (body part) blowhole | "place through which it breathes" | áa-náx̱ + da-√sáa-kw-u + yé →  there.through + cl-(+d,∅,–i).√breathe.repetitive.relational + place/way (FI)

Ana.óot (borrowed noun) • variants: Giyaḵw, Gutéix̱ʼ • Aleut | from Sugpiaq aluʼuut: people/community | (JC, KE)

Anáaski (borrowed noun) • variants: Anásgi • Alaska | from Unangan Alaxsxi-x: object to which the action of the sea is directed | Bergsland, Knut (ed.) (1994). Aleut Dictionary: Unangam Tunudgusii. Alaska Native Language Center (KE)

Anóoshi (borrowed noun) person; Russian | in early times of contact, white people were called « gusʼkʼiḵwáan » (people at the base of the clouds), and then often either « Anóoshi » (Russian) or « Waashdan Ḵwáan » (People of Boston) | (JL)

Anóoshi aaní (compound noun) Russia | "Russian land" | Anóoshi + aan-í →  Russian + land-(occupied).relational (KE)

Anóoshi héeni (compound noun) vodka | "Russian water" | Anóoshi + héen-i →  Russian + water/river.[possessive]

asg̱eiwú (verbal noun) fisher; seine | seine fisher | (JL) • variants: isg̱éiw sʼaatí, x̱áat isg̱éiwu • || boat ¹ | seine boat | a-s-√g̱eiwú →  a-theme.cl-(+d,s,–i).√web/seine (KE)

asḵuḵgu náakw (compound noun) • variants: isḵuḵgu náakw • medicine | cough medicine | the verb root for cough has been documented as √ḵooḵ and √kooḵ, and is presented here as √ḵooḵ | a-s-√ḵúḵ-kw-u + náakw →  a-theme.cl-(+d,s,–i).√cough.[repeatedly].relational + medicine (JL, NS) (JL)

astʼeix̱í (verbal noun) fisher (troller) | "fishes with a hook" | a-s-√tʼeix̱-í →  a-theme.cl-(+d,s,–i).√fish-(with hook).relational (KE)

asxʼaansháachʼi (compound noun) songbird | "green plant on the tip of the tree branch"; green songbird | perhaps warbler (Vermivora peregrina/celata) or western tanager (Piranga ludoviciana) | aas-xʼaan-sháachʼ-i →  tree.tip-(of branch).green-plant-that-grows-on-trees.relational (KE, JL)

asxʼeit (verbal noun) • variants: asxʼeet (At,T) • hunting | (JL)

ash ¹ (independent pronoun) her; him | her/him (the main character of a narrative or event) | third person proximal independent (3prx.i) independent pronouns are not linked to anything grammatically, and are most often used in phrases like « yáadu x̱át » (here i am) and « uháan áyá » (it is us) "proximate third person represents the topic of discourse, the person nearest the speaker’s point of view, or the person ealier spoken of and already known.” (Bloomfield 1962: 38) other independent pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

x̱át | me →  first person singular independent (1s.i)

uháan | us →  first person plural independent (1p.i)

wa.é | you →  second person singular independent (2s.i)

yeewháan | you all →  second person plural independent (2p.i)

hú | they-(s) →  third person human singular independent (3Hs.i)

hás | them (p) →  third person plural independent (3p.i)

á | it →  third person nonhuman independent (3N.i)

ash | this person →  third person proximal independent (3prx.i)

á | that other person →  third person obviate independent (3obv.i)

ḵáa | someone →  fourth person human independent (4h.i)

át | something →  fourth person nonhuman independent (4n.i)

aa | one, some →  partitive independent (part.i)

chúsh | -self →  reflexive independent (rflx.i)

wóosh, wóoch | each other, together →  reciprocal independent (recip.i)

ash ² (possessive pronoun) her; his | their (the main character of a narrative or event) | third person proximal possessive (3prx.P) used to show a relationship between things, including ownership (« haa aaní » – “our land”), kinship term origination (« du éesh » – “their father”), the link to a relational base (« ax̱ x̱áni » – “next to me”), and conjugation of certain verbs (« du toowú sigóo » – “s/he is happy”) "proximate third person represents the topic of discourse, the person nearest the speaker’s point of view, or the person ealier spoken of and already known.” (Bloomfield 1962: 38) other possessive pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

ax̱ | my →  first person singular possessive (1s.P)

haa | our →  first person plural possessive (1p.P)

i | your →  second person singular possessive (2s.P)

yee | you allʼs →  second person plural possessive (2p.P)

du | their →  third person human singular possessive (3Hs.P)

has du ⁓ s du | their (p) →  third person plural possessive (3p.P)

a | its →  third person nonhuman possessive (3N.P)

ash | this galʼs/guyʼs →  third person proximal possessive (3prx.P)

a | that other galʼs/guyʼs →  third person obviate possessive (3obv.P)

ḵaa | someoneʼs →  fourth person human possessive (4h.P)

at | somethingʼs →  fourth person nonhuman possessive (4n.P)

aa | oneʼs, someʼs →  partitive possessive (part.P)

chush ⁓ sh- | -selfʼs →  reflexive possessive (rflx.P)

woosh, wooch | each otherʼs →  reciprocal possessive (recip.P)

ash ³ (object pronoun) her; him | her/him (the main character of a narrative or event) | third person proximal object (3prx.O) in a verb phrase, the object is impacted by the verb, and is not the subject the standard in Tlingit is to write all single letter object pronouns as part of the verb prefix and all pronouns more than one letter as part of the preverb, except for « ḵu- » open object pronouns (ending in a vowel) will cause contraction in the verb prefix "proximate third person represents the topic of discourse, the person nearest the speaker’s point of view, or the person ealier spoken of and already known.” (Bloomfield 1962: 38) other object pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

x̱at | me [object] →  first person singular object (1s.O)

haa | us [object] →  first person plural object (1p.O)

i- | you [object] →  second person singular object (2s.O)

yee | you all [object] →  second person plural object (2p.O)

∅- ⁓ a- | her/him →  third person object (3.O)

has + ∅- ⁓ a- | them (p) [object] →  third person pluralizer (3pl)

ash | this person [object] →  third person proximal object (3prx.O)

ḵaa ⁓ ḵu- | someone [object] →  fourth person human object (4h.O)

at | something [object] →  fourth person nonhuman object (4n.O)

aa- | one, some [object] →  partitive object (part.O)

sh ⁓ ∅- | -self →  reflexive object (rflx.O)

woosh, wooch | each other, together [object] →  reciprocal object (recip.O)

ash ee- (postpositional pronoun) her; him; to | to her/him (the main character of a narrative or event) | third person proximal postpositional (3prx.PP) used in certain verbs where something is going towards the object (literally or figuratively) a special type of pronoun that combines three things: possessive pronoun, empty base, and relational suffix other possessive pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

ax̱ ee- ⁓ x̱aan ⁓ x̱áat | (to) me →  first person singular postpositional (1s.PP)

haa ee- ⁓ haan | (to) us →  first person plural postpositional (1p.PP)

i ee- | (to) you →  second person singular postpositional (2s.PP)

yee ee- | (to) you all →  second person plural postpositional (2p.PP)

du ee- ⁓ u- | (to) her/him →  third person human singular postpositional (3s.PP)

has du ee- ⁓ s du ee- | (to) them (p) →  third person plural postpositional (3p.PP)

a ee- ⁓ aan | (to) it →  third person nonhuman postpositional (3p.PP)

ash ee- | (to) this person →  third person proximal postpositional (3prx.PP)

a ee- ⁓ a- | (to) that other person →  third person obviate postpositional (3obv.PP)

ḵaa ee- ⁓ ḵu ee- ⁓ ḵoon | (to) someone →  fourth person human postpositional (4h.PP)

at ee- | (to) something →  fourth person nonhuman postpositional (4n.PP)

aa ee- | (to) one, some →  partitive postpositional (part.PP)

chush | (to) -selfʼs →  reflexive postpositional (rflx.PP)

woosh, wooch | (to) each other →  reciprocal postpositional (recip.PP)

ash kadulyát yé (compound noun) playground | "the place people play" | a-sh + ka-du-l-√yát + yé →  it-[inst] + hsf.someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,l,–i).√child + place/way (SE)

ash kudat’ájaa (compound noun) play ¹; swim | playing in the water (swimming); swimming (for fun) | a-sh + ka-u-da-√tʼách-aa →  it-[inst] + comparitive.irrealis.cl-(+d,∅,–i).√slap.one(s)-(part.i) (GD)

ash kushx̱ʼílʼaa (compound noun) play ¹; slide ³ | playing on slides; sliding | a-sh + ka-u-sh-√x̱ʼílʼ-aa →  it-[inst] + comparitive.irrealis.cl-(+d,sh,–i).√slip.one(s)-(part.i) (GD)

ash koolchʼéitʼaa (compound noun) play ¹; basketball | playing basketball | a-sh + ka-u-l-√chʼéitʼ-aa →  it-[inst] + comparitive.irrealis.cl-(+d,sh,–i).√ball.one(s)-(part.i) (SN)

ash koolg̱eig̱áchʼ (compound noun) play ¹; swing | play on swings | a-sh + ka-u-l-√g̱éiḵ-áchʼ →  it-[inst] + comparitive.irrealis.cl-(+d,l,–i).√swing.? (SN)

ash koolg̱íx̱ʼjaa (compound noun) play ¹; violin | playing violin (or other similar stringed instrument with a bow) | a-sh + ka-u-l-√g̱íx̱ʼ-ch-aa →  it-[inst] + comparitive.irrealis.cl-(+d,l,–i).√creak.habitual.one(s)-(part.i) (SN)

ash koolkítsʼaa (compound noun) play ¹; seesaw | play on seesaw | a-sh + ka-u-l-√kítsʼ-aa →  it-[inst] + comparitive.irrealis.cl-(+d,l,–i).√rock.one(s)-(part.i) (SN)

ash koolkʼéinaa (compound noun) play ¹; jump; twirl | play at jumping or twirling round | a-sh + ka-u-l-√kʼéin-aa →  it-[inst] + comparitive.irrealis.cl-(+d,l,–i).√jump.one(s)-(part.i) (SN)

ash koolḵʼíshaa (compound noun) play ¹; baseball | playing baseball | a-sh + ka-u-l-√ḵʼish-aa →  it-[inst] + comparitive.irrealis.cl-(+d,sh,–i).√bat.one(s)-(part.i) (SN, JL)

ash kooltág̱aa (compound noun) billiards; pool (billiards) | playing pool, billiards | a-sh + ka-u-du-l-√táḵ-aa →  it-[inst] + comparitive.irrealis.someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,l,–i).√poke.one(s)-(part.i) (JL)

ash kooltʼáaxʼaa (compound noun) play ¹; marbles | playing marbles | a-sh + ka-u-l-√tʼáaxʼ-aa →  it-[inst] + comparitive.irrealis.cl-(+d,l,–i).√flick.one(s)-(part.i) (SN)

ash koolyát (compound noun) play ¹ | playing (esp. active games) | a-sh + ka-u-l-√yát →  it-[inst] + comparitive.irrealis.cl-(+d,l,–i).√child (SN)

ash koolyát saa (compound noun) nickname; name ² | nickname; "play name" | a-sh + ka-u-l-√yát + saa →  it-[inst] + comparitive.irrealis.cl-(+d,l,–i).√child + name (EM)

ash koosḵúx̱aa (compound noun) play ¹; boat ² | playing boats (esp. toy boats) | a-sh + ka-u-s-√ḵúx̱-aa →  it-[inst] + comparitive.irrealis.cl-(+d,s,–i).√go-(by boat or car).one(s)-(part.i) (SN)

at ¹ (object pronoun) something | fourth person nonhuman object (4n.O) in a verb phrase, the object is impacted by the verb, and is not the subject the standard in Tlingit is to write all single letter object pronouns as part of the verb prefix and all pronouns more than one letter as part of the preverb, except for « ḵu- » open object pronouns (ending in a vowel) will cause contraction in the verb prefix used to indicate that an unspecified thing is the pronoun, and is best translated as "something" as an object can signal the unidentified as in « at x̱waa.áx̱ » (i hear something), or can create special meanings as an object verbs, such as: « adaná » (they-(s) is drinking it) and « at daná » (they-(s) is drinking alcohol) other object pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

x̱at | me [object] →  first person singular object (1s.O)

haa | us [object] →  first person plural object (1p.O)

i- | you [object] →  second person singular object (2s.O)

yee | you all [object] →  second person plural object (2p.O)

∅- ⁓ a- | her/him →  third person object (3.O)

has + ∅- ⁓ a- | them (p) [object] →  third person pluralizer (3pl)

ash | this person [object] →  third person proximal object (3prx.O)

ḵaa ⁓ ḵu- | someone [object] →  fourth person human object (4h.O)

at | something [object] →  fourth person nonhuman object (4n.O)

aa- | one, some [object] →  partitive object (part.O)

sh ⁓ ∅- | -self →  reflexive object (rflx.O)

woosh, wooch | each other, together [object] →  reciprocal object (recip.O)

at ² (possessive pronoun) somethingʼs | fourth person nonhuman possessive (4n.P) used to show a relationship between things, including ownership (« haa aaní » – “our land”), kinship term origination (« du éesh » – “their father”), the link to a relational base (« ax̱ x̱áni » – “next to me”), and conjugation of certain verbs (« du toowú sigóo » – “s/he is happy”) other possessive pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

ax̱ | my →  first person singular possessive (1s.P)

haa | our →  first person plural possessive (1p.P)

i | your →  second person singular possessive (2s.P)

yee | you allʼs →  second person plural possessive (2p.P)

du | their →  third person human singular possessive (3Hs.P)

has du ⁓ s du | their (p) →  third person plural possessive (3p.P)

a | its →  third person nonhuman possessive (3N.P)

ash | this galʼs/guyʼs →  third person proximal possessive (3prx.P)

a | that other galʼs/guyʼs →  third person obviate possessive (3obv.P)

ḵaa | someoneʼs →  fourth person human possessive (4h.P)

at | somethingʼs →  fourth person nonhuman possessive (4n.P)

aa | oneʼs, someʼs →  partitive possessive (part.P)

chush ⁓ sh- | -selfʼs →  reflexive possessive (rflx.P)

woosh, wooch | each otherʼs →  reciprocal possessive (recip.P)

at ashoowatán (verbal noun) mean ²; signify; denote; simile | mean something; signify something; denote something | (NR, NS) at + a-shu-ÿu-ÿa-√tán →  something-(4n.O) + a-theme.end.pfv.cl-(–d,∅,+i).√tán

at áatʼláni (compound noun) • variants: átʼláni • food; drink ²; seafood | cold food; cold drink; raw seafood | at + √áatʼ-láni →  something-(4n.O) + √cold.[??] (JL)

at chʼéx̱ʼdi (verbal noun) cursor | "points at something"; cursor (on computer) | at + ∅-√chʼéx̱ʼ-t-i →  something-(4n.O) + cl-(–d,∅,–i).√point (HC, FS)

at danáayi (verbal noun) drunk ¹; drunkard | "drinking something" | at + da-√náa-yi →  something-(4n.O) + cl-(+d,∅,–i).√drink.relational (KE)

at dáli (verbal noun) weight ²; pound ² | a certain measure of weight; pound (weight unit) | at + ∅-√dál-i →  something-(4n.O) + cl-(–d,∅,–i).√be-heavy.relational (JL)

at daakayéx̱aa lítaa (compound noun) • variants: et daakeyéx̱aa lítaa • knife | curved carving knife (for making different leveled planes); "the one that planes around it" | at + daa-ka-∅-√yéx̱-aa + √lít-aa →  something-(4n.O) + around.hsf.cl-(–d,∅,–i).make/plan.one(s)-(part.i) + √slide.one(s)-(part.i) (JL)

at daayí (compound noun) birch | "somethingʼs bark" | at + daayí →  somethingʼs-(4n.P) + bark (KE)

at daayí ḵákw (compound noun) basket; birch | birch bark basket; "somethingʼs bark basket" | at + daayí + ḵákw →  somethingʼs-(4n.P) + bark + basket (KE)

at daa.ideidí (compound noun) frame; shell | frame; its shell (as of a building); "thing of somethingʼs body" | at + daa.-it-át-í →  somethingʼs-(4n.p) + body/around.remnant.thing-(4n.i).relational (JL)

at dultʼéexʼ (verbal noun) cast | cast (to help set a broken bone) | at + du-l-√tʼéexʼ →  something-(4n.O) + someone-(4n.S).cl-(+d,l,–i).√frozen/hard (JL)

at duxáshgu (verbal noun) tongue | "cut from something"; tongues cut out for an íx̱tʼ | in order to gain spiritual power, an íx̱tʼ would fast regularly, and if it were meant to be an animal would present itself and then die in front of the fasting íx̱tʼ, who would then cut the tongue and keep it in a pouch, thus gaining spiritual power by having that animal as a « yeik » (spirit helper) | (JL)

at gutu.ádi (compound noun) animal | animal in the woods; animal that walks on land | at + gú-tú-át-i →  somethingʼs-(4n.P) + base.inside.thing-(4n.i).relational

at gutú (landform) woods; bush ¹; brush ¹; underbrush; wilderness; forest | "inside the base of something" | (KE) at + gú-tú →  somethingʼs-(4n.P) + base.inside • variants: at gatú (T), et getú (C) •

at ee- (postpositional pronoun) something | (to) something | fourth person nonhuman postpositional (4n.PP) used in certain verbs where something is going towards the object (literally or figuratively) a special type of pronoun that combines three things: possessive pronoun, empty base, and relational suffix other possessive pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

ax̱ ee- ⁓ x̱aan ⁓ x̱áat | (to) me →  first person singular postpositional (1s.PP)

haa ee- ⁓ haan | (to) us →  first person plural postpositional (1p.PP)

i ee- | (to) you →  second person singular postpositional (2s.PP)

yee ee- | (to) you all →  second person plural postpositional (2p.PP)

du ee- ⁓ u- | (to) her/him →  third person human singular postpositional (3s.PP)

has du ee- ⁓ s du ee- | (to) them (p) →  third person plural postpositional (3p.PP)

a ee- ⁓ aan | (to) it →  third person nonhuman postpositional (3p.PP)

ash ee- | (to) this person →  third person proximal postpositional (3prx.PP)

a ee- ⁓ a- | (to) that other person →  third person obviate postpositional (3obv.PP)

ḵaa ee- ⁓ ḵu ee- ⁓ ḵoon | (to) someone →  fourth person human postpositional (4h.PP)

at ee- | (to) something →  fourth person nonhuman postpositional (4n.PP)

aa ee- | (to) one, some →  partitive postpositional (part.PP)

chush | (to) -selfʼs →  reflexive postpositional (rflx.PP)

woosh, wooch | (to) each other →  reciprocal postpositional (recip.PP)

at éewu (verbal noun) food | cooked food | at + ∅-√.ée(w)-u →  something-(4n.O) + cl-(–d,∅,–i).√cook.relational (JL)

at kachʼáakʼu (verbal noun) carver | "carves something" | at + ka-∅-√chʼáakʼw-u →  something-(4n.O) + hsf.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√carve-design/incise.relational (KE)

at kahéeni (compound noun) juice | at + ka-héen-i →  somethingʼs-(4n.p) + on.water.(possessive) (KE)

at kasayé (verbal noun) strange | something strange | at + ka-sa-√yé →  something-(4n.O) + hsf.cl-(–d,s,–i).√strange (JL)

at katáxʼaa (verbal noun) pliers | "the one that something" | at + ka-√táxʼ-aa →  something-(4n.O) + hsf.√bite.one(s)-(part.i) (KE) • variants: kakatáxʼaa •

at katé (verbal noun) bullet | at + ka-∅-√té →  something-(4n.O) + hsf.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√rock (KE)

at kax̱útʼti (verbal noun) wood | wood chips (from adzing) | at + ka-∅-√x̱útʼ-t-i →  something-(4n.O) + hsf.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√chop/chip.repetitive.relational (JL)

at ka.áax̱u (verbal noun) wrapping | wrappings (for a present or something bundled and tied) | at + ka-∅-√.áax̱w-u →  something-(4n.O) + hsf.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√bundle/wrap.relational (JL)

at káx̱ adéli (verbal noun) • variants: adéli • guard ²; watchman | "protects something" | at + ká-x̱ + a-∅-√dél-i →  somethingʼs-(4n.P) + on.at-(repeatedly) + it/them-(s)-(3.O).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√protect.relational (KE)

at kaawaxúkw (verbal noun) dried | dried thing, esp. food; "something was dried" | at + ka-ÿu-ÿa-√xúkw →  something-(4n.O) + hsf.pfv.cl-(–d,∅,+i).√dry

at kaayí (verbal noun) wood | cord (of wood); "something measured" | literally, measure of something [i.e. firewood] | at + √kaay-í →  something-(4n.O) + √measure.relational tléixʼ et kaayí →  one cord (of wood) (JL)

at kuna.áaḵw (compound noun) | at kuna.áag̱u plan; directions; commandment; suggestion | at + ka-u-na-∅-√.áaḵw →  something-(4h.O) + hsf.irr.na-md.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√command (JL)

at kookeidí (compound noun) parable | "a thing that is measured against something" | at + ka-ÿu-∅-√kaay-át-i →  something-(4n.O) + compare.pfv.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√measure.something-(4n.i).relational (NR, JL, KE)

at kʼé (verbal noun) good | good thing | at + ∅-√kʼé →  something-(4n.O) + cl-(–d,∅,–i).√good (JL)

at layeix̱ sʼaatí (compound noun) carpenter | "master builder" | at + la-√yeix̱ + sʼaatí →  something-(4n.O) + cl-(–d,l,–i).√make/use + boss/master (KE)

at la.át (verbal noun) baggage; luggage; suitcase | things, stuff packed up for carrying | áa-t la.√.át ² →  there-around cl-(–d,l,–i).√carry-(personal belongings) at la.át ashayalihéin →  he has many pieces of baggage (SN) (KE)

at luxʼaaḵáawu (compound noun) troublemaker | "person at the point of something" | at + lú-xʼaa-ḵáa-wu →  somethingʼs-(4n.p) + noise/point.tip.someone-(4h.i).relational (KE)

at nané (verbal noun) art | at na-∅-√né →  something.(4n.O) na.cn-cl.(∅)-√do/work

at natéeyi (verbal noun) hunter | at + na-∅-√tée-yi →  something-(4n.O) + na-cn.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√carry-(general/compact)?.relational (JL)

at sag̱ahaayí (verbal noun) will; wish ² | will; wish(es); "something one wills to do" | that one wants to do or to have happen | at + sa-g̱a-∅-√haa-yí →  something-(4n.O) + voice.g̱a-md.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√willing.relational (KE, JL)

at sax̱án (verbal noun) love | love (of things); love (of everything) | at + sa-√x̱án →  something-(4n.O) + cl-(–d,s,–i).√love (KE)

at sʼaan.ax̱w dzáas (compound noun) spear ² | spear which binds rope around a seal; "thonging that wraps up limbs" | this spear was invented by a small beaver in Basket Bay | at + sʼaan-∅-√.áx̱w + dzáas →  something-(4n.O) + limb.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√tie-up/wrap-up + thonging (KE)

at sʼéilʼi (compound noun) rags (for cleaning or wiping) | "something torn"

at shax̱ishdi dzáas (compound noun) spear ² | spear for clubbing; "clubbing something on the head thonging" | at + sha-∅-√x̱ish-t-i + dzáas →  something + head.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√club.[repeatedly].relational + babiche/thonging (KE)

at shí (verbal noun) singing; song; music | at + ∅-√shí →  something-(4n.O) + cl-(–d,∅,–i).√sing (KE)

at shí ḵóok (compound noun) radio; phonograph; stereo; music box; ipod; music device | "song box" | at + ∅-√shí + ḵóok →  something-(4n.O) + cl-(–d,∅-–i).√sing + box (KE)

at sheexʼí (verbal noun) singer; choir | singers | at + ∅√shée-xʼ-i →  something-(4n.O) + cl-(–d,∅,–i).√sing.[plural].relational (KE) • variants: et shéexʼi (C) •

at sheeyí (verbal noun) singer | at + ∅√shée-yi →  something-(4n.O) + cl-(–d,∅,–i).√sing.relational (KE)

at shooḵ (verbal noun) laughter | at + ∅-shooḵ →  something-(4n.O) + cl-(–d,∅,–i).√laugh/smile (KE)

at tugáni (compound noun) gunpowder | "burns something inside" | at + tu-∅-√gán-i →  something + inside.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√burn/light.relational (KE)

at tux̱ʼwánsʼi (compound noun) buckshot | "something rotted to powder" | at + tu-∅-√x̱ʼwán-sʼ-i →  something + inside.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√rot-to-powder.repetitive.relational (KE)

at tʼaa.éexʼi (verbal noun) town crier | "yells something to the landward side" | at + tʼáa-∅-√.éexʼ-i →  something-(4n.O) + landward-side.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√shout/call-out.relational (JL)

at tsʼíkʼwti (verbal noun) muscle; pincher | "pinches something"; muscle that opens and closes the shell of a shellfish | at + ∅-√tsʼíkʼw-t-i →  something-(4n.O) + cl-(–d,∅,–i).√pinch-repetitive.relational (JL)

at uhéini (verbal noun) • variants: at uhéin • claim; property; crest ² | claimed property; that which is claimed or willed | particularly a crest or other totem claimed by a clan | at + wu-∅-√héin-i →  something-(4n.O) + pfv.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√claim.relational (JL)

at wujaaḵw (verbal noun) accomplishment | "something that is fitting" | at + wu-∅-√jaaḵw →  something-(4n.O) + pfv.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√fitting

at wulyáaḵw (verbal noun) simile; comparison | at + wu-la-√yáaḵw →  something-(4n.O) + pfv.cl-(–d,l,–i).√compare/represent-as (JL)

at wulyú (compound noun) speech | public speaking; "something declared publicly" | (NR, HC, DK) at + ÿu-l-√yú →  something-(4h.O) + pfv.cl-(+d,l,–i).√declare/speak-publicly-(?) • variants: ḵaankageetxʼ yoo x̱ʼawditaaní •

at wuskú yís át ḵuwduwateen (compound noun) field trip | "traveling around for knowledge" | at + ÿu-sa-√kú + yís + aa-t + ḵu-ÿu-du-ÿa-√teen →  something-(4h.O) + pfv.cl-(–d,s,–i).√know + for-(benefit) + there.around + areal.pfv.someone-(4h.S).cl-(–d,∅,+i).√travel (GD, MD)

at wuskóowu (verbal noun) person; elder | elder; knowledgeable person; wisdom bearer; "knows something" | at + ÿu-s-√kóo-wu →  something-(4n.O) + [perfective].cl-(+d,s,–i).√know.relational

at wooskú daakahídi (compound noun) • variants: ; áxʼ ḵaa ée at dultóow yé, sgóon, shgóon • school | "house around wisdom" | (KE) at ÿu-s-√kú + daaká-hít-i →  something-(4n.O) + [perfective].cl-(+d,s,–i).√know + around-outside.house.relational

at xáshdi téel (compound noun) moccasin | "something cut up shoe" | (KE) at + ∅-√xásh-t-i + téel →  something-(4n.O) + cl-(–d,∅,–i).√cut/saw.repetitive.relational + shoe • variants: keish téel (Y) •

at xáshdi xʼóow (compound noun) blanket | blanket sewn from scraps of hide; "something cut up blanket" | at + ∅-√xásh-t-i + xʼóow →  something-(4n.O) + cl-(–d,∅,–i).√cut/saw.repetitive.relational + blanket (KE)

at xʼaan aaní (compound noun) fish camp; camp for drying fish | "something dried by smoke land" | at + ∅-√xʼaan + aan-i →  something-(4n.O) + cl-(–d,∅,–i).√dry-by-smoking-(fish) + land-(inhabited).relational (CG)

at xʼaan hídi (compound noun) • variants: et xʼaan hídi (C), sʼeiḵ hídi (T), sʼeiḵ daakahídi, sʼeiḵ daakéedi (C) • smokehouse | "something dried by smoke house" | at + ∅-√xʼaan + híd-i →  something-(4n.O) + cl-(–d,∅,–i).√dry-by-smoking-(fish) + house.relational (KE)

at x̱aagú shakee.át (compound noun) claw; headdress | claw headdress | at + x̱aagw-ú + shakée-át →  somethingʼs-(4n.P) + claw.relational + on-head.thing-(4n.i) (JL)

at x̱ʼawóosʼ (verbal noun) • variants: ḵaa x̱ʼawóosʼ • question | at + x̱ʼa-∅-√wóosʼ →  something-(4n.O) + mouth.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√ask (JL)

at x̱ʼéeshi (compound noun) fish: dryfish | thinly cut and dried fish possibly from a neighboring Na-Dene Northern Athabascan language | (KE) • variants: at duwax̱ʼéeshi •

at yahaayí xʼúxʼ kshaxeet (compound noun) art | art; drawing; painting; "writing the image of something" | « ḵaa yahaayí kshaxeet » is the act of drawing, painting, and making non-sculptural art; « at yahaayí xʼúxʼ kshaxeet » is an artifact from drawing, painting, and making non-sculptural art | at+ yahaayí + xʼúxʼ ka-sha-√xeet →  somethingʼs-(4n.p) + image/shadow + paper/membrane + hsf.cl-(–d,sh,–i).√furrow/write (GD)

at yana.á (verbal noun) fish ¹; run ⁴; migrate | fish run, migration | at + ya-na-∅-√.á →  something-(4n.O) + vsf.na-md.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√migrate-(of fish) (KE)

at yawusḵá (verbal noun) promise | "something told" | at + ya-ÿu-sa-√ḵá →  something-(4n.O) + vsf.pfv.cl-(–d,s,–i).√say/tell (JL)

at yátxʼi daa yoo at kooneik ḵáa (compound noun) advocate | court appointed special advocate; "doing on behalf of children" | at yátxʼi + daa + yoo + at + ka-ÿu-ÿa-√nei-k + ḵáa →  children + around/about + to/fro + something-(4n.O) + hsf.pfv.cl-(–d,∅,+i).√do/work-on.repetitive + person-(4h.i) (GD, MD)

at yáa awuné (verbal noun) • variants: yáa at wooné • respect | at + yáa + a-wu-∅-√né →  something-(4n.P) + along +  + a-theme.irrealis.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√respect

atkʼátskʼu (compound noun) child | adolescent | at-kʼátskʼu →  its-(4n.P).adolescent/small (KE)

atxaayí (compound noun) centipede | (KE)

atx̱a át (compound noun) moth | "thing that eats something" | at-∅-√x̱a + át →  something-(4n.O).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√eat + thing-(4n.i) (KE, JL) • variants: naa.át ax̱a át •

atx̱á (verbal noun) food; meal | "thing eaten" | át-√x̱á →  thing.√eat (KE)

atx̱á daakahídi (compound noun) restaurant; tavern | "building around food" | atx̱á + daaka-hít-i →  food + around-outside.house.relational (KE)

atx̱á jishagóon (compound noun) utensil; kitchen utensil | "food tool" | atx̱á + ji-shagóon →  food + hand.components/parts (KE)

atx̱aaxʼí sáani (verbal noun) snacks | "little things eaten" | át-√x̱á-xʼ-i + sáani →  thing.√eat.[plural].[peg vowel].[diminutive] (FW)

atyátxʼi (compound noun) children | “somethingʼs children” | this could be translated as "somethingʼs children" but always refers to human children. there has been debate about whether one « atyátxʼi » is human and « adátxʼi » is nonhuman but the consensus is that both were used for human children only | at + yát-xʼ-i →  [somethingʼs-(4n.P) + child.pos] (KE) • variants: adátxʼi, atyétxʼi (T), adétxʼi (T), edétxʼi (C) •

atyátxʼi latíni (compound noun) babysitter | “watches children” | (KE) at + yát-xʼ-i + la-√tín-i →  somethingʼs-(4h.P) + child.[plural].[possessive] + cl-(–d,l,–i).√see.relational

at.óow (verbal noun) possession; clan | sacred clan-owned item; "something bought" | used to denote something that is owned by a clan and cannot be claimed by an individual things that can be at.óow are names, houses, stories, songs, land, the image of animals and the supernatural, and objects made with the images of those things at.óow may be jointly claimed by multiple clans, but use of at.óow that is not claimed by your clan is inappropriate unless proper permissions have been given the children, grandchildren, and close relatives of clans would often be dressed in some of the most valuable at.óow of a clan that recognizes the relationship publicly | at-∅-√.óow →  something-(4n.O).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√buy

at.óow latíni (compound noun) clan; caretaker | clan caretaker of at.óow | at-∅-√.óow + la-√tín-i →  something-(4n.O).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√buy + cl-(–d,l,–i).√see.relational

atskanée! (interjection) • variants: atsganée • scary! | (KE)

atsʼáts (noun) hawk; osprey | osprey; fish hawk; sea hawk | atsʼáts live on fish and build nests close to water

awliwás (verbal noun) dryfish, hard | "roasted dry fish" | a-ÿu-∅-li-√wás →  them-(s)/it-(3.O).[perfective].they-(s)-(3.S).cl-(–d,l,+i).√roast/scorch-(by fire) (KE)

ax̱ (possessive pronoun) my | first person singular possessive pronoun (1s.P) used to show a relationship between things, including ownership (« haa aaní » – “our land”), kinship term origination (« du éesh » – “their father”), the link to a relational base (« ax̱ x̱áni » – “next to me”), and conjugation of certain verbs (« du toowú sigóo » – “s/he is happy”) other possessive pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

ax̱ | my →  first person singular possessive (1s.P)

haa | our →  first person plural possessive (1p.P)

i | your →  second person singular possessive (2s.P)

yee | you allʼs →  second person plural possessive (2p.P)

du | their →  third person human singular possessive (3Hs.P)

has du ⁓ s du | their (p) →  third person plural possessive (3p.P)

a | its →  third person nonhuman possessive (3N.P)

ash | this galʼs/guyʼs →  third person proximal possessive (3prx.P)

a | that other galʼs/guyʼs →  third person obviate possessive (3obv.P)

ḵaa | someoneʼs →  fourth person human possessive (4h.P)

at | somethingʼs →  fourth person nonhuman possessive (4n.P)

aa | oneʼs, someʼs →  partitive possessive (part.P)

chush ⁓ sh- | -selfʼs →  reflexive possessive (rflx.P)

woosh, wooch | each otherʼs →  reciprocal possessive (recip.P)

ax̱ adée (interjection) oh goodness!

ax̱ dachx̱ánkʼé (kinship term) grandchild | my wonderful grandchild! | endearing term used when speaking lovingly to a grandchild | dachx̱án-√kʼé →  grandchild.√good/fine (DK)

ax̱ ee- (postpositional pronoun) me | to me; with me | first person singular postpositional (1s.PP) used in certain verbs where something is going towards the object (literally or figuratively) a special type of pronoun that combines three things: possessive pronoun, empty base, and relational suffix other possessive pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

ax̱ ee- ⁓ x̱aan ⁓ x̱aat | (to) me →  first person singular postpositional (1s.PP)

haa ee- ⁓ haan | (to) us →  first person plural postpositional (1p.PP)

i ee- | (to) you →  second person singular postpositional (2s.PP)

yee ee- | (to) you all →  second person plural postpositional (2p.PP)

du ee- ⁓ u- | (to) her/him →  third person human singular postpositional (3s.PP)

has du ee- ⁓ s du ee- | (to) them (p) →  third person plural postpositional (3p.PP)

a ee- ⁓ aan | (to) it →  third person nonhuman postpositional (3p.PP)

ash ee- | (to) this person →  third person proximal postpositional (3prx.PP)

a ee- ⁓ a- | (to) that other person →  third person obviate postpositional (3obv.PP)

ḵaa ee- ⁓ ḵu ee- ⁓ ḵoon | (to) someone →  fourth person human postpositional (4h.PP)

at ee- | (to) something →  fourth person nonhuman postpositional (4n.PP)

aa ee- | (to) one, some →  partitive postpositional (part.PP)

chush | (to) -selfʼs →  reflexive postpositional (rflx.PP)

woosh, wooch | (to) each other →  reciprocal postpositional (recip.PP)

ax̱áa (verbal noun) paddle | “paddler” | a-∅-√x̱áa ² →  a-theme.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√paddle/row (KE)

ayaheeyáa (compound noun) curlew | (KE)

ayáx̱ (particle) correct; right ² | often appears with « áwé » as in « ayáx̱ áwé » (thatʼs correct)

a.án (verbal noun) watch ¹; meditate; weather; navigate; forecast | watching the weather to forecast; watching the stars to navigate | a-∅-√án →  a-theme.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√observe/meditate

á ¹ (particle) | [focus particle] | this particle puts focus on the previous word or phrase. it is often heard when giving someone a name, and the name is said and repeated while "killing money;" the name is said followed immediately by « á! »

á ² (independent pronoun) it || there; reason; place; then | that place, time, reason, fact | third person nonhuman independent (3N.i) independent pronouns are not linked to anything grammatically, and are most often used in phrases like « yáadu x̱át » (here i am) and « uháan áyá » (it is us) common suffix combinations are listed below. take note of the ways that suffixes affect tone and vowel length | (JC, KE, JL)

ách [áa-ch] | because of it; with it

aag̱áa [áa-g̱áa] | after it; following it

aadáx̱ / aax̱ [áa-dáx̱] | from it; after it [that time]

aadé [áa-dé] | towards it

aan [áa-n] | with it

anax̱ [áa-náx̱] | through it; along it

át [áa-t] | arriving at it; at it

áwu [áa-wu] | located at it

áxʼ [áa-xʼ] | residing at it; located at it

áx̱ [áa-x̱] | moving along it; repeatedly at it

á ³ (independent pronoun) her; him | her/him (a secondary character of a narrative or event) | third person obviate independent (3obv.i) independent pronouns are not linked to anything grammatically, and are most often used in phrases like « yáadu x̱át » (here i am) and « uháan áyá » (it is us) "proximate third person represents the topic of discourse, the person nearest the speaker’s point of view, or the person ealier spoken of and already known.” (Bloomfield 1962: 38) | (JC, KE)

ách ¹ (particle) because; so; therefore | because of that; therefore; so | áa-ch →  it-because (JL)

ách ² (particle) with it; using it | áa-ch →  it.with-(instrumental) (JC)

ách at dusx̱a át (compound noun) • variants: aan at dusx̱a át, ájudusx̱a.aa • fork | “thing a person eats with” | áa-ch + at + du-s-√x̱a + át →  one(s)-(part.i).erg-(inst) + something-(4n.O) + someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,s,–i).√eat + thing-(4n.i) (KE)

ágé (particle) | [interrogative: marks yes/no questions] | this particle is used to turn any statement into a yes or no question the placement of the particle is often determined by grammar, but at times is determined by what part of the phrase is being questioned | (KE) • variants: gé •

áhé (particle) this | this here (is) | á-hé →  [focus-particle].this (KE)

ákhé (particle) is it this here? | á-gé-hé →  [focus-particle].[yes/no question].here (KE)

ákyá (particle) is it this right here? | á-gé-yá →  [focus-particle].[yes/no question].right-here (KE)

ákyú (particle) is it that way over there? | á-gé-yú →  [focus-particle].[yes/no question].way-over-there (KE)

ákwé (particle) is it that there? | á-gé-wé →  [focus-particle].[yes/no question].there (KE)

ánkʼw (noun) • variants: énkw (C) • brat; person | person who cries easily | (KE)

át ¹ (independent pronoun) something | fourth person nonhuman independent (4n.i) independent pronouns are not linked to anything grammatically, and are most often used in phrases like « yáadu x̱át » (here i am) and « uháan áyá » (it is us) used to indicate that an unspecified thing is the pronoun; Like the fourth person human pronoun this one is often used as a placeholder in nouns and verbs. It alters a lot of words when used in a variety of forms. Keep an eye out for it as you build vocabulary, and you will see it is one of the most powerful words in Tlingit. For example: at.óow (sacred clan-owned item), at daná (they-(s) is drinking alcohol), and Daḵlʼaweidí [daḵ-lʼéiw-at-i] (Thing of the Inland Sand Bar – name of an Eagle-Killer Whale Clan). other independent pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

x̱át | me →  first person singular independent (1s.i)

uháan | us →  first person plural independent (1p.i)

wa.é | you →  second person singular independent (2s.i)

yeewháan | you all →  second person plural independent (2p.i)

hú | they-(s) →  third person human singular independent (3Hs.i)

hás | them (p) →  third person plural independent (3p.i)

á | it →  third person nonhuman independent (3N.i)

ash | this person →  third person proximal independent (3prx.i)

á | that other person →  third person obviate independent (3obv.i)

ḵáa | someone →  fourth person human independent (4h.i)

át | something →  fourth person nonhuman independent (4n.i)

aa | one, some →  partitive independent (part.i)

chúsh | -self →  reflexive independent (rflx.i)

wóosh, wóoch | each other, together →  reciprocal independent (recip.i)

át ² (preverb) there; arriving | arriving there | for motion verbs, creates a ∅-conjugation motion verb (towards a terminus) | áa-t →  there.at-(arriving) (JC)

át ³ (preverb) around | moving around | for motion verbs, creates a na-conjugation motion verb (unbounded) | áa-t →  there.at-(moving around) (JC)

át kanduḵʼíshji hockey; baseball | batter in baseball; hockey player; "bats it around” | áa-t + ka-na-du-∅-√ḵʼísh-ch-i →  there.at-(arrived) + hsf.na-cp.someone-(4h.S).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√bat.rep.rel]

át ḵukawu.aag̱ú (verbal noun) director; planner; commander | "orders people around"; "directs people" | (KE) • variants: át at kawu.aag̱ú, ét et kawu.aag̱ú (C), ét ḵukawu.aag̱ú (C) •

át sh kawdudziyéedi (verbal noun) accordion | "thing a person stretches apart" | át + sh + ka-ÿu-du-dzi-√yéet-i →  something-(4n.i) + self-(rflx.o) + hsf.pfv.someone-(4h.s).cl-(+d,s,+i).√stretch.relational (GD, MD)

át wududziḵúx̱u át (borrowed noun) car; automobile | "thing that people drive around" | (KE) áa-t + ÿu-du-dzi-√ḵúx̱-u + át →  there.at-(arrived) + pfv.someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,s,+i).√go-(by boat or car).relational + thing-(4n.i) • variants: káa •

át wududzix̱óotʼi (compound noun) baggage; luggage; suitcase | luggage or briefcase on wheels | áa-t la.√.át ² →  there-around cl-(–d,l,–i).√carry-(personal belongings) at la.át ashayalihéin →  he has many pieces of baggage (SN) (FS)

át wulisʼéesi (verbal noun) kite | "blows around" | áa-t + ÿu-li-√sʼées-i →  there.around + pfv.cl-(–d,l,+i).√blown-(by wind).relational (GD, MD)

át yana.á (verbal noun) migration | fish migration | áa-t + ya-na-∅-√.á →  there.at-(arrived) + vsf.na-cn.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√inspect/peer (JL)

átdáx̱ ḵusahéix̱ át (compound noun) detergent; bleach | spot remover | át-dáx̱ ḵu-sa-√háa-x̱ át →  something.(4n.i)-from areal-cl.(s)-√move-in-mass-repeatedly something.(4n.i) (JL)

átkʼ aheen (verbal noun) faith; belief; trust; religion | "they-(s) believes it" | át-kʼ + a-∅-√heen →  it-(4n.i).[locative] + a-theme.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√believe (KE)

átkʼ aheení (verbal noun) believer | át-kʼ + a-∅-√heen →  it-(4n.i).[locative] + a-theme.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√believe.relational (KE)

átx̱ sateeyí át (compound noun) thing; important | important thing; thereʼs something important in it | át-x̱ sa-√tee-yí + át →  thing-(4n.i).[locative] + cl-(–d,s,–i).√be.relational + thing-(4n.i) (GB)

átʼiweit (compound noun) pot | cooking pot; "cooking thing" | at-.√ée(w)-u-át →  something-(4n.O).√cook.relational.thing-(4n.i) (JL)

átʼláni (compound noun) slime | slime (inside clamshell); "raw seafood"; "cold food or drink" | √.áatʼ-láni →  √cold.[?] (JL)

áwé (particle) that | that there (is) | this particle is used often in Tlingit oratory and conversation to signal a pause or that the speaker intends to speak or continue speaking | á-wé →  [focus-particle].that

áwu (particle) located; at | located at it | áa-wu →  it.located-at

áxʼ (particle) at; located | residing at it; located at it | áa-xʼ →  there.at-(residing or at rest)

áxʼ ḵaa ée at dultóow yé (compound noun) • variants: sgóon; shgóon; at wooskú daakahídi • school | “place where people are taught there” | (KE) áa-x + ḵaa + ée + at + du-l-√tóow + yé →  there.at-(residing) + someoneʼs-(4h.P) + [empty base] + something-(4n.O) + someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,l,–i).√teach + place

áx̱ (particle) at | moving around at it; repeatedly arriving at | áa-x̱ →  there.at-(moving around or arriving repeatedly) || (preverb) | for motion verbs, creates a na-conjugation motion verb (unbounded)

áx̱ sh kalgan sʼeenáa (compound noun) light | electric light | aa-x̱ + sh + ka-l-√gan + sʼeenáa →  there.at-(repetitive) + self-(rflx.O) + hsf.cl-(+d,l,–i).√burn/light + light (JL)

áyá (particle) this | this right here (is) | á-yá →  [focus-particle].this-right-here

áyú (particle) that | that way over there (is) | á-yá →  [focus-particle].that-way-over-here

aa- (object pronoun) one ²; some | partitive object (part.O) in a verb phrase, the object is impacted by the verb, and is not the subject the standard in Tlingit is to write all single letter object pronouns as part of the verb prefix and all pronouns more than one letter as part of the preverb, except for « ḵu- » open object pronouns (ending in a vowel) will cause contraction in the verb prefix other object pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

x̱at | me [object] →  first person singular object (1s.O)

haa | us [object] →  first person plural object (1p.O)

i- | you [object] →  second person singular object (2s.O)

yee | you all [object] →  second person plural object (2p.O)

∅- ⁓ a- | her/him →  third person object (3.O)

has + ∅- ⁓ a- | them (p) [object] →  third person pluralizer (3pl)

ash | this person [object] →  third person proximal object (3prx.O)

ḵaa ⁓ ḵu- | someone [object] →  fourth person human object (4h.O)

at | something [object] →  fourth person nonhuman object (4n.O)

aa- | one, some [object] →  partitive object (part.O)

sh ⁓ ∅- | -self →  reflexive object (rflx.O)

woosh, wooch | each other, together [object] →  reciprocal object (recip.O)

aa ¹ (independent pronoun) one ²; some | partitive independent (part.i) independent pronouns are not linked to anything grammatically, and are most often used in phrases like « yáadu x̱át » (here i am) and « uháan áyá » (it is us) used to refer to parts of a group or set, and can cover a wide range of meanings. In some cases, it can mean some general object, as in aadóo aayí sáyá? (whose thing is this?). In other cases, it can refer to a separated groups of things, as in daaḵw.aa sá? (which one of a group?). It often means the one or ones that perform a verb, and is used to create words in Tlingit. There are many of these, and you will see more as you study. Here are some examples: lítaa (knife; literally “the one that slides”), x̱út’aa (adze; literally “the one that chips out wood”), and ḵutlʼídaa (shovel; literally “the one that throws away a space”). other independent pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

x̱át | me →  first person singular independent (1s.i)

uháan | us →  first person plural independent (1p.i)

wa.é | you →  second person singular independent (2s.i)

yeewháan | you all →  second person plural independent (2p.i)

hú | they-(s) →  third person human singular independent (3Hs.i)

hás | them (p) →  third person plural independent (3p.i)

á | it →  third person nonhuman independent (3N.i)

ash | this person →  third person proximal independent (3prx.i)

á | that other person →  third person obviate independent (3obv.i)

ḵáa | someone →  fourth person human independent (4h.i)

át | something →  fourth person nonhuman independent (4n.i)

aa | one, some →  partitive independent (part.i)

chúsh | -self →  reflexive independent (rflx.i)

wóosh, wóoch | each other, together →  reciprocal independent (recip.i)

aa ² (possessive pronoun) oneʼs; someʼs | partitive possessive (part.P) used to show a relationship between things, including ownership (« haa aaní » – “our land”), kinship term origination (« du éesh » – “their father”), the link to a relational base (« ax̱ x̱áni » – “next to me”), and conjugation of certain verbs (« du toowú sigóo » – “s/he is happy”) other possessive pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

ax̱ | my →  first person singular possessive (1s.P)

haa | our →  first person plural possessive (1p.P)

i | your →  second person singular possessive (2s.P)

yee | you allʼs →  second person plural possessive (2p.P)

du | their →  third person human singular possessive (3Hs.P)

has du ⁓ s du | their (p) →  third person plural possessive (3p.P)

a | its →  third person nonhuman possessive (3N.P)

ash | this galʼs/guyʼs →  third person proximal possessive (3prx.P)

a | that other galʼs/guyʼs →  third person obviate possessive (3obv.P)

ḵaa | someoneʼs →  fourth person human possessive (4h.P)

at | somethingʼs →  fourth person nonhuman possessive (4n.P)

aa | oneʼs, someʼs →  partitive possessive (part.P)

chush ⁓ sh- | -selfʼs →  reflexive possessive (rflx.P)

woosh, wooch | each otherʼs →  reciprocal possessive (recip.P)

aa ee- (postpositional pronoun) one ²; some | (to) one; (to) one | partitive postpositional (part.PP) used in certain verbs where something is going towards the object (literally or figuratively) a special type of pronoun that combines three things: possessive pronoun, empty base, and relational suffix other possessive pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

ax̱ ee- ⁓ x̱aan ⁓ x̱áat | (to) me →  first person singular postpositional (1s.PP)

haa ee- ⁓ haan | (to) us →  first person plural postpositional (1p.PP)

i ee- | (to) you →  second person singular postpositional (2s.PP)

yee ee- | (to) you all →  second person plural postpositional (2p.PP)

du ee- ⁓ u- | (to) her/him →  third person human singular postpositional (3s.PP)

has du ee- ⁓ s du ee- | (to) them (p) →  third person plural postpositional (3p.PP)

a ee- ⁓ aan | (to) it →  third person nonhuman postpositional (3p.PP)

ash ee- | (to) this person →  third person proximal postpositional (3prx.PP)

a ee- ⁓ a- | (to) that other person →  third person obviate postpositional (3obv.PP)

ḵaa ee- ⁓ ḵu ee- ⁓ ḵoon | (to) someone →  fourth person human postpositional (4h.PP)

at ee- | (to) something →  fourth person nonhuman postpositional (4n.PP)

aa ee- | (to) one, some →  partitive postpositional (part.PP)

chush | (to) -selfʼs →  reflexive postpositional (rflx.PP)

woosh, wooch | (to) each other →  reciprocal postpositional (recip.PP)

aa sá (question particle) • variants: aadóo sá • who; someone; somebody | when asking who is the subject of a verb, the ergative « -ch » often attaches to create « aadóoch » determiners may be added to « sá » as in « aadóo sáyá » (who is this?), « aadóo sáwé? » (who is that?) question particles combine most commonly to form questions, but can also be used to create statements like « jánwu alʼóon, sʼaax̱, daa sáyá át wu.aadí » (he hunts mountain goats, marmots, whatever went around there) (David Kadashan 6) | aadóo sá du jeewú? →  who has it? aadóoch sá aawax̱áa? →  who ate it? (JC,KE)

aaa (particle) • variants: aáa, áaa, aaá • yes | it is unclear whether the form used is dialect or personal preference; some forms may be influenced by the English "uh-huh"

aadáx̱ • variants: adax̱, aax̱ • (particle) from; after; off | after it (that time); from it; off of it | áa-dáx̱ →  it.from (KE, JC) || (preverb) | for handling verbs, refers to lifting an object off of something, creating a ga-conjugation motion verb (upwards) for motion verbs, creates a na-conjugation motion verb (unbounded) | (JC)

aadé (preverb) towards it | this particle has special functions when used as a preverb that is not denoting direction for a motion verb; it can direct one verb concept to another, or change the function of the verb in combination with other preverbs, suffixes, and postverbs, as in the examples below | áa-dé →  it-towards aadé awux̱aayi yé →  the way they-(s) ate it tlél aadé ag̱waax̱aayi yé →  thereʼs no way they-(s) can eat it x̱wasikóo aadé awux̱á →  i know they-(s) ate it || | for motion verbs, creates a na-conjugation motion verb (unbounded) | aadé woogoot →  they-(s) walked towards it (JC)

aadé kdulxesʼ yé (verbal noun) garbage; dump ² | garbage dump; "place where people dump" | aa-dé + ka-du-l-√xáa-sʼ + yé →  there.towards + hsf.someone.cl-(+d,l,–i).√dump/pour.[in series] + place (JL)

aadé [verb]-i yé (particle) | "the way the verb happened"; "how the verb happened"

aadóo sá (question particle) • variants: aa sá • who; someone; somebody | when asking who is the subject of a verb, the ergative « -ch » often attaches to create « aadóoch » determiners may be added to « sá » as in « aadóo sáyá » (who is this?), « aadóo sáwé? » (who is that?) question particles combine most commonly to form questions, but can also be used to create statements like « jánwu alʼóon, sʼaax̱, daa sáyá át wu.aadí » (he hunts mountain goats, marmots, whatever went around there) (David Kadashan 6) | aadóo sá du jeewú? →  who has it? aadóoch sá aawax̱áa? →  who ate it? (JC,KE)

aag̱áa (conjunction) then; after; following | at that time; after that; following that | used in speech to bridge events over time, or to move time forward in a narrative | (KE)

aag̱áa [verb]-i yé (particle) | "the time the verb happened"; "when the verb happened"

aahá (interjection) • variants: haahá • yes | yes (emphatic agreement) | (JL)

aakʼé– (adjective) good; fine | prenominal adjective: appears immediately before the noun it modifies | aa-√kʼé →  one(s)-(part.O).√good/fine (JC)

aan ⁓ a ee- (postpositional pronoun) it: (to) it | third person nonhuman postpositional (3p.PP) used in certain verbs where something is going towards the object (literally or figuratively) a special type of pronoun that combines three things: possessive pronoun, empty base, and relational suffix other possessive pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

ax̱ ee- ⁓ x̱aan ⁓ x̱áat | (to) me →  first person singular postpositional (1s.PP)

haa ee- ⁓ haan | (to) us →  first person plural postpositional (1p.PP)

i ee- | (to) you →  second person singular postpositional (2s.PP)

yee ee- | (to) you all →  second person plural postpositional (2p.PP)

du ee- ⁓ u- | (to) her/him →  third person human singular postpositional (3s.PP)

has du ee- ⁓ s du ee- | (to) them (p) →  third person plural postpositional (3p.PP)

a ee- ⁓ aan | (to) it →  third person nonhuman postpositional (3p.PP)

ash ee- | (to) this person →  third person proximal postpositional (3prx.PP)

a ee- ⁓ a- | (to) that other person →  third person obviate postpositional (3obv.PP)

ḵaa ee- ⁓ ḵu ee- ⁓ ḵoon | (to) someone →  fourth person human postpositional (4h.PP)

at ee- | (to) something →  fourth person nonhuman postpositional (4n.PP)

aa ee- | (to) one, some →  partitive postpositional (part.PP)

chush | (to) -selfʼs →  reflexive postpositional (rflx.PP)

woosh, wooch | (to) each other →  reciprocal postpositional (recip.PP)

aan ⁴ (noun) land ¹; town; village; settlement | inhabited or owned land | (KE) || ship | large boats were originally referred to as floating towns, but not any longer

aan ⁵ (postpositional pronoun) with; means | with it; by means of it; taking it along | postpositional pronoun: a + een ⁓ aan (KE)

aan at dusx̱a át (compound noun) • variants: ách at dusx̱a át, ájudusx̱a.aa • fork | “thing a person eats with” | a-ee-n + at + du-s-√x̱a + át →  its-(4n.P).[empty base].with + something-(4n.O) + someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,s,–i).√eat + thing-(4n.i) (KE)

aan da.usʼgu át (compound noun) • variants: aan du.usʼ aa washéen • machine | washer; washing machine; "thing to wash with" | a-ee-n + da-√.usʼ-kw-u + át →  its-(3n.p).[empty base].with + cl-(+d,∅,–i).√wash.repetitive.[relative] + thing-(4n.i) (JL)

aan duḵéisʼi át (compound noun) sewing | sewing machine | a-een + du-∅-√ḵáa-sʼ-i + át →  its-(4n.P) + someone-(4h.S).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√sew.series.relational + something-(4h.i)

aan duskʼix̱ʼti át (compound noun) hook ² | crochet hook | a-ee-n + du-s-√kʼix̱ʼ-t-i + át →  its-(3n.p).[empty-base].with + someone.cl-(+d,s,–i).√hook/gaff.[repeatedly].relational + thing-(4n.i) (JL)

aan dutasʼ át (compound noun) pestle | pestle or stone used for pulverizing bark; "the thing to pulverize bark with | a-ee-n + du-∅-√tasʼ + át →  its-(3n.p).[empty-base].with + someone-(4h.S).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√pulverize-tree-bark + thing-(4n.i) (JL)

aan duxasʼ át (compound noun) scraper | "the thing to scrape with" | a-ee-n + du-√xasʼ + át →  its-(3n.p).[empty-base].with + someone.√scrape + thing-(4n.i) (JL)

aan galaḵú (verbal noun) • variants: aan galḵú • flood ² | (KE) aan + ga-la-√ḵú →  land-(inhabited) + con-pre.cl-(–d,l,–i).√flood

aan eeg̱ayáak (landform) beach | the beach, shore below the town | aan + eeg̱ayáak →  land-(inhabited) + downshore-from (JL)

aan kaduskʼíx̱ʼti át (compound noun) | (A), aan duskʼíx̱ʼti át (T) hook ² | crochet hook; "thing a person hooks/gaffs with" | a-een + ka-du-s-√kʼíx̱ʼ-t-i + át →  it.with + hsf.someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,s,–i).√hook/gaff.repetitive.relational + thing-(4n.i) (JL)

aan kadusne át (compound noun) • variants: aan kedusne ét (C) • hook ²; needle ² | knitting needle; crocheting needle | a-ee-n + ka-du-s-√ne + át →  its-(3n.p).[empty-base].with + ksf.someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,s,–i).√knit/weave + thing-(4n.ind) (JL)

aan kadusxitgu át (compound noun) brush ² | hairbrush; "thing to furrow with" | a-ee-n + ka-du-s-√xit-kw-u + át →  its-(3n.p).[empty-base].with + hsf.someone-(4n.S).cl-(+d,s,–i).√furrow/write.repetitive.relational + thing-(4n.i) (JL)

aan kadusxítʼkw át (compound noun) brush ² | clothes brush | a-ee-n + ka-du-s-√xitʼ-kw-u + át →  its.(3n.p)-[empty-base]-with + hsf-someone.(4n.S)-cl.(d,s).√sweep-repetitive-relational + thing.(4n.i) (SN)

aan kadusʼíxʼw át (compound noun) glue | "thing something is glued with" | →  a-ee-n + ka-du-√sʼíxʼw + át its-(4n.P].[empty base].with + hsf.someone.√adhere-to + thing (SE)

aan kadutʼix̱ʼ át (compound noun) • variants: aan kedutʼex̱ʼ át • pestle | pestle (for pounding); "thing to smash on" | a-ee-n + ka-du-∅-√tix̱ʼ + át →  its-(3n.p).[empty-base].with + hsf.someone-(4n.S).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√smash/pound + thing-(4n.i) (JL)

aan kanáagu (compound noun) avens | largeleaf avens; large-leaved avens; “medicine on the land" | WARNING: arnica increases body temperature when taken internally, externally it acts as an antiseptic possibly arnica species, especially A. amplexicaulus, A. latifolia, A. gracilis | aan + ka-náakw-u →  land + on.medicine.relational (KE, JL) ° (Geum macrophyllum Willd.) °

aan kayéx̱aa (compound noun) • variants: tʼáa keyéx̱aa • plane ² | plane for woodworking; "the one to whitlle with" | a-ee-n + ka-∅-√yéx̱-aa →  its-(3n.p).[empty-base].with + hsf.cl-(+–d,∅,–i).√make/construct/whittle.one(s)-(part.i) (JL)

aan káxʼ duhoon nooch át (compound noun) trinket; merchandise | little things to sell | a-een + ká-xʼ + du-∅-√hóon + nooch + át →  its-(3n.P) + on.at-(residing) + someone-(4h.S).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√sell + always + thing-(4n.i) (EM)

aan kwéiyi (compound noun) flag | “land marker" | (KE) aan + √kwéi-yi →  land-(inhabited) + √mark.relational

aan kwéiyi tugáasʼi (compound noun) flagpole | “housepost in the flag” | (KE) aan + √kwéi-yi + tu-gáasʼ-i →  land + √mark.relational + inside.housepost.relational

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aan ḵoo dultóowu at kuna.áaḵw curriculum | a-een + ḵaa-ee + ∅-du-l-√tóow-u + at + ka-u-na-∅-√áaḵw →  its-(3n.P).with + somoeneʼs-(4h.P).with + them-(s)/it.someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,l,–i).read/count/teach.relational + thing-(4n.O) + hsf-irrealis-na-cn-cl-(–d,∅,–i).-√try/plan/command (FS)

aan ḵoo dultóowu át lesson | a-een + ḵaa-ee + ∅-du-l-√tóow-u + át →  its-(3n.P).with + somoeneʼs-(4h.P).with + them-(s)/it.someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,l,–i).read/count/teach.relational + thing-(4n.i) (FS)

aan lingídi (compound noun) rich ²; person | rich woman; city person; "human of the land" | for example, the wife or sister of an « aanḵáawu » (rich man, king) | aan + lingít-i →  land-(inhabited) + human.relational

aan sʼaatí (compound noun) mayor | “master of the land” | aan + sʼaatí →  land + master (KE)

aan shadux̱ishdi dzaas (compound noun) spear ² | spear for clubbing; "clubbing on the head with thonging" | (JL) a-ee-n + sha-du-∅-√x̱ish-t-i + dzaas →  its-(4n.P].[empty base].with + head.someone-(4n.S).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√club.[repeatedly].relational + thonging

aan x̱ʼayee (landform) town; in | in a town; on the streets of a town; “beneath the mouth of town” | (KE) aan + x̱ʼa-yee →  land + mouth/opening.beneath

aan yaduxasʼ át (verbal noun) • variants: aan yeduxesʼ ét; aan yaduxasʼ lítaa; aan yatxasʼ at; ḵaayaxásʼaa • razor | “thing a person shaves with” | (KE) a-ee-n + ya-du-∅-√xasʼ + át →  somethingʼs-(4n.P).[empty base].with + vsf.someone-(4h.S).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√scrape + thing-(4n.i) • variants: aan yatxasʼ át •

aan yadu.usʼgu jig̱wéinaa (compound noun) cloth; face ¹; rag; wash ²; towel | washcloth, washrag for washing the face; "handtowel to wash the face with" | a-ee-n + ya-du-∅-√.usʼ-kw-u + ji-√g̱óo-n-aa →  its-[empty-base].with +vsf.someone-(4n.S).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√wash.[repeatedly].[relative] + hand.√wipe.(progressive).one(s)-(part.i)

aan yax̱ʼáak (landform) water | area on the open water in front of the town, village || between | between towns | aan + ya-x̱ʼáak →  land-(inhabited) + vsf.between

aan yádi (compound noun) • variants: aanyédi (C) • person | high class person; “child of the land” | used to refer to the high-caste people of a clan, often while visiting their (p) territory | (KE) aan + yát-i →  [land + child.pos]

aan yátxʼi sáani (compound noun) • variants: aan yátxʼi, aan yétxʼi (C) • people ¹ | “little children of the land”; high class people; aristocrat | term of respect, often said to the people of a land where the speaker is visiting as a guest | (KE) aan + yát-xʼi + sáani →  [land + child.plr.pos + little (used in plural diminutive)] • variants: aan yátxʼu sáani •

aanáx̱ tléiḵw (compound noun) • variants: tlaḵwtlénxʼ; wasʼxʼaan tléig̱u • salmonberry | aa-náx̱ + tléiḵw →  there.through/along + berry (JL) ° (Rubus spectabilis) °

aandaat kanahík (verbal noun) • variants: aandaat kanaheek; aandaat kanahígi; aandaat kanahík; aandaat keneheek • monkey | "goes all over on the ship" | (KE, JL) aan-daat + ka-na-∅-√hík →  land-(inhabited).about + hsf.ns-cp.[classifier].√run/jump(?) • variants: aandaat kanahígi (T), aandaat kanaheek (At), aandaat keneheek (C) • ° (Family Cebidae and Family Cercopithecidae) °

aandaat kanahík atx̱aayí (compound noun) banana | "monkey food" | aan-daat + ka-na-∅-√hík + at-√x̱á-yí →  land-(inhabited).about + hsf.ns-cp.[classifier].√run/jump(?) + something-(4n.O)-√eat.relational

aandaatóox (compound noun) bedbug | "stomps around the land" | aan-daa-√tóox →  land-(inhabited).around.√stamp-feet (JL)

aandaayaagú (compound noun) rowboat | “boat around the land” | (KE) aan-daa-yaakw-u →  land-(inhabited).around.canoe/boat.relational

Aangóon (placename) Angoon | “Village Isthmus” | aan + góon →  land/village + portage/passage-across-it/isthmus (KE, TT) (KE, TT)

aankadushxit át (verbal noun) • variants: aan ḵukdushxit át • camera | “thing a person writes/photos/x-rays with” | a-ee-n + ka-du-sh-√xit + át →  somethingʼs-(4n.P).[empty base].with + hsf.someone-(4h.S).[classifier].√write thing-(4n.i) (KE, SN)

aanká (landform) town | downtown; in town | aan-ká →  land-(inhabited).on (JL)

aanḵáawu (compound noun) rich ²; chief; king | rich person; person of wealth; “person of the land” | plural form: aanḵáaxʼu | aan + ḵáa-wu →  [land + person.rel] (KE)

aansaganeit (compound noun) firecracker | "thing that burns with it" | a-een-sa-√gan-i-át →  its-(3n.p).with.cl-(–d,s,–i).√burn/light.relational.thing-(4n.i) (JL)

Aanshookahíttaan (clan name) Clan | "People of the House on the End of Town"; Origin: Prince of Wales | Wolf/Eagle Moiety Teiḵweidí Migration Teiḵweidí Group | aan-shú-ká-hít-taan →  land-(inhabited).end.on.house.people-of-clan-house (TT, AH, NR, JC, JL, HJ)

Heinyaa Ḵwáan

Aanshooká Hít | End of Town House

aantḵeení (compound noun) people ¹; crowd ² | townspeople; crowd or large group of people; “seated on the land” | (KE) aan-t + √ḵee-n-i →  [land-(inhabited).at-(arrived) + √seated/situated.(stem-var).relational]

Aanx̱ʼaakhíttaan (clan name) Clan | "People of the House in the Middle of the Village"; Origin: Angoon | Raven/Crow Moiety Lʼeeneidí Mirgration Primary Crest: Dog Salmon Secondary Crests: Raven, Eagle, Gull | aan-x̱ʼaak-hít-taan →  land-(inhabited).ravine.house.people-of-clan-house (TT, AH, NR, JC, JL, HJ)

Xutsnoowú Ḵwáan

Aanx̱ʼaak Hít | Middle of Town House

Yanxoon Hít | Logjam House

aas (noun) tree | in Sitka, « shéiyi » is often used for “tree” | (KE)

aas daax̱eeshí (compound noun) lichen | lichen which grows on spruce bark; "foam around the tree" | aas + daa-x̱eesh-í →  tree + around.foam.relational (JL) ° (Stricta pulmonaria (L.) Bir.) °

aas dlágwaa (compound noun) • variants: dlágwaa • peavy | aas + √dlákw-aa →  tree + √scratch.one(s)-(part.i) (JL)

aas hít (compound noun) cabin | log cabin | aas + hít →  tree + house (JL)

aas jiseiyí (compound noun) • variants: aas seiyí (At) • tree; shelter | “in the shelter of the treeʼs arms”; the shelter of a tree | aas + ji-seiyí →  tree + hand/arm.shelter/area-below (KE)

aas katláx̱di (plant part) branch; tree | dry tree branches (still on the tree); "moldy tree" | aas + ka-∅-√tláx̱-t-i →  tree + hsf.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√moldy.relational (JL)

aas keg̱ítaa (plant part) needle ¹; pine; spruce | conifer needle (spruce, pine) | needles of conifer tree | aas + ka-g̱ítaa →  tree + on.tree-needles (JL)

aas kʼóox̱ʼu (plant part) • variants: aasdaakʼóox̱ʼu • pitch | tree pitch | specifically tree pitch and not the metal lead or chewing gum | (JL)

aas kʼwátʼi rot ² | small red ball nested inside dry rot | looks like kidney pills; is kept for good luck

Aas Ḵwáani (compound noun) Tree People; forest; woods | "People of the Trees" | this term is used ceremonially, often when speaking to the spirits of the trees | (KE) aas + ḵwáan-i →  [tree + people-of.rel]

aas ḵʼaluká (landform) timberline | "mouth of the ridge trees" | aas + ḵʼa-lu-ká →  tree + mouth.nose/point.on (JL)

aas ḵʼíshaa (compound noun) knot ¹; puck | tree knot used for making puck; "tree bat (for hitting)" | aas + √ḵʼísh-aa →  tree + bat/hit-(with bat) (JL)

aas seiyí (compound noun) • variants: aas jiseiyí • shelter; tree | the shelter of a tree | aas + seiyí →  tree + shelter (JL)

aas tutlʼúkʼx̱u (compound noun) • variants: gantutlʼúkʼx̱u • worm | woodworm; "worm inside the tree" | aas + tu-tlʼúkʼx̱-u →  tree + inside.worm.relational

aas yádi (compound noun) • variants: aas yédi, asyádi • tree; sapling | “tree child” | (KE) aas + yát-i →  [tree + child.pos]

aas yík (compound noun) tree | in the tree | aas + yík →  tree + in-(shallow container) (JL)

aasdaacháni (compound noun) mistletoe | "odor around the tree" | ? | aas-daa-√chán-i →  tree.around.√stink/odor.relational (JL)

aasdaag̱áadli (compound noun) fungus | bracket fungus; conks; tree fungus; “cracker around the tree” | originally just « g̱áatl », which now means "pilot bread" | (KE, JL) aas + –daa + g̱áatl-i →  tree + around + cracker.relational ° (Polyporus applanatus) °

aasdaag̱oodlí (plant part) • variants: aasdaag̱údli • burl; tumor | burl, tumor in a tree | aas-daa-g̱ootl-í →  tree.around.bump.relational (JL)

aasdaakʼóox̱ʼu (plant part) pitch | “pitch around the tree” | (KE) aas + –daa + kʼóox̱ʼ-u →  [tree + around + pitch.rel]

aasdaakʼwátʼi mitten; ball; glove | decorative fur balls on mitten strings; "eggs around the tree" | aas-daa-kʼwátʼ-i →  tree.around.egg.relational (JL)

aasdaasʼóosʼani (compound noun) • variants: aasdaasʼóosʼeni (C) • cone; spruce | spruce cone | (JL)

aasdaasheeyí (compound noun) • variants: sheey • branch; limb | limb, primary branch; "limb around a tree" | aas-daa-sheey-í →  tree.around.limb.relational

aasdaaxʼéesʼi (compound noun) burl; tumor | tumor in a tree, with branches growing from it; “tangled mound around the tree” | looks like aasdaag̱údli but itʼs branches | (JL) aas-daa-√xʼéesʼ-i →  tree.around.√tangle.relational

aasgutug̱ayḵí (noun) • variants: kʼákw, aasgutuyikhéix̱waa, kóoshdaa yéigi • owl | barred owl | a spiritually powerful animal that is connected to the « kóoshdaa » (land otter) and is known by multiple names seeing one can be a sign of something to come, and killing one has been known to drive one to suicide the name « aasgutug̱ayḵí » (you all sit in the woods!) comes from the call of the owl some speakers translate this, especially in the Yéil Ḵutláakw (Raven Cycles) as "hawk" the name « kóoshdaa yéigi » (land otterʼs spirit helper) comes from a Kooshdaaḵáa story | (KE, GD, IdC, IC) ° (Strix varia) °

aasgutug̱ílʼi (compound noun) outcrop; rock ¹ | rock outcropping in forest, woods | (JL)

aasgutuyikhéix̱waa (noun) • variants: kʼákw, aasgutug̱ayḵí, kóoshdaa yéigi • owl | barred owl | a spiritually powerful animal that is connected to the « kóoshdaa » (land otter) and is known by multiple names seeing one can be a sign of something to come, and killing one has been known to drive one to suicide the name « aasgutug̱ayḵí » (you all sit in the woods!) comes from the call of the owl some speakers translate this, especially in the Yéil Ḵutláakw (Raven Cycles) as "hawk" the name « kóoshdaa yéigi » (land otterʼs spirit helper) comes from a Kooshdaaḵáa story | (KE, GD, IdC, IC) ° (Strix varia) °

aasgutuyiksháa (compound noun) spider | "women in the woods" | aas-gutú-yík-sháa →  tree.forest.in-(shallow container).women

aasgutuyik.ádi (compound noun) spider | "thing in the woods" | aas-gutú-yík-át-i →  tree.forest.in-(shallow container).thing-(4n.i).relational DRJ

aasgutuyík (compound noun) noise; sound; tree; woods | aasgutuyík; sound or noise in the woods, forest, trees | aas-gutú-yík →  tree.forest.in-(shallow container) (JL)

aasgutú (landform) • variants: aasgatú, aasgetú (C) • forest; woods; timber | forest; timbered area; "inside the base of the tree(s)" | (KE) aas + gú-tú →  tree + base.inside

aaslʼixʼnáakw (compound noun) medicine | type of medicine; "broken tree medicine" | (JL) aas-√lʼixʼ-náakw →  tree.√break-(stick-like object).medicine

aashát (noun) trout | steelhead trout | (JL) ° (Salmo gairdnerii gairdnerii) °

–aat (kinship term) aunt | paternal aunt (opposite clan) | in Tlingit kinship, the term for a paternal aunt is used for all females of a fatherʼs clan who is in the same generation as the father. This term can also extend to any women of the opposite moiety who are of the fatherʼs generation as an expression of personal closeness. can be used to show personal closeness with a female member of the opposite clan who is not necessarily the fatherʼs same clan | (KE)

aatagwéixʼi (compound noun) lily; pond | pond lily; "pokes out of the lake bottom" | áa-táa(k)-√góo-xʼ-i →  lake.bottom.√penetrate-(by poking).repetitive.relational (JL) ° (Nuphar polysepalum) °

aatayádi • variants: aateyédi • bird; person | mythical bird or little person that lives in a lake; "lake bottom child" | looks like a snipe (séitaa) but bigger, has a needle-shaped beak in the Tlʼanaxéedáḵw story, this bird was teased by young boys at Áakʼw, and then returned to pluck the eyes out of the villagers

–aatʼasháa (kinship term) • variants: aatʼesháa (C) • sibling; in-law | sibling-in-law (opposite gender & moiety) | opposite moiety & opposite gender in Tlingit kinship, this would be the sisters of a maleʼs wife or the brothers of a femaleʼs husband the proper respect and treatment of in-laws, especially in public, is a vital part of Tlingit culture | (JL, JC)

aatlein– (adjective) much; lots | a great amount | prenominal adjective: appears immediately before the noun that it affects | (JL)

aax̱ • variants: aadáx̱, adax̱ • (particle) after | after it (that time) | áa-dáx̱ →  it.from (KE) || (preverb) from | from it | for motion verbs, creates a na-conjugation motion verb (unbounded) | (JC) || off | off of it | for carrying motion verbs, refers to lifting on object off of something, creating a ga-conjugation motion verb (upwards)

–aax̱gwalʼí (relational noun) strap ²; towline | towline of –; strap of – | string for tying bag, also might be « kagwálʼi / kagwálʼaa » | (JL)

aayádi (compound noun) • variants: aayátxʼi, x̱ʼéen yátxʼi • humpy; salmon | small humpy salmon; "lake child" | áa-yádi →  lake.child

áa ¹ (landform) lake | (KE)

áa ² (noun) it; there; place; then | that thing, time, or place | refers to something that is already known or has recently been communicated || reason; fact | that fact or reason | common suffix combinations are listed below. take note of the ways that suffixes affect tone and vowel length | (KE)

ách [áa-ch] | because of it; with it

aag̱áa [áa-g̱áa] | after it; following it

aadáx̱ / aax̱ [áa-dáx̱] | from it; after it [that time]

aadé [áa-dé] | towards it

aan [áa-n] | with it

anax̱ [áa-náx̱] | through it; along it

át [áa-t] | arriving at it; at it

áwu [áa-wu] | located at it

áxʼ [áa-xʼ] | residing at it; located at it

áx̱ [áa-x̱] | moving along it; repeatedly at it

áa ash kadulyádi yé (compound noun) park | park; playground; "place where people play" | áa + a-ch + ka-du-l-√yát-i + yé →  there + its-(3n.i).[instrumental] + hsf.someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,l,–i).√child + place (SE)

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áa kagáaxu (compound noun) • variants: hinyikgáaxu • duck; goldeneye | goldeneye duck; "duck on the lake" | some speakers translate this is "duck up the river" | áa + ka-gáaxw-u →  lake + on.duck.relational (JL) ° (Bucephala clangula/islandica?) °

áa ká (landform) lake | on the lake | áa + ká →  lake + on (JL)

áa ḵuyadujee yé (verbal noun) jail | “the punishing people place” | (KE) áa + ḵu-ya-du-∅-√jee + yé →  [there + someone-(4h.O).vsf.someone-(4h.S).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√awful/terrible + place]

áa sháak (landform) lake | head of a lake | áa + sháak →  lake + head-(of body of water) (JL)

áa shú (landform) lake | lower end of the lake | especially but not necessarily the end of the head of the lake | áa + shú →  lake + end (JL)

áa táak (landform) lake | bottom of lake | áa + táak →  lake + bottom-of/submerged-in (JL)

áa tug̱úḵlʼi (compound noun) whitefish | mountain whitefish | (JL) áa + tu-g̱úḵlʼ-i →  lake + inside.swan.relational ° (Prosopium williamsoni) °

Áa Tlein (region name) Atlin | "Big Lake" | (KE, TT)

Áa Tlein Ḵwáan (region name) people ¹ | People of the Atlin Area; "People of the Big Lake" | Included Communities: Atlin | (TT, AH, NR, JC, JL, HJ)

Wolf/Eagle Clans

Yanyeidí | People of Hemlock House; People of the Mainland

Daḵlʼaweidí | People of the Inland Sandbar

Raven/Crow Clans

Ishkeetaan | People of Deep Pool in the River House

Kooḵhittaan | People of Cellar House

Deisheetaan | People of the End of the Trail House

áa wát (landform) lake | mouth of lake | (JL) áa + wát →  lake + mouth-(of body of water)

áa x̱ʼayaax̱ (landform) lake | lake side; lake shore; around the shore of the lake | áa + x̱ʼa-yaax̱ →  lake + mouth.along-edge (JL)

áa yax̱ (preverb) turning over | for motion verbs, creates a ∅-conjugation motion verb (towards a terminus) | áa + ÿax̱ →  there + turning-over (JC)

áa yaax̱ (landform) lake | lake side; lake shore; around the shore of the lake | áa + yaax̱ →  lake + along-edge (JL)

áabíns (borrowed noun) • variants: áagúns, xʼáaxʼ • apple | from English "apple" | (JL)

áadaa (noun) spear ² | spear for fish and seal; "one that attacks" | (KE) √.aat⁷-aa →  √attack.one(s)

áagadi (compound noun) basket | unfinished basket; "woven thing (out of bark)" | √.áak-át-i →  √weave-(bark).thing-(4n.i).relational (JL)

Áakʼw (placename) Auke Lake | áa-kʼw →  lake.[diminutive] (TT)

áakʼw (landform) lake | little lake | áa-kʼw →  lake.[diminutive] (KE)

Áakʼw Ḵwáan (region name) people ¹ | People of the Áakʼw Area; "People of the Little Lake" | Included Communities: Auke Bay, southern Lynn Canal, Juneau area, and northern Admiralty Island | áa-kʼw + ḵwáan →  lake.[diminutive] + people-of (AH (TT, AH, NR, JC, JL, HJ)

Wolf/Eagle Clans

Wooshkeetaan | People of the Houses Facing Each Other

Raven/Crow Clans

Yax̱tehittaan | People of the Big Dipper House

Lʼeeneidí | People of Dog Salmon Creek

Lʼuknax̱.ádi | People of Coho Community Bay

G̱aanax̱.ádi | People of Sheltered Harbor (Port Stewart in northern Behm Canal)

–áali (kinship term) grandparent | used in Southern Tlingit instead of –léelkʼw requires a preceding noun to show the relationship, as in « ax̱ léelkʼw » (my grandparent); can be used without a pronoun when speaking directly with oneʼs grandparent as with other kindship terms, can be used to show clan kinship and personal closeness | (JL)

áan (noun) trap ² | type of small fish trap | fish trap, smaller than « noow » | (JL)

áanjís (borrowed noun) • variants: áanjís daayí • oranges | from English “oranges”; áanjís daayí ("the peel is orange") | (KE)

áanjís kahéeni (compound noun) orange juice | áanjís + ka-héen-i →  orange(s) + hsf.water.relational (KE) • variants: áanj kahéeni •

Áankich (borrowed noun) Anchorage | (KE) borrowed placename, from English "Anchorage"

áatʼl (noun) pit | pit for aging eulachon grease; pit lined with skunk cabbage used for food storage | likely related to verb root √áatʼ (cold) lined with canvas and covered so flies canʼt get in | (JL)

áatʼlani (noun) shell; slime | slime inside its shell (of shellfish) | « at áatʼlani » is "something precious" | (JL)

-ch 1 (suffix) because | often appears as « ách áwé » (because of that) or « ách áyá » (because of this) | (KE)

-ch 2 (suffix) | ergative marker | marks the subject of a transitive verb | (JC)

-ch 3 (suffix) | instrumental marker | used to mark a noun that is used as an instrument to perform the verb | tíx’x’i sáani x̱aat ách daa wdudzi.ax̱u wé yáanaa →  small strings of spruce roots tying the pack (Shaadaaxʼ, Haa Shuká 76–77) (JC)

chál (noun) platform cache; house cache; shed | compare Eyak « jił » (platform cache; bunkbed) | (KE, JC) • variants: chíl (S, T) •

chál xook (compound noun) • variants: chíl xook • dry; fish ¹; frozen | fish air-dried in cold weather and allowed to freeze | softer and more tender than ordinary dried fish | chál + √xook →  cache + √dried (JL)

chán (noun) smell: bad smell, odor; stench; odor: strong odor

–chaan (kinship term) mother-in-law | (KE)

Cháanwaan (borrowed noun) Chinese | from "China man" | (KE)

Cháanwaan héeni (compound noun) soy sauce | "Chinese personʼs water" • variants: kóoshdaa lóoxʼu •

cháasʼ (noun) salmon; humpy | pink salmon; humpy salmon | (KE) ° (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) °

cháash (noun) brush ¹; bough; branch | bough or branch with needles on it (especially of spruce) | used to sit or lie on, to keep meat, etc. off the ground, or to build temporary structures | (JL)

cháash hít (compound noun) house; hut | brush house | temporary shelter, often built while traveling or hunting, or for women in isolation for first menstruation or the birth of a child | (JL) • variants: (T), chashhít (At, T) •

cháashgaa (verbal noun) cup; can | from Russian "чашка" | (KE, JC) • variants: (Y), gúxʼaa •

cháatl (noun) halibut | (KE)

cháatl astʼeix̱í (compound noun) halibut fisher | cháatl + a-s-√tʼeix̱-í →  halibut + a-theme.cl-(–d,s,–i).√fish-with-hook.relational (KE)

cháax̱ (noun) grebe | horned grebe or red-necked grebe | locally called helldiver | (KE) ° (Podiceps auritus/grisegena?) °

cháayoo (borrowed noun) tea | from Russian "чаю" (chayu) • variants: dée (T) •

chéx̱ʼi (noun) • variants: chéix̱ʼaa (C), chíx̱ʼi (T), chéex̱ʼi (At), chéex̱ʼaa (At) • shade; shadow | shadow(s) cast by landforms, etc. | (KE)

chéiwís (borrowed noun) cherries | from English "cherries" | (JC)

chich.uwaa (compound noun) shark | "looks like a porpoise"; porpoise-like shark | cheech-ÿu-ÿa-√yaa →  porpoise.pfv.cl-(–d,∅,+i).√look-like/resemble (KE)

–chíg̱ayi (body part) foot ¹; paw | forefoot; front paw | (JL)

chíx̱ʼi (noun) • variants: (T), chéex̱ʼi (At), chéex̱ʼaa (At), chéx̱ʼi, chéix̱ʼaa (C) • shade; shadow(s) cast by landforms, etc. | (KE)

cheech (noun) porpoise | (KE)

chkʼw (particle) | term of endearment, especially made to grandchildren | (DK) • variants: shkʼw •

chudéi (noun) cod | Pacific tomcod | (JL) ° (Microgadus proximus) °

chush (postpositional pronoun) self: (to) -selfʼs | reflexive postpositional (rflx.PP) used in certain verbs where something is going towards the object (literally or figuratively) a special type of pronoun that combines three things: possessive pronoun, empty base, and relational suffix other possessive pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

ax̱ ee- ⁓ x̱aan ⁓ x̱áat | (to) me →  first person singular postpositional (1s.PP)

haa ee- ⁓ haan | (to) us →  first person plural postpositional (1p.PP)

i ee- | (to) you →  second person singular postpositional (2s.PP)

yee ee- | (to) you all →  second person plural postpositional (2p.PP)

du ee- ⁓ u- | (to) her/him →  third person human singular postpositional (3s.PP)

has du ee- ⁓ s du ee- | (to) them (p) →  third person plural postpositional (3p.PP)

a ee- ⁓ aan | (to) it →  third person nonhuman postpositional (3p.PP)

ash ee- | (to) this person →  third person proximal postpositional (3prx.PP)

a ee- ⁓ a- | (to) that other person →  third person obviate postpositional (3obv.PP)

ḵaa ee- ⁓ ḵu ee- ⁓ ḵoon | (to) someone →  fourth person human postpositional (4h.PP)

at ee- | (to) something →  fourth person nonhuman postpositional (4n.PP)

aa ee- | (to) one, some →  partitive postpositional (part.PP)

chush | (to) -selfʼs →  reflexive postpositional (rflx.PP)

woosh, wooch | (to) each other →  reciprocal postpositional (recip.PP)

chush ⁓ sh- (possessive pronoun) -selfʼs | reflexive possessive (rflx.P) used to show a relationship between things, including ownership (« haa aaní » – “our land”), kinship term origination (« du éesh » – “their father”), the link to a relational base (« ax̱ x̱áni » – “next to me”), and conjugation of certain verbs (« du toowú sigóo » – “s/he is happy”) other possessive pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

ax̱ | my →  first person singular possessive (1s.P)

haa | our →  first person plural possessive (1p.P)

i | your →  second person singular possessive (2s.P)

yee | you allʼs →  second person plural possessive (2p.P)

du | their →  third person human singular possessive (3Hs.P)

has du ⁓ s du | their (p) →  third person plural possessive (3p.P)

a | its →  third person nonhuman possessive (3N.P)

ash | this galʼs/guyʼs →  third person proximal possessive (3prx.P)

a | that other galʼs/guyʼs →  third person obviate possessive (3obv.P)

ḵaa | someoneʼs →  fourth person human possessive (4h.P)

at | somethingʼs →  fourth person nonhuman possessive (4n.P)

aa | oneʼs, someʼs →  partitive possessive (part.P)

chush ⁓ sh- | -selfʼs →  reflexive possessive (rflx.P)

woosh, wooch | each otherʼs →  reciprocal possessive (recip.P)

chush wuskóowu (verbal noun) knowledge; identity | knowledge of the self; confidence in identity | chush + ÿu-s-√kóo-wu →  self-(rflx.O) + pfv.cl-(+d,s,–i).√know.relational (FS)

chúsh (independent pronoun) -self | reflexive independent (rflx.i) independent pronouns are not linked to anything grammatically, and are most often used in phrases like « yáadu x̱át » (here i am) and « uháan áyá » (it is us) signals reflexive properties, meaning that something is occuring to the self. In verbs, it occurs outside of the verb itself and is used in addition to other pronouns. When you study verbs more, you will see that this pushes verbs into middle voice (+D), which will make sense at a later date. For now, consider it as something like “to the self”, which makes more sense when seen with examples, such as: chush gudachx̱án (oneʼs own grandparent – achieved through clan lineage), sh tóog̱aa ditee (they-(s) is grateful; literally “s/he is okay inside”), and sh tóo altóow (s/he is studying it; literally “s/he is teaching inside themself-(s)”). other independent pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

x̱át | me →  first person singular independent (1s.i)

uháan | us →  first person plural independent (1p.i)

wa.é | you →  second person singular independent (2s.i)

yeewháan | you all →  second person plural independent (2p.i)

hú | they-(s) →  third person human singular independent (3Hs.i)

hás | them (p) →  third person plural independent (3p.i)

á | it →  third person nonhuman independent (3N.i)

ash | this person →  third person proximal independent (3prx.i)

á | that other person →  third person obviate independent (3obv.i)

ḵáa | someone →  fourth person human independent (4h.i)

át | something →  fourth person nonhuman independent (4n.i)

aa | one, some →  partitive independent (part.i)

chúsh | -self →  reflexive independent (rflx.i)

wóosh, wóoch | each other, together →  reciprocal independent (recip.i)

Chookaneidí (clan name) Clan | "People of Grass River"; Origin: Glacier Bay | Wolf/Eagle Moiety Teiḵweidí Migration, Xakwnoowkeidí Branch Chookaneidí Group Primary Crest: Brown Bear, Porpoise, Spirit Bear Secondary Crests: Wolf, Eagle, Murrelet, Glacier, Iceberg, Lady in the Ice, Killer Whale | chookán-héen-át-í →  grass.river/water.thing-(4n.i).relational (TT, AH, NR, JC, JL, HJ)

Xunaa Ḵáawu

Naanaa Hít | Upriver House

Xáatl Hít | Iceberg House

Xóots Sʼaag̱í Hít | Brown Bear Bones House

Yan Wuliháshi Hít | Drifted Ashore House

Aan Eeg̱ayaak Hít | On the Beach Below Town House

Shuxʼaa X̱áay Hít | First Yellow-cedar House

Sheetʼká Ḵwáan

Xáatl Hít | Iceberg House

Aan Eeg̱ayaak Hít | On the Beach Below Town House

chookanyátxʼi (compound noun) • variants: chookenyátxʼi • grass | short grass

chookán (noun) • variants: chookén (C), chookwán (T) • grass | (JL) ° (Gramineae) °

chookán aaní (landform) • variants: chookén aaní • grass; prairie | grasslands

chookán ká jánwu goat | domestic goat | chookán + ká + jánwu →  grass + on + mountain-goat (MH)

chookán ḵʼáatlʼ (compound noun) sedge | "flat grass" | chookán + ḵʼáatlʼ →  grass + flat (JL)

choon (noun) wound ² | (JL)

chooneit (compound noun) arrow | "wounding thing" | In coastal Tlingit this refers to the most common type of arrow, used for wounding or killing | √choon-át →  √wounded.thing-(4n.i) (JL)

chx̱ánkʼ (kinship term) grandchild | in Tlingit kinship, this term is used for biological grandchildren as well as people who are grandchildren of a clan endearing term used when speaking directly to oneʼs grandchild | (KE)

chʼa (particle) very; just | this particle rarely appears on its own, but instead often interacts with other particles | (KE)

chʼa aadóo sá (particle) • variants: chʼa aa sá • whoever; anybody; anyone | chʼa + aadóo + sá →  just + who + voice/name (KE)

chʼa aan ¹ (particle) although; even though; however; nonetheless; yet | there are two particles that create a shift in an argument: « ḵu.aa » makes more of a gradual shift in thinking, and « chʼa aan » is more of an abrubt shift in argument | (KE)

chʼa aan ² (particle) with | just with it | chʼa + a-ee-n →  just + its-(4n.i).[empty base].with

chʼa aanínáx̱ (particle) • variants: chʼa aanídáx̱, chʼa aan ḵúnáx̱ • kind ¹; gentle | do it with kindess!; do it gently! | (DK)

chʼa daa sá (particle) whatever; anything | chʼa + daa + sá →  just + what + voice/name (NR, JL)

chʼa daaḵw.aa sá (particle) • variants: chʼa daag̱u.aa sá, chʼa daatḵu.aa sá • any; one ²; which | any (certain one); whichever (one) | chʼa + daaḵw-aa + sá →  just + which.one(s)-(part.i) + voice/name (NR, JL)

chʼa gútgeen sá (Y) (particle) • variants: chʼa gwátgeen sá • any; time ²; when | any time (in the future); whenever (in the future) | (JL, DA) • variants: chʼa gwátgeen sá •

chʼa gootʼá sá (particle) wherever; anywhere; anyplace | chʼa + goo-t-aa + sá →  just + where.at-(arrived).one(s)-(part.i) + voice/name (KE) • variants: chʼa gootʼé sá (C) •

chʼa gooxʼ sá (particle) wherever; anywhere; anyplace | chʼa + goo-xʼ + sá →  just + where.at-(residing).one(s)-(part.i) + voice/name (KE)

chʼa gwátgeen sá (particle) • variants: chʼa gútgeen sá (Y) • any; time ²; when; future | any time (in the future); whenever (in the future) | (JL) • variants: chʼa gwátgeen sá •

chʼa gwátk sá (particle) • variants: chʼa gútk sá (Y) • any; time ²; when; past | any time (in the past); whenever (in the past) | (JL)

chʼa g̱ég̱aa (adverb) nothing; success; vain | "the one that just swings back"; in vain; for nothing; without success | chʼa + √g̱éḵ.aa →  just √swing.one(s)-(part.i) (JM, KE)

chʼa g̱óot (particle) different; other | chʼa + g̱óo-t →  just + different.at-(arrived) (KE, JL)

chʼa g̱óot yéide (adverb) different | different directions; differently | chʼa + g̱óo-t + yé-de →  just + different.at-(arrived) + way/manner.towards (SaJ)

chʼa keetáanáx̱! (adverb) casually; tactfully | deliberately, carefully; taking oneʼs time | (KE) chʼa + kee-√táa-náx̱ →  just + upwards.√sleep(?).through

chʼa koogéiyi (adverb) any; careless; random; way | any old way; randomly; carelessly | chʼa + ka-ÿu-ÿa-√géi-yi →  just + hsf.pfv.cl-(–d,∅,+i).√against/oppossing.relational (JL)

chʼa kʼát (particle) at least; once in a while | "just at the base of it" | chʼa + kʼí-ká-t →  just + base.on.at-(arrived) (KE) • variants: chʼa kʼikát, chʼa kʼeekát (At,T) •

chʼa kʼikát (particle) • variants: chʼa kʼát, chʼa kʼeekát, chʼe kʼeekét • ago; barely; just; little; manage | just barely; barely managing (to do a little); just now; a little while ago; "just on the base of it" | chʼa + kʼí-ká-t →  just + base.on.at-(arrived) (KE) chʼa kʼeekát at x̱waax̱áa →  i managed to eat a little bit (JL) chʼa kʼikát neil ayaawadlaaḵ →  they-(s) managed to make it home (JL) chʼe kʼeekét x̱wasiteen →  i just saw her/him not long ago (JL)

chʼa ldakát át (particle) everything | every single thing | chʼa + ldakát + át →  just + all + thing-(4n.i) (KE)

chʼa ldakát ḵáa (particle) everybody | every single person | (KE) chʼa + ldakát + ḵáa →  just + all + person-(4h.i)

chʼa ldakát yé (particle) everywhere | every single place | chʼa + ldakát + yé →  just + all + place (KE)

chʼa neechx̱ (adverb) nothing; success; vain | in vain; for nothing; without success; "just along the beach" | chʼa + neech-x̱ →  just + beach.along/at-(repeatedly) (SE)

chʼa tlákw (particle) always; all the time; constantly | often used before repetitive forms of verbs to create "always {verb}" | (KE)

chʼa tleix̱ (particle) forever

chʼa wáa kugei sá (particle) • variants: chʼa máa kugei sá • any; amount | any amount; however many | | chʼa + wáa + ka-u-∅-√gei + sá →  just + how + [comparitive].irr.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√big/lots + voice/name (NR, JL)

chʼa wáa sá (particle) however; any (old) way | | chʼa + wáa + sá →  just + how + voice/name (NR, JL)

chʼa wáa yateeyi aa sá (particle) any kind (of); whichever kind | | chʼa + wáa + ya-√tee-yi + sá →  just + how + [comparitive].irr.√big/lots + voice/name (NR, JL)

chʼa yákʼw (adverb) suddenly; immediately; right away | (KE) • variants: chʼa yáakʼw, chʼa yóokʼ •

chʼa yeisú (particle) finally; just; now | just now; finally | (JL)

chʼa yéi (particle) ordinary ; usual | (KE)

chʼa yéi yigoowáatlʼ (particle) time ²; while | a short time; a short while | can be used before a phrase to indicate that it occured for a short time | Chʼa yéi yigoowáatlʼ áwé chʼas xíxchʼ yáx̱ yoo x̱ʼayatánk. →  She could only speak like a frog for a while. (GD, MD)

chʼa yóokʼ (particle) • variants: chʼa yákʼw, chʼa yáakʼw • suddenly; immediately; right away | (KE)

chʼakʼyéisʼ (compound noun) eagle | immature eagle; "discolored eagle" | the head feathers are dark | chʼáakʼ-√yéisʼ →  eagle.discolored/bruised (KE) ° (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) ° ,

chʼaḵúx̱ (compound noun) • variants: chaḵúx̱, jaḵúx̱ • boat ¹; canoe | skin canoe | dzískʼu doogú chʼeḵúx̱ →  moose skin canoe (JL)

chʼas (particle) just; only

–chʼáadu (body part) epidermis; hide ²; skin ¹ | outer layer of skin; outer layer of hide | used in reference to the entire layer of skin that can be squeezed into a fold between the fingers especially of moose hide: a black layer that is scraped off in the tanning process likely –chʼáat when intact on living thing | (JL)

chʼáagu– (adjective) old; ancient | prenominal adjective: appears immediately before the noun that it affects | (KE, JC)

chʼáakw (adverb) ago; ancient; back ³; long; old; then | long ago; back then; back in those days; in the old days; in ancient times | most commonly translates as 'long ago' but in certain contexts, or when said before a verb (sometimes as « chʼáagudé») it translates as 'for a long time' • variants: chʼákw • || time ² | for a long time | (JL)

chʼáakʼ (noun) eagle | bald eagle | «  shaayáal, shaayakag̱ídi, gijook, ḵa dóol áwé chʼáakʼ x̱oonxʼí » – they (p) are members of the eagle family ° (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) °

chʼáakʼ eex̱í (compound noun) • variants: chʼáakʼ kichtu.eex̱í • butter | "eagle oil"; "eagle wing marrow" | chʼáakʼ + eex̱-í →  eagle + oil.relatonal chʼáakʼ + kich-tu-eex̱-í →  eagle + wing.inside.oil.relatonal (JL)

chʼáakʼ loowú (compound noun) eagleʼs beak (alienated) || (color) yellow | dark yellow

chʼáakʼ x̱aagú (compound noun) banana | chʼáakʼ + x̱aakw-u →  eagle + claw (JL)

chʼáalʼ (noun) willow | (KE) ° (Salix sitchensis Sanson) ° || (color) white | used to describe someoneʼs face when the color has gone out | (JM)

–chʼáatwu (body part) skin ¹ | surface of skin | (KE)

chʼeix̱ʼ (noun) • variants: chʼeex̱ʼ • thimbleberry; berry | (JL) ° (Rubus parviflorus) °

–chʼéix̱ʼi (body part) • variants: –chʼéex̱ʼi, –chʼíx̱ʼayi • finger | first finger; index finger | (KE)

chʼéix̱ʼw (noun) dirt; dirtiness; dust | dirt, dust (covering something, making it dirty) | (KE, JL)

chʼiyáash canoe | sea otter hunting canoe with an angular prow for breaking the waves; flat bottomed canoe

chʼeet (noun) murrelet; auklet | (KE)

chʼeetg̱áa (noun) skate | ocean creature related to the shark and the ray | (KE) ° (Family Raiidae) °

chʼéen (noun) ribbon; bow ² | (JL)

chʼéeni kwlayáatʼ (compound noun) • variants: chʼéeni kwleyáatʼ • gooseberry | "long pony tail" | chʼéen-i + ka-u-la-√yáatʼ →  ribbon-relational + comparitive-irrealis-cl.(l)-√long (JL) ° (Ribes lacusfris) °

chʼu even; still | this particle rarely appears on its own, but instead often interacts with other particles | (JL, KE) • variants: chʼoo •

chʼu déix̱ (particle) both | (KE)

chʼu shóogu (particle) same | (KE)

chʼu tle (particle) then; time ² | just at that time | used before a verb to create "when {verb}" or "while {verb}" will be used often to tie a series of actions together often appears with the particle « chʼu » and becomes "just then" use varies from speaker to speaker, and it can appear multiple times in one sentence, often to show the immediacy of a string of actions | Tle ḵúnáx̱ kʼidéin yan ax̱éixʼw áwé, ḵaa x̱oot wujikʼén wé át wé Áa Tayaadi. →  When they (p) were fast asleep the Lake-bottom-child [a type of bird] came hopping among them (p). (EN) (KE)

chʼu wooch yáx̱ (phrase) same | the same way each time | the verb that follows should be in the perfective habitual form | chʼu + wooch + yáx̱ →  just + together-(recip.i) + similar (MD)

da- (classifier) | ∅ group classifier; (+d,∅,–i) | Tlingit classifiers combine with verb roots and optional thematic prefixes to form a verb the verb root contains meaning, and the classifier communicates what the verb does classifiers change group and become a different verb when the activity the verb describes changes, and examples would be « ayatéen (∅, "seeing") and « altín » (l, "watching") which have the same root but a different classifier a Tlingit classifier is –i for incomplete activity and +i for complete activity a Tlingit classifier is –d by default and +d for middle voice (subject is also object, which includes reflexive and reciprocal forms), antipassives that remove the embedded object pronoun, and fourth person human (« 4H ») subjects for l, s, & sh classifiers it helps to think of default form as –d & –i, and the classifier changes from there to move into certain modes ∅ group is the default group, and then s group, and then l group, and then the rare sh group

–i verb modes

act imperfective (+) | they-(s) is doing it; they-(s) does it

imperfective (–) | they-(s) is not doing it; they-(s) does not do it

progressive imperfective (+) | they-(s) is in the process of doing it

perfective (–) | they-(s) didnʼt do it

imperative | do it!

perfective habitual (+) | they-(s) does it (every time)

perfective habitual (–) | they-(s) hasnʼt done it yet

future (+) | they-(s) will do it; it will happen

future (–) | they-(s) wonʼt do it; they-(s) is not going to do it; it wonʼt happen

hortative | let her/him do it; let us do it

repetitive imperfective | they-(s) does it (regularly)

potential decessive | they-(s) would have done it

conditional | if/when they-(s) does it

+i verb modes

state imperfective (+) | they-(s) is doing it; they-(s) does it

perfective (+) | they-(s) did it

potential (+) | they-(s) might do it

potential (–) | they-(s) might not do it

potential attributive | no way they-(s) can do it

∅ group

∅- | (–d,∅,–i)

ÿa- | (–d,∅,+i)

da- | (+d,∅,–i)

di- | (+d,∅,+i)

s group

sa- | (–d,∅,–i)

si- | (–d,∅,+i)

s- | (+d,∅,–i)

dzi- | (+d,∅,+i)

l group

la- | (–d,∅,–i)

li- | (–d,∅,+i)

l- | (+d,∅,–i)

dli- | (+d,∅,+i)

sh group

sha- | (–d,∅,–i)

shi- | (–d,∅,+i)

sh- | (+d,∅,–i)

ji- | (+d,∅,+i)

–dachóon (relational base) straight towards –; directly towards – | (KE)

–dachx̱án (kinship term) grandchild | in Tlingit kinship, this term is used for biological grandchildren as well as people who are grandchildren of a clan | (KE)

dagatgiyáa (noun) hummingbird | possibly a borrowed noun or a verbal noun | (KE) • variants: digitgiyáa •

daginaa (independent base) • variants: diginaa • center; front; open ²; out; sea; room | outer part (toward the open, center of house, clearing, out to sea); front room | (JL)

–dagiygé (relational base) • variants: –dagikyé, –dagiyigé, –digeengé • middle | middle of | dagi-ÿá-gé →  into-open.vsf.against/opposing (KE)

dag̱a- (verb prefix) each of them (p) | pluralizes the subject of a subject intransitive verb or the object or a transitive or object intransitive verb • variants: dax̱-, daḵ- •

dag̱anḵú (compound noun) afterlife | "in the area of the interior land" | daaḵ-aan-ḵu →  inland.land-(inhabited).areal • variants: dax̱anḵú •

dag̱asáa (verbal noun) squid | dag̱a-∅-√sáa →  distr.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√narrow [?]

dag̱inaa (independent base) • variants: dig̱inaa • back ²; inland; interior; room | back part (toward inland, toward the interior, away from the open); back room | (JL)

Dag̱istinaa (clan name) Clan | "Inland Channel Clan"; Origin: Blake Channel, Wrangell Island | Wolf/Eagle Moiety Teiḵweidí Migration Dag̱istinaa Group Primary Crest: Thunderbird Secondary Crests: Wolf, Eagle, Shark, Sun | daaḵ-séet-i-naa →  inland.channel.[peg vowel].clan/tribe/nation (TT, AH, NR, JC, JL, HJ)

Jilḵáat Ḵwáan

Xeitl Hít | Thunderbird House

Shísʼg̱i Hít | Sapling House

G̱unaax̱oo Ḵwáan

Yaakwdáat Ḵwáan

Xeitl Hít | Thunderbird House

-dahéen (suffix) number of times | (JL)

dahooní (verbal noun) salesperson; shopkeeper; clerk | "seller" | da-√hoon-í →  cl-(+d,∅,–i).√sell.relational (KE)

–dakádin (relational noun) direction; opposite; other; way | (facing) the opposite direction from it, the other way

–dakán (relational base) facing; away | facing away from

?

dakínde (independent base) • variants: dikínde, kínde • up; above | upward | kín-de →  upwards.towards (KE)

dakwyeit (compound noun) canoe; container | wooden container or canoe used for rendering

daḵéisʼ (verbal noun) sewing | da-√ḵáa-sʼ →  cl-(+d,∅,–i).√sew (KE)

daḵka.ádi (compound noun) • variants: daaḵ ka.ádi • animal | animal in the woods; animal that walks on land | daaḵ-ká-át-i →  inland.on.thing-(4n.i).relational (JL)

daḵká (compound noun) back ²; inland; interior; woods | up in the woods; inland; back (away from the open, away from the waterʼs edge, inside) | daaḵ-ká →  inland.on (KE) || inland; interior

Daḵlʼaweidí (clan name) Clan | "People of the Inland Sandbar"; Origin: Stikine River | Wolf/Eagle Moiety Killerwhale Migration, Daḵlʼaweidí Group Primary Crests: Killerwhale, Eagle Secondary Crests: Wolf, Dog Spirit, Octopus, Seal, Glacier, Iceberg, Flicker, Shark, Moth female version can be Daḵlʼawsháa | daaḵ-lʼéiw-át-i →  inland.sand.thing.[possession] (TT, AH, NR, JC, JL, HJ)

Taantʼá Ḵwáan

Kéet Hít | Killerwhale House

G̱ooch Hít | Wolf House

Yasku Hít | Wasgo(?) House [from Haida]

Kóon Hít | Flicker (Woodpecker) House

Xutsnoowú Ḵwáan

Kéet Hít | Killerwhale House

Yaa Ayanasnaḵ Kéet Hít | Killerwhale Chasing after It (Seal) House

Kéet Oox̱ú Hít | Killerwhale Tooth House

Jilḵáat Ḵwáan

Chʼeet Hít | Murrelet House

Tleilú Hít | Moth House

Kéet Gooshí Hít | Killerwhale Dorsal Fin House

Kéet Ḵwáani Hít | Killerwhale People House

Kéet Lʼóotʼi Hít | Killerwhale Tongue House

Kéet Déx̱ʼi Hít | Killerwhale Backbone House

Áatlein Ḵwáan

Deisleen Ḵwáan

Taagish Ḵwáan

Kéet Hít | Killerwhale House

daneit (compound noun) grease; oil; box | grease, oil put away in a box || box; container | 7.33; large box for storing grease, oil | daa-∅-√né-át [?] →  around/about.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√do/work-on.thing-(4n.i) (JL)

daṉeiyí (borrowed noun) trout | lake trout | the letter ṉ is a voiced L, as in the English word “lake”, which is a very rare sound in Tlingit, and probably means this is a word borrowed from a neighboring language

daséikw (verbal noun) • variants: x̱ʼaséikw • breath; life | da-√sáa-kw →  cl-(+d,∅,–i).√breathe/rest du x̱ʼaséigu shoowaxeex →  his/her life ended (JL)

–daséixʼ (relational noun) grasp; out; reach ² | out of their reach, grasp | du daséi uwaxíx →  it landed out of his reach (JL)

–daséixʼán (compound noun) • variants: –daséixʼín • trade; take; turn ²; place | trading goods; trading places; taking turns | tlél gé aadé wé i Náaḵw Tlʼeeg̱í Wootsaag̱áa daséixʼán? →  why not trade for your Octopus Tentacle Cane? (RZ) i daséixʼán naḵagoot →  iʼll go after youʼre done (JL) du deséixʼ wudihaan →  they-(s) got up and took their place daséixʼ-án →  out-of-reach.? (JL)

datóow xʼúxʼ (compound noun) book | "paper/book to read" | da-√tóow + xʼúxʼ →  cl-(+d,∅,–i).√read/count + membrane

dax̱adooshú (number) seven | "someone extends [their (p) hand] to the second one" | déix̱-aa-du-w-ÿa-√shú →  two.one(s)-(part.i)..someone.[perfective].[classifer].√extends (CG)

dax̱adooshóonáx̱ (number) seven | seven people | used for counting people only | (KE)

dax̱áchxʼi (verbal noun) boat ¹ | tugboat | da-√x̱ách-xʼ-i →  cl-(+d,∅,–i).√tow.[plural].relational (JL)

dax̱dahéen two | twice; two times | (KE)

dax̱yeekaadé two | two different kinds, types; two different ways, directions | déix̱-yee-ká-dé →  two.below.on.towards (KE)

?

dayínde ¹ (preverb) • variants: diyínde, yínde • down; below | downward | (JL)

–dayéen (relational base) facing | (KE)

dágáa (particle) sure: for sure | (KE) • variants: sdágáa •

dákde át (compound noun) east; wind ¹ | offshore east wind | daak-de + át →  seaward-towards + thing-(4n.i) (JL)

dákdesaxʼaak (compound noun) mackerel | "swims underwater out to sea" | daak-de-sa-√xʼaak →  seaward.towards.cl-(–d,s,–i).√swim-(underwater) (KE)

dákwtasi (compound noun) • variants: dákwx̱utasi • eulachon | mushy remains of rendered eulachon || fertilizer | mushy remains of rendered eulachon | √dákw-tasi →  √render-fat.sinew

–dáli (relational noun) weight ² | the weight of | usually in pounds | –√dál-i →  √be-heavy.relational (JL)

dáxw (noun) cranberry; berry; Lingonberry | (JL) ° (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) °

-dáx̱ (relational suffix) • variants: -tx̱, -x̱ • from; out of || since | since (that time) | contraction from « -dáx̱ » to « -tx̱ » is optional when the suffix attaches to an open noun contraction to « -x̱ » occurs when attaching to « áa » (that place), which creates « aax̱ » (from there) closed monosyllable Tlingit suffixes are high tone, and open monosyllable suffixes are opposite of the tone of the preceding vowel | (KE, JC)

dáx̱g̱aa (number) two | two by two | (KE)

dáx̱g̱aanáx̱ (number) two | people two by two | (KE)

dáx̱náx̱ (number) two | two people | used for counting people only | (KE)

–daa ¹ (body part) body | body; around the body | (JL)

–daa ² (relational base) around; about; concerning | (JL)

–daa ax̱áayi (body part) flippers | flippers (of fish); " body paddles" | daa + ax̱áa-yi →  around/about/body + paddle.relational (NR)

daa yaa ḵug̱átch (verbal noun) dizziness | daa + yaa + ḵu-∅-√g̱át-ch →  around/about + along + areal.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√disoriented.[habitual] (JL)

–daa yoo jikwli.átgi (verbal noun) attendant | daa + yoo + ji-ka-ÿu-li√.át-k-i →  about + to/fro + hand.hsf.pfv.cl-(–d,l,+i).√communicate.repetitive.relational (FD)

–daadleeyí (body part) flesh; corpse | "body flesh" | daa-dleey-í →  body.flesh.relational

daak (independent base) out; sea | out to sea (from the shore); out into the open (from the shadows) || fall | for precipitation to fall || on ¹ | onto fire

–daakahídi (compound noun) building | building around | daaká-hít-i →  around-outside.house.relational (JC)

–daakakʼátsʼi (compound noun) thorn | thorn(s); "sharps around it" | daa-ka-√kʼátsʼ-i →  around.hsf.√sharp.relational (JL)

–daakanóoxʼu (kinship term) ancestor | ancestor(s) of – (term of respect, usually referring to oneʼs motherʼs motherʼs father); "shell around the outside surface of –" | in Tlingit kinship, this is a clan from the opposite moiety, that is the motherʼs motherʼs fatherʼs clan use of this term signifies a special ancestral relationship, often referred to as "protective outer shell" | daaká-nóoxʼ-u →  around-outside.shell.relational (KE)

–daakashú omen; sign | (something done) at its expense, to its detriment, portending ill for it; "the end around the outside surface of –" | daaká-shú →  around-outisde.end i dáanayi daakashóo x̱wsinee →  i took a lot of money out of you to do that work; you gave me lots and now youʼre out of it ax̱ ádi daakashú →  my precious things a daakashú yéi x̱at woonee →  what the signs pointed to happened to me du daakashú aawajoon →  they-(s) had a bad dream about her/him (JL)

–daaká (relational base) around; contain; enclose; outside | (around) the outside surface of it | the outside surface of an enclosure or object that has a continuous surface around it | a daaká nanéegwálʼ! →  paint around it! (JL) hít daaká →  around the outside of a house (JL)

daakeit (compound noun) container | "thing around the outside" | daaká-át →  around-outside.thing-(4n.i)

daaḵ (independent base) inland; interior; woods | up in the woods (from the shore); inland | (JC, KE) || back ² | back (from the open) || off | off of fire

daaḵw.aa sá (question particle) • variants: daaḵu.aa sá, daag̱u.aa sá, daatḵu.aa sá • one ²; some; which | which (one); some (certain one) | determiners may be added to « sá » as in « daaḵw.aa sáyá » (which one is this?), « daaḵw.aa sáwé? » (which one is that?) question particles combine most commonly to form questions, but can also be used to create statements like « jánwu alʼóon, sʼaax̱, daa sáyá át wu.aadí » (he hunts mountain goats, marmots, whatever went around there) (David Kadashan 6) some speakers differentiate between human (daaḵu.aa sá) and a non-human thing (daatḵu.aa sá) | daaḵw.aa sá i tuwáa sigóo? →  which one of them (p) do you want? daaḵw.aa naax̱ sá isitee? →  which clan/moiety/tribe are you? (JC,KE)

–daaleilí (body part) skin ¹ | "body flab"; wrinkled skin; flabby skin | (JL, KE) daa-√leil-í →  body.√flabby/wrinkled

–daanéegu (verbal noun) • variants: –daanóogu, –daanúgu • disease; sickness | sickness, disease (overall, throughout his/her body) | daa-∅-√néekw-u →  around/body.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√sick/hurt.relational (JL)

–daasʼaag̱í (body part) fin | pelvic fin (of fish)

–daashagóon (body part) body | body parts | daa-shagóon →  body.components/parts (KE)

–daat (relational noun) about; concerning | (JC)

daat g̱aa sá (question particle) purpose; some; what; why | why; going after what; waiting for what; for some purpose | this often translates to "for what purpose" or "going after what" determiners may be added to « sá » as in « daat yís sáyá » (what is this for?), « daat yís sáwé? » (what is that for?) question particles combine most commonly to form questions, but can also be used to create statements like « jánwu alʼóon, sʼaax̱, daa sáyá át wu.aadí » (he hunts mountain goats, marmots, whatever went around there) (David Kadashan 6) | daat g̱aa sá hóon daakahídidé yaa neegút? →  what are you going to the store for? (JC, JL)

daa(t) sá (question particle) what | the most common form is « daa » determiners may be added to « sá » as in « daa sáyá » (what is this?), « daa sáwé? » (what is that?) question particles combine most commonly to form questions, but can also be used to create statements like « jánwu alʼóon, sʼaax̱, daa sáyá át wu.aadí » (he hunts mountain goats, marmots, whatever went around there) (David Kadashan 6) | daa sá i tuwáa sigóo? →  what do you want? (NR) daat eetéenáx̱ sá iyatee? →  what do you need? (NR) (JC,KE)

daat yís sá (question particle) reason; some; what; why | why; for what reason; for what benfit; for some reason | this often translates to "for what benefit" or "for what is it being given" determiners may be added to « sá » as in « daat yís sáyá » (what is this for?), « daat yís sáwé? » (what is that for?) question particles combine most commonly to form questions, but can also be used to create statements like « jánwu alʼóon, sʼaax̱, daa sáyá át wu.aadí » (he hunts mountain goats, marmots, whatever went around there) (David Kadashan 6) | haa, daat yís sáwé a káaxʼ x̱ʼeedagáxʼx̱ ag̱eeshaayít? →  why do you pray to marry? (RZ, Dauenhauer, "Tracking ʼYuwaan Gagéetsʼ") (JC, JL)

–daateedí (relational noun) wake ²; wave ¹ | wake; the waves coming off it or generated by | daa-teet-í →  around.wave.relational yaakw daateedí →  wake of a boat (JL)

–daatʼaawú (body part) fin | fins (of fish) | daa-tʼaaw-ú →  body.feather.relational

daaw (noun) kelp | ribbon kelp ° (Alaria marginata) ° || kelp | ribbon kelp on which herring have spawned

daaxʼoon (number) four | (KE)

daaxʼoon yakyee (compound noun) • variants: daaxʼoon yagiyee, daaxʼoon yagee • Thursday; day | "fourth day" | daaxʼoon + yakyee →  four + day (JL)

daaxʼoondahéen (number) four | four times | (KE)

daaxʼoonínáx̱ (number) four | four people | used for counting people only | (KE)

–daayí (plant part) bark ¹ | (KE)

daa.aax̱w (verbal noun) bundle | "tie around" | daa-∅-√.aax̱w →  around/about.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√.bind/wrap (JL)

–daa.it (body part) body | body; around the body | (KE)

–daa.itnagóowu (compound noun) actions | " body extends to it" | daa-it + na-∅-√góo-wu →  body/around.ends + na-md.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√extend.relational (JL)

daa.ittunéekw (compound noun) arthritis | "pain at the ends of the body" | daa.it-tú-néekw →  body-(ends).inside.sick/hurt

–daa.itwéisʼi (body part) gland | daa.it-wéisʼ-i →  body-(end).gland.relational (KE)

–daa.itx̱ʼáak (body part) joints | joints; between the bones; "between body" | daa.it + x̱ʼáak →  body-(ends) + between (JL)

dáa (noun) ermine; weasel | (KE)

dáadzi (noun) firestone; iron pyrite | (KE)

–dáadzi (body part) testicles | (JM, JL)

dáag̱i (preverb) shore; beach | out of the water onto the beach, shore | for motion verbs, creates a ∅-conjugation motion verb (towards a terminus) | (KE, JC)

–dáali (body part) rumen; stomach; paunch | rumen, main stomach (of ruminant) | (JL)

dáanaa (borrowed noun) dollar; silver dollar; silver; money; coin | from Chinook Jargon « dála » || (color) silver | (KE)

dáanaa katʼéex̱ʼi (compound noun) silversmith | "silver pounder" | dáanaa + ka-∅-√tʼéex̱ʼ-i →  silver + hsf.cl-(-d,∅,-i).√smash/pound.relational (KE) • variants: dáanaa tʼéex̱ʼi •

dáanaa la.aadí (compound noun) bank teller | "carrier of the money" | dáanaa + la-√.aat-í →  money + cl-(–d,l,–i).√carry-(baggage and personal items).relational (JL)

dáanaa sʼaatí (compound noun) rich ² | rich person; "money master" | dáanaa + sʼaatí →  silver + master/boss (KE)

dáanaa shoowú (compound noun) half dollar; fifty cents | dáanaa + shoowú →  dollar + half-of (KE)

dáanaa tʼéex̱ʼi (compound noun) silversmith | "silver pounder" | dáanaa + ka-∅-√tʼéex̱ʼ-i →  silver + hsf.cl-(-d,∅,-i).√smash/pound.relational (KE) • variants: dáanaa katʼéex̱ʼi •

dáanaa yélaa (verbal noun) money | counterfit money | dáanaa + √yél-aa →  money/silver + √raven.one(s)-(part.i) (JL)

dáasʼaa (verbal noun) snare | "the one that snares" | √dáasʼ-aa →  √snare-one(s)-(part.i) (KE)

dáat (noun) jelly; jam; jello | "jiggle" | (JL)

dáax̱ (noun) canoe | canoe under construction | (KE)

de (particle) • variants: dei • already; now | already; by now | appears before verbs to create "already [verbed]" or "at the time of [verb]"

-de (relational suffix) to; toward; until; in the manner of | closed monosyllable Tlingit suffixes are high tone, and open monosyllable suffixes are opposite of the tone of the preceding vowel | (KE, JC)

de x̱waa (adverb) finally | dei x̱waa kut wudiḵeen →  finally he flew away (BC)

desgwách (adverb) already | this adverb is often interpreted as "already" meaning that the verb has already begun to occur | (NR)

dei (landform) path; trail; road; street | (KE)

dei xʼayaax̱ (landform) trail ¹; path; road; street | side of the trail/path/road/street | dei + yaax̱ →  trail/road + edge-of

dei yaax̱ (landform) trail ¹; path; road; street | side of the trail/path/road/street | dei + yaax̱ →  trail/road + edge-of

dei yík (landform) bed ¹; trail ¹; path; road; street | on the trail/path/road/street; bed of the trail/path/road/street | dei + yík →  trail/road + in-(shallow container)

Deikeenaa (compound noun) Haida | "way out to sea tribe" | (KE) deikée-naa →  out-to-sea.clan

deikée (independent base) open ²; out; sea | way out to sea; out in the open water | (JC)

Deikée G̱aanax̱.ádi (clan name) Clan | "Out to Sea People of Sheltered Harbor"; Origin: Xaakka.aan (empty clam shell town), Baker Island | Raven/Crow Moiety G̱aanax̱.ádi Migration G̱aanax̱.ádi Group Primary Crests: Raven | deikée + g̱aanáx̱-át-i →  out-to-sea + sheltered-place.thing.relational (TT, AH, NR, JC, JL, HJ)

Heinyaa Ḵwáan

Deisleen (placename) Teslin | multiple interpretations of the name exist, including "hunting by moonlight" (BC), "trail on which people hid themselves" (GS), and a borrowed word from a neighboring Athabascan language

Deisleen Ḵwáan (region name) people ¹ | People of the Teslin Area; "People of Teslin" | Included Communities: Teslin multiple interpretations of the name exist, including "hunting by moonlight" (BC), "trail on which people hid themselves" (GS), and a borrowed word from a neighboring Athabascan language | (TT, AH, NR, JC, JL, HJ)

Wolf/Eagle Clans

Daḵlʼaweidí | People of the Inland Sandbar

Yanyeidí | People of Hemlock House; People of the Mainland

Raven/Crow Clans

Ishkeetaan | People of Deep Pool in the River House

Kooḵhittaan | People of Cellar House

Deisheetaan | People of the End of the Trail House

deishgí (particle) endless | seemingly endless; no end to it | (BC)

Deisheetaan (clan name) Clan | "People of the End of the Trail House" | Raven/Crow Moiety Deisheetaan Migration Deisheetaan Group Primary Crests: Beaver, Split Beaver (Teslin) Secondary Crests: Raven, Dragonfly, Mosquito, White Frog, Sockeye, Hawk, Bullhead, Needlefish | dei-shú-hít-taan →  road/trail.end.house.people-of-house (TT, AH, NR, JC, JL, HJ)

Xutsnoowú Ḵwáan

Dáanaa Hít | Silver House

Deishú Hít | End of the Trail House

Goon Hít | Spring (of water) House

Shdéen Hít | Steel House

Tuḵká Hít | Needlefish House

Yéil Hít | Raven House

Xutsnoowú Ḵwáan

Yéil Sʼaag̱í Hít | Raven’s Bones House

Kaaḵáakʼw Hít | Basket/Arch House

Áatlein Ḵwáan

Deisleen Ḵwáan

Taagish Ḵwáan

Deishú Hít | End of the Trail House

Shtaxʼhéen Ḵwáan

Deishú Hít | End of the Trail House

Deishú (placename) Haines | "End of the Trail" | dei-shú →  train/road.end (KE)

deix̱kajíntin (preverb) both; hand ¹ | with both hands | (JL)

?

deix̱kax̱ʼoostín (preverb) both; foot ¹ | on both feet; with both feet | (JL)

déi (particle) now | often appears after verbs in the imperative form to put urgency or immediacy into the command | (KE)

déi áwé! (interjection) knock it off!; stop it!; thatʼs enough! | (KE)

déil ká (preverb) guard; watch | on watch; on guard | déil kát hán/áa →  they stand/sit on guard

déili (landform) shelter | shelter (from wind or weather) | déil ká →  in the shelter || harbor | √déil-i →  √protect.relational (JL)

–déin vicinity | (in) the area of or around, (in) the vicinity of | (JC, KE) i déinnáx̱ aa i x̱oonxʼí →  your kin that live by/with you wé sʼigeidí déin gax̱too.áat →  weʼll go around where the beaver are (JL)

–déindáx̱ aa (compound noun) • variants: –déinde aa • close ²; rest ²; vicinity | the one(s) in the vicinity of it; the rest of it, them | haa déinde aa xʼúxʼ →  the books in our immediate vicinity daaḵw.aa a déindáx̱ atx̱á gí i tuwáa sigóo yix̱aayí? →  what other food do you want to eat? (BC) (JL)

déis (particle) now; turn ² | now you | used by inland spekaers in many instances where coastal speakers would say « wa.é ḵu.aa? », and could often be interpreted as 'and you?' or 'your turn.' | déi-sí →  now.maybe (JC)

déisaa (verbal noun) juice; seaweed | juice of clam or fish (used as seasoning) | sprinkled on seaweed for flavor

déix̱ (number) two | (KE) • variants: déex̱ (Y,A,T) •

déix̱ x̱ʼasiteeyi tséek (compound noun) bark ¹; stick | forked stick with two prongs used for debarking roots

déix̱ yakyee (compound noun) • variants: déix̱ yagiyee, déix̱ yagee • Tuesday; day | "second day" | déix̱ + yakyee →  two + day (JL)

di- (classifier) | ∅ group classifier; (+d,∅,+i) | Tlingit classifiers combine with verb roots and optional thematic prefixes to form a verb the verb root contains meaning, and the classifier communicates what the verb does classifiers change group and become a different verb when the activity the verb describes changes, and examples would be « ayatéen (∅, "seeing") and « altín » (l, "watching") which have the same root but a different classifier a Tlingit classifier is –i for incomplete activity and +i for complete activity a Tlingit classifier is –d by default and +d for middle voice (subject is also object, which includes reflexive and reciprocal forms), antipassives that remove the embedded object pronoun, and fourth person human (« 4H ») subjects for l, s, & sh classifiers it helps to think of default form as –d & –i, and the classifier changes from there to move into certain modes ∅ group is the default group, and then s group, and then l group, and then the rare sh group

–i verb modes

act imperfective (+) | they-(s) is doing it; they-(s) does it

imperfective (–) | they-(s) is not doing it; they-(s) does not do it

progressive imperfective (+) | they-(s) is in the process of doing it

perfective (–) | they-(s) didnʼt do it

imperative | do it!

perfective habitual (+) | they-(s) does it (every time)

perfective habitual (–) | they-(s) hasnʼt done it yet

future (+) | they-(s) will do it; it will happen

future (–) | they-(s) wonʼt do it; they-(s) is not going to do it; it wonʼt happen

hortative | let her/him do it; let us do it

repetitive imperfective | they-(s) does it (regularly)

potential decessive | they-(s) would have done it

conditional | if/when they-(s) does it

+i verb modes

state imperfective (+) | they-(s) is doing it; they-(s) does it

perfective (+) | they-(s) did it

potential (+) | they-(s) might do it

potential (–) | they-(s) might not do it

potential attributive | no way they-(s) can do it

∅ group

∅- | (–d,∅,–i)

ÿa- | (–d,∅,+i)

da- | (+d,∅,–i)

di- | (+d,∅,+i)

s group

sa- | (–d,∅,–i)

si- | (–d,∅,+i)

s- | (+d,∅,–i)

dzi- | (+d,∅,+i)

l group

la- | (–d,∅,–i)

li- | (–d,∅,+i)

l- | (+d,∅,–i)

dli- | (+d,∅,+i)

sh group

sha- | (–d,∅,–i)

shi- | (–d,∅,+i)

sh- | (+d,∅,–i)

ji- | (+d,∅,+i)

digitgiyáa (noun) hummingbird | possibly a borrowed noun or a verbal noun | (KE) • variants: dagatgiyáa •

dikínde (independent base) upwards | kín-de →  upwards.towards (KE) • variants: kínde •

dikée (independent base) above; heaven; sky; up | up; above; up in the sky, in heaven

Dikée Aanḵáawu (compound noun) • variants: Dikáanḵáawu, Haa Aanḵáawu • Deity; God; Lord; Creator | "person of the land above" | a post-contact term from Christianity | (KE) dikée + aan-ḵáa-wu →  above + land-(inhabited).person.relational

dikée g̱eiwú (compound noun) artificial intelligence | "high net" | dikée + g̱eiwú →  above + net (AB)

–dix̱ʼkatʼaawú (body part) • variants: dix̱ʼtʼaawú (T) • fin | anterior dorsal fin (of fish) | dix̱ʼ-ká-tʼaaw-ú →  back.on.feather.relational (JL)

–dix̱ʼtusʼaag̱í (body part) • variants: –díx̱ʼtú sʼaaḵx’í • back ¹; bone; spine | backbone; "bones inside the back" | díx̱ʼ-tú + sʼaaḵ-x’-í →  back.inside + bone.[plural].relational (JL)

diyáa (compound noun) across; other; side ² | across (especially of body of water); the other side (especially of body of water) | (JL)

diyáanax̱.á (compound noun) across; area; other; side ² | area across (especially of body of water); on the other side (especially of body of water) | diyáa-náx̱-á →  across/other-side.[focus] (KE)

diyeegooleit (borrowed noun) kayak; boat ¹ | skin kayak | (dL)

Diyée Aanḵáawu (compound noun) Satan; Devil | "person of the land above" | a post-contact term from Christianity | (KE) diyée + aan-ḵáa-wu →  below + land-(inhabited).person.relational

dís (noun) moon || month | (KE)

dís woox̱éiyi calendar | "moons passed" | dís + wu-∅-√x̱éi-yi →  moon + pfv.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√pass/overnight.relational

dís xʼúxʼu (compound noun) calendar | "moon paper" | dís + xʼúxʼ-u →  moon/month + paper/membrane.relational (RD)

dís x̱ʼusyee (compound noun) moon | moonbeam; "below the foot of the moon" | a beam of light from the moon | dís + x̱ʼus-yee →  moon + foot.below

dís x̱ʼus.eetí (compound noun) beam ²; moon | moonbeam; "footprint of the moon" | where a moonbeam hits a surface, illuminating it | dís + x̱ʼus-eetí →  moon + foot.remains/imprint

–díx̱ʼ (body part) back ¹ | (KE)

deegáa (verbal noun) dipnet (for eulachon) | "the one that dipnets for fish" | √deek-áa →  √dip-for-fish.one(s)-(part.i) (KE)

dée (T) (borrowed noun) tea | from English "tea" • variants: cháayoo •

déex̱ (number) two | (KE) • variants: (Y,A,T), déix̱ •

du (possessive pronoun) her; his | their | third person singular possessive (3s.P) used to show a relationship between things, including ownership (« haa aaní » – “our land”), kinship term origination (« du éesh » – “their father”), the link to a relational base (« ax̱ x̱áni » – “next to me”), and conjugation of certain verbs (« du toowú sigóo » – “s/he is happy”) other possessive pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

ax̱ | my →  first person singular possessive (1s.P)

haa | our →  first person plural possessive (1p.P)

i | your →  second person singular possessive (2s.P)

yee | you allʼs →  second person plural possessive (2p.P)

du | their →  third person human singular possessive (3Hs.P)

has du ⁓ s du | their (p) →  third person plural possessive (3p.P)

a | its →  third person nonhuman possessive (3N.P)

ash | this galʼs/guyʼs →  third person proximal possessive (3prx.P)

a | that other galʼs/guyʼs →  third person obviate possessive (3obv.P)

ḵaa | someoneʼs →  fourth person human possessive (4h.P)

at | somethingʼs →  fourth person nonhuman possessive (4n.P)

aa | oneʼs, someʼs →  partitive possessive (part.P)

chush ⁓ sh- | -selfʼs →  reflexive possessive (rflx.P)

woosh, wooch | each otherʼs →  reciprocal possessive (recip.P)

du- (subject pronoun) someone | fourth person human subject (4h.S) in a verb phrase, the subject is the agent in the verb used to indicate an unspecified person is the pronoun, and best translated as “someone” as a subject in verbs, it translates to “the verb occurs,” as in « yoo duwasáakw » (it is called), « hít wududliyéx̱ » (a house was built), and « adulʼeix̱ ax̱áa » (dance paddle) will make all ∅ classifiers –d and all non-∅ classifiers (s,l,sh) +d regardless of verb theme or mode will appear as « a- » in the object position for motion verbs other subject pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

x̱a- | i [subject] →  first person singular subject (1s.S)

tu- | we [subject] →  first person plural subject (1p.S)

i- | you [subject] →  second person singular subject (2s.S)

yi- | you all [subject] →  second person plural subject (2p.S)

∅- | they-(s) [subject] →  third person subject (3.S)

has + ∅- | they (p) [subject] →  third person pluralizer (3pl)

du- | someone [subject] →  fourth person human subject (4h.S)

woosh, wooch | each other, together [subject] →  reciprocal subject (recip.S)

du ee- ⁓ u- (postpositional pronoun) her; him | to her/him | third person human singular postpositional (3s.PP) used in certain verbs where something is going towards the object (literally or figuratively) a special type of pronoun that combines three things: possessive pronoun, empty base, and relational suffix other possessive pronouns are listed below | (JC, KE)

ax̱ ee- ⁓ x̱aan ⁓ x̱áat | (to) me →  first person singular postpositional (1s.PP)

haa ee- ⁓ haan | (to) us →  first person plural postpositional (1p.PP)

i ee- | (to) you →  second person singular postpositional (2s.PP)

yee ee- | (to) you all →  second person plural postpositional (2p.PP)

du ee- ⁓ u- | (to) her/him →  third person human singular postpositional (3s.PP)

has du ee- ⁓ s du ee- | (to) them (p) →  third person plural postpositional (3p.PP)

a ee- ⁓ aan | (to) it →  third person nonhuman postpositional (3p.PP)

ash ee- | (to) this person →  third person proximal postpositional (3prx.PP)

a ee- ⁓ a- | (to) that other person →  third person obviate postpositional (3obv.PP)

ḵaa ee- ⁓ ḵu ee- ⁓ ḵoon | (to) someone →  fourth person human postpositional (4h.PP)

at ee- | (to) something →  fourth person nonhuman postpositional (4n.PP)

aa ee- | (to) one, some →  partitive postpositional (part.PP)

chush | (to) -selfʼs →  reflexive postpositional (rflx.PP)

woosh, wooch | (to) each other →  reciprocal postpositional (recip.PP)

du x̱ʼé x̱ánt atx̱aayí ḵu.éexʼ (compound noun) feast; ḵu.éexʼ | "inviting to the food next to her mouth"; feast following a seclusion ceremony | « ḵu.éexʼ » is the most appropriate term for a cultural gathering, often hosted by a clan or clans of the same moiety, with the guests being of the opposite moiety there were many types of « ḵu.éexʼ », including « shaawát x̱áni ḵu.éexʼ » (wedding), « du x̱ʼé x̱ánt atx̱aayí ḵu.éexʼ » (feast for a young woman coming out of seclusion), and others; now there is primarily « ḵu.éexʼ » for the release of grief of clan members not an appropriate term for activities that are not clan-hosted | du + x̱ʼé + x̱án-t + at-√x̱á-yi + ḵu-∅-√.éexʼ →  their-(3s.p) mouth + beside.at-(arrived) + something-(4n.O).√eat.relational + someone-(4h.O).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√call-out/shout (KE, MA, SE, FD)

dudlitáawchʼán (adjective) steal | it is tempting to steal | du-dli-√táaw-chʼán →  someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,l,+i).√steal.[adjective] (JL)

dudli.óowchʼán (adjective) sold easily | du-dli-√.óow-chʼán →  someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,l,+i).√buy.[adjective] (JL)

–dunóogu (verbal noun) taste; flavor | taste or flavor of – | du-∅-√nóok-u →  someone-(4h.S).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√feel/taste.relational (JL)

dusʼélʼ xʼúxʼu (compound noun) pull tabs; rippies | "paper someone tears" | du-∅-√sʼélʼ + xʼúxʼ-u →  someone-(4h.S).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√tear + paper.relational (LF) • variants: sʼélʼ alḵáa xʼúxʼ •

dutaxʼ g̱ánch (compound noun) tobacco | (plug of) chewing tobacco | du-∅-√táxʼ + g̱ánch →  someone-(4h.S).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√chew/bite + tobacco (JL)

duwuweit (compound noun) wealth; possessions | "thing that is bought" | du-∅-√.óow-u-át →  someone-(4h.S).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√buy (JL)

dúḵ (noun) cottonwood | Black cottonwood ° (Poplus balsamifera subsp. trichocarpa) ° || poplar | Balsam poplar ° (Populus balsamifera subsp. balsamifera) ° || canoe | canoe made from cottonwood | for inland speakers, « dúḵ » is used for canoe and « yaakw » for boat | (JL) • variants: yaakw dúḵ (T) •

dúḵlʼ (noun) • variants: túḵlʼ • spruce; hemlock | young spruce or hemlock | a sprouting sapling | (JL, RL)

dúsʼ (noun) soot | (KE)

dúsh (noun) tadpole; pollywog | (KE)

–doogú (relational noun) skin ¹; hide ² | used to describe a hide or skin that has been removed from an animal

–dook ¹ (body part) skin ¹; complexion | (KE)

–dook ² (relational base) close ²; next to; side ² | right close to; right next to; right alongside | ax̱ dookt awsixátʼ du káayaḵijeidí →  they-(s) pulled their chair up alongside me a dóokt/duktóot satéen →  they-(s) is sitting back in there ax̱ dook ét áa →  they-(s) is sitting right close to me (JL)

–doonyaa (relational base) • variants: –doonaa, –doonyaax̱, –doonaax̱ • under | next to skin || clothing | under or inside clothes | du-niÿaa →  self.area/direction (JL, JC, KE)

doonyaax̱ kʼoodásʼ (noun) undershirt | doo-niÿaa-x̱ + kʼoodásʼ →  self.area/direction.along + shirt (KE)

doonyaax̱lʼaak (noun) petticoat; slip ² | doo-niÿaa-x̱ -lʼaak →  self.area/direction.along.dress (KE)

dooóo (interjection) see how you are!; look what you did! | (KE) often used for teasing, or when realizing one has done something silly • variants: duóo, dóooo •

dóol (noun) crane | sandhill crane | (KE) ° (Grus canadensis) °

–dóolʼ (body part) erection | erection | (JL)

dóosh (noun) cat | (KE)

dóosh yádi (compound noun) kitten | dóosh + yát-i →  cat + child.relational (KE)

?

dóox (body part) • variants: –tási • sinew | sinew prepared for thread | –tási is raw sinew removed from the body, and dóox is sinew prepared for thread made by splitting the sinew and then twisting it by rolling it with the hand | (JL)

dlagwáa (verbal noun) spear ²; harpoon | fish spear; harpoon for spearing salmon; "the one that scratches" | √dlakw-áa →  √scratch.one(s)-(part.i) (KE)

dlágwaa peavy | "the one that scratches" | √dlakw-áa →  √scratch.one(s)-(part.i) (KE)

–dlaakʼ (kinship term) sister | maleʼs sister | classification: female kinship term | in Tlingit kinship, this term is only used by males to refer to biological sisters and females of the same clan and generation who they (p) have a close relationship with can be used with females of the same moiety but not the same clan to show close personal or clan relationships

dleit (noun) snow ¹ || (color) white; color ² | (KE)

dleit dzoonáa (T) (compound noun) snowball | "snow missile" | dleit + √dzoo-n-áa →  snow + √hit-by-throwing.[progressive].one(s)-(part.i) (JL) • variants: dleit kachúxwti (C), dleit kachíxwti (A) •

dleit eix̱í (compound noun) mayonnaise | "white oil" | dleit + eix̱-í →  snow/white + oil/grease-relational (LF, NL) • variants: dleit ḵaa eix̱í, kawdudlixágu kʼwátʼ ḵa eix̱ •

dleit g̱éedi (compound noun) • variants: dletg̱éedi • snow ¹; blizzard; storm | snowstorm; snow shower; blizzard | dleit + √g̱éed-i →  snow + √heavily-precipitate (KE)

dleit kachúxwti (C) (compound noun) • variants: dleit kachíxwti (A), dleit kachúxdi, dleit dzoonáa (T) • ball; snow ¹ | snowball; "snow packed" | dleit + ka-∅-√chúxw-t-i →  snow + hsf.cl-(–d,∅-,–i).√rub/massage/shape-with-hands (JL)

dleit kachóox (compound noun) snowball | "snow shaped by hand" | dleit + ka-∅-√chóox →  snow/white + hsf.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√rub/massage (JL)

dleit kadánjayi (T) (compound noun) snow ¹ | powder snow (blown in the wind) | dleit + ka-∅-√dán-ch-aa-yi →  snow + hsf.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√dusty.repetitive.one(s)-(part.i).relational (JL)

dleit kadushxit tʼáa yá whiteboard | "white board whose face is written on" | dleit + ka-du-sh-√xit + tʼáa + yá →  snow/white + hsf.someone-(4h.S).cl-(+d,sh,–i).√poke-with-stick/write + board + face • variants: kadushxeet tʼáa yá •

dleit kakétsk (compound noun) • variants: dleit kakékwti, dleit kakéxwt • snow ¹ | dry granular snow; "loosely piled up snow" | dleit + ka-∅-√kéts-k →  snow + hsf.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√loesely-piled-up.repetitive (KE)

dleit kaltʼéexʼ (compound noun) • variants: dleit keltʼéexʼ (C) • snow ¹ | block of frozen snow | dleit + ka-l-√tʼéexʼ →  snow + hsf.cl-(+d,l,–i).√frozen/hard (JL)

dleit katlʼíxʼx̱i (compound noun) snow ¹ | snow crust | dleit + ka-l-√tʼíxʼ-x̱-i →  snow + hsf.cl-(+d,l,–i).√frozen/hard.repetitive.relational (JL)

dleit ka.óoxu (compound noun) snow ¹ | blowing snow

dleit kʼwátʼxʼ (compound noun) snow ¹ | "snow eggs"; round lumps of snow | dleit + kʼwátʼ-xʼ →  snow + egg.[plural] (JL)

dleit ḵaa eix̱í (compound noun) mayonnaise | "white personʼs oil" | dleit + ḵaa + eix̱-í →  snow/white + personʼs-(4h.P) + oil/grease-relational (LF, NL) • variants: dleit eix̱í, kawdudlixágu kʼwátʼ ḵa eix̱ •

dleit ḵaa tleig̱ú (compound noun) grape | "whie personʼs berry" | dleit + ḵaa + tleiḵw-u →  white/snow + personʼs-(4h.P) + berry/fruit.relational (LT)

dleit ḵaa yéilʼi (compound noun) tomato | "white personʼs elderberry" | dleit + ḵaa + yéilʼ-i →  snow/whie + person-(4h.p) + elderberry.relational (RN)

dleit ḵaadí (compound noun) avalanche; slide ²; snow ¹ | snowslide; snow avalanche | dleit + ḵaadí →  snow + rockslide/snowslide

dleit ḵáa (compound noun) person | euroamerican person or people; white person or people; european person or people | in early times of contact, white people were called « gusʼkʼiḵwáan » (people at the base of the clouds), and then often either « Anóoshi » (Russian) or « Waashdan Ḵwáan » (People of Boston) | dleit + ḵáa →  snow/white + person-(4h.i) (JL)

dleit shakadzoo (compound noun) • variants: (At), dleit shakedzoo (C) • snow ¹; lump | lump of snow that has fallen off the branch of a tree; "snow head-missle" | dleit + sha-ka-∅-√dzoo →  snow + head.hsf.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√hit-by-throwing (JL)

dleit tin kawduwachooxú ḵáa (compound noun) snowman | "man made with snow shaped by hand" | dleit + tin + ka-ÿu-du-ÿa-√choox-ú + ḵáa →  snow/white + with + hsf.pfv.someone-(4h.S).cl-(–d,∅,+i).√massage/pat-by-hand.relational + someone-(4h.i) (HC)

dleit tléig̱u (compound noun) snowberry; berry | dleit + tléikw-u →  snow + berry.relational (KE) ° (Symphoricarpos albus) °

dleit tséegi (compound noun) • variants: dleit tutséegi • stick | snow stick; stick used to skewer a chunk of snow and melt it over the fire | dleit + tu-∅-√tséek-i →  snow + inside.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√roast-on-stick.relational (JL)

dleit xóots (compound noun) • variants: (T), hintaak xóodzi • bear ¹ | polar bear; "white brown-bear" | dleit + xóots →  snow/white + brown-bear (JL, KE)

dleit xwénaa (compound noun) scoop; shovel ² | snow scoop (made of wood); snow shovel; "the one that shovels out snow" | dleit + √xwén-aa →  snow + spoon-out/shovel-out/dish-out-one(s)-(part.i) (JL)

dleit xwéini (compound noun) snow blower | "snow dumper" | dleit + √xáa-n-i →  snow + √pour/dump.[progessive].relational (KE)

dleit x̱ʼakée (compound noun) snow ¹; on ¹ | on top of the snow; "above the mouth of the snow" | dleit + x̱ʼá-kée →  snow + mouth.above (JL)

dleit yátxʼi (compound noun) • variants: dleit yétxʼi (C) • snow ¹ | fine snow; snow with tiny snowflakes; "snow children" | fine small starts in falltime when the fine snow falls | dleit + yát-xʼi →  snow + child.[plural].relational (JL) dleit yátxʼi daak wusitán →  fine snow is falling (JL)

dleitl (noun) slack | slack (as in rope or line) | (JL)

dléigu (verbal noun) pat | loving pat (like a grandparent would give to a child) | (JM) || lullaby; song

dléikwaa shéeyi (compound noun) • variants: dléigu • lullaby | "the one that pats lovingly song" | (JM2) √dléikw-aa + shí-yi →  √loving-pat.one(s) + song.relational • variants: xáanaa tʼukanéiyi shéeyi •

dli- (classifier) | l group classifier; (+d,l,+i) | Tlingit classifiers combine with verb roots and optional thematic prefixes to form a verb the verb root contains meaning, and the classifier communicates what the verb does classifiers change group and become a different verb when the activity the verb describes changes, and examples would be « ayatéen (∅, "seeing") and « altín » (l, "watching") which have the same root but a different classifier a Tlingit classifier is –i for incomplete activity and +i for complete activity a Tlingit classifier is –d by default and +d for middle voice (subject is also object, which includes reflexive and reciprocal forms), antipassives that remove the embedded object pronoun, and fourth person human (« 4H ») subjects for l, s, & sh classifiers it helps to think of default form as –d & –i, and the classifier changes from there to move into certain modes ∅ group is the default group, and then s group, and then l group, and then the rare sh group

–i verb modes

act imperfective (+) | they-(s) is doing it; they-(s) does it

imperfective (–) | they-(s) is not doing it; they-(s) does not do it

progressive imperfective (+) | they-(s) is in the process of doing it

perfective (–) | they-(s) didnʼt do it

imperative | do it!

perfective habitual (+) | they-(s) does it (every time)

perfective habitual (–) | they-(s) hasnʼt done it yet

future (+) | they-(s) will do it; it will happen

future (–) | they-(s) wonʼt do it; they-(s) is not going to do it; it wonʼt happen

hortative | let her/him do it; let us do it

repetitive imperfective | they-(s) does it (regularly)

potential decessive | they-(s) would have done it

conditional | if/when they-(s) does it

+i verb modes

state imperfective (+) | they-(s) is doing it; they-(s) does it

perfective (+) | they-(s) did it

potential (+) | they-(s) might do it

potential (–) | they-(s) might not do it

potential attributive | no way they-(s) can do it

∅ group

∅- | (–d,∅,–i)

ÿa- | (–d,∅,+i)

da- | (+d,∅,–i)

di- | (+d,∅,+i)

s group

sa- | (–d,∅,–i)

si- | (–d,∅,+i)

s- | (+d,∅,–i)

dzi- | (+d,∅,+i)

l group

la- | (–d,∅,–i)

li- | (–d,∅,+i)

l- | (+d,∅,–i)

dli- | (+d,∅,+i)

sh group

sha- | (–d,∅,–i)

shi- | (–d,∅,+i)

sh- | (+d,∅,–i)

ji- | (+d,∅,+i)

dlinkwát (adverb) • variants: dleewkát • carefully | (JC, JL)

dleewkát (adverb) • variants: dlinkwát • carefully | (JC, JL)

–dleey (body part) • variants: –dleeÿ • muscle || flesh

dleey dáat (compound noun) bloodshot meat; bloodshot flesh | dleey + √dáat →  flesh/meat + √brusied/bloodshot (JL)

dleey kasʼúwaa (compound noun) meat chopper; cleaver | "the one that chops the meat" | dleey + ka-∅-√sʼúw-aa →  flesh/meat + hsf.-cl-(–d,∅,–i).√chop (JL) • variants: (At,T), dleey kesʼúwaa (C) •

dleey katʼálʼti (T) (compound noun) meat patty | "flattened meat" | dleey + ka-∅-√tʼálʼ-t-i →  flesh/meat + hsf.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√press-flat.repetitive.relational

dleey katʼátʼx̱i (verbal noun) • variants: dleey katʼálʼti • patty | meat patty | dleey + ka-∅-√tʼátʼ-x̱-i →  meat + hsf.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√press/pat.repetitive.relational (JL)

dleey kaxágwaa (compound noun) meat grinder | "the one to grind up meat on" | dleey + ka-∅-√xákw-aa →  flesh/meat + hsf.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√grind-up (JL) • variants: dleey kexágwaa (C) •

dleey kaxákwlʼi (compound noun) ground meat; hamburger | "whipped up meat" | dleey + ka-∅-√xákwlʼ-i →  meat + hsf.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√whip-up.relational • variants: (T), dleey kexákwlʼi (C) •

dleey kax̱ʼwénaa (compound noun) • variants: x̱ʼwéinaa, x̱ʼwénaa tséek, dleey kex̱ʼwénaa (C) • barbecue ²; stick; spit ² | roasting stick (split so that the meat can be inserted; the end is then bound) | dleey + ka-√x̱ʼwén-aa →  meat + hsf.√roast-while-bound-[?].one(s)-(part.i) (JL)

dleey tséegi (compound noun) skewer; spit ² | spit, skewer, roasting stick, barbecue stick for meat | (JL) dleey + √tséek-i →  flesh/meat + √roast-on-stick.relational

dlóoḵ (noun) mucus; discharge; pus | dried mucus | (JL)

dlóotldáx̱ (compound noun) independently; oneself | on oneʼs own; independently; (all) by oneself | dlóotldáx̱ yéi jiné →  they-(s) works independently (JL)

–dlóox̱ʼu (A) (relational noun) point ² | point of (a projectile) | (JL)

dzagéiḵ (borrowed noun) weakling | « √geiḵ » is a verb root in Tlingit, but the « dza- » prefix suggests a borrowing from another Na-Dane language | (JL)

dzánti (noun) flounder | (KE)

Dzántikʼi Héeni (placename) Gold Creek (in Juneau); Juneau | "River at the Base of Flounder Hill" | Dzánti is a hill where the river flows from, behind downtown Juneau, known now as Capitol Hill | dzánti-kʼi + héen-i →  flounder.base-of + river/water.relational (JM, KE)

dzaas (noun) thonging; babiche; string ¹ | leather thonging | (KE)

dzeit (noun) ladder; stairs || dock; pier; boardwalk | (KE)

dzeit shuyee (compound noun) • variants: dzeit shuwee • dock; bridge; warf | at the landing of a dock; bottom end of bridge, wharf; "below the end of the dock" | dzeit + shu-yee →  ladder/stairs/dock + end.below (JL)

dzi- (classifier) | s group classifier; (+d,s,+i) | Tlingit classifiers combine with verb roots and optional thematic prefixes to form a verb the verb root contains meaning, and the classifier communicates what the verb does classifiers change group and become a different verb when the activity the verb describes changes, and examples would be « ayatéen (∅, "seeing") and « altín » (l, "watching") which have the same root but a different classifier a Tlingit classifier is –i for incomplete activity and +i for complete activity a Tlingit classifier is –d by default and +d for middle voice (subject is also object, which includes reflexive and reciprocal forms), antipassives that remove the embedded object pronoun, and fourth person human (« 4H ») subjects for l, s, & sh classifiers it helps to think of default form as –d & –i, and the classifier changes from there to move into certain modes ∅ group is the default group, and then s group, and then l group, and then the rare sh group

–i verb modes

act imperfective (+) | they-(s) is doing it; they-(s) does it

imperfective (–) | they-(s) is not doing it; they-(s) does not do it

progressive imperfective (+) | they-(s) is in the process of doing it

perfective (–) | they-(s) didnʼt do it

imperative | do it!

perfective habitual (+) | they-(s) does it (every time)

perfective habitual (–) | they-(s) hasnʼt done it yet

future (+) | they-(s) will do it; it will happen

future (–) | they-(s) wonʼt do it; they-(s) is not going to do it; it wonʼt happen

hortative | let her/him do it; let us do it

repetitive imperfective | they-(s) does it (regularly)

potential decessive | they-(s) would have done it

conditional | if/when they-(s) does it

+i verb modes

state imperfective (+) | they-(s) is doing it; they-(s) does it

perfective (+) | they-(s) did it

potential (+) | they-(s) might do it

potential (–) | they-(s) might not do it

potential attributive | no way they-(s) can do it

∅ group

∅- | (–d,∅,–i)

ÿa- | (–d,∅,+i)

da- | (+d,∅,–i)

di- | (+d,∅,+i)

s group

sa- | (–d,∅,–i)

si- | (–d,∅,+i)

s- | (+d,∅,–i)

dzi- | (+d,∅,+i)

l group

la- | (–d,∅,–i)

li- | (–d,∅,+i)

l- | (+d,∅,–i)

dli- | (+d,∅,+i)

sh group

sha- | (–d,∅,–i)

shi- | (–d,∅,+i)

sh- | (+d,∅,–i)

ji- | (+d,∅,+i)

dziyáagin (adverb) time ² | after a while; later on | (KE)

dziyáak (adverb) time ² | a while ago; earlier | (KE)

dzískʼw ¹ (noun) moose | (KE)

dzískʼw ² (noun) • variants: tsískʼw, óondách (T), wesdzi (C), mesdzi (C) • owl | great horned owl; owl with ear tufts | (KE)

dzeenáa (verbal noun) snare | snare to catch small animals by the leg; small snare forr halibut | √dzeen-áa →  √snare?.one(s)-(part.i) (JL) || dart; missile | √dzoon-aa

dzéexʼw (noun) clam | baby clams | (KE)

–dzúk (relational base) back ²; behind | at the back of; right behind | du dzúkt áa →  they-(s) is sitting at their back

dzoonáa (verbal noun) missile | "the one that is thrown at (something)" | √dzoon-aa →  √throw-at.one(s)-(part.i) (JL)

dzóoxʼ (noun) clam | butter clam | (KE)

é! (interjection) check it out!; wow!; oh my! | used as an exclamation of pride, achievement, or wonder (KE)

eix̱ (noun) • variants: eex̱ • oil; grease | (KE)

eix̱ kát sakwnéin (compound noun) bannock; fry bread | "bread on the oil/grease" | eix̱ + ká-t + sakwnéin →  oil/grease + one.at-(moving around) + bread (KE) • variants: eex̱ kát sakwnéin (Y,At,T) •

éiḵ • variants: éeḵ • (landform) beach; waterside || (independent base) shore; beach | down on the shore, beach | when used as a directional preverb, « neech » is used when the speaker is on the beach and « éiḵ / éeḵ » is used when the speaker is inland from the shoreline | (JC, JL, KE)

éilʼ (landform) ocean || (noun) salt water || (noun) salt | (KE)

éilʼ héen • variants: éilʼ héeni • (landform) ocean || (compound noun) salt water | (BC) éilʼ + héen-i →  salt/ocean/salt water + water/river/creek.relational

éilʼ kahéeni (compound noun) saltwater brine | "water from salt" | éilʼ-héen-i →  salt/ocean/salt water.water/river/creek.relational (KE)

éinaa (verbal noun) cache; rack | drying rack (for fish or meat); "the one that sits" | pole cache made of crossed poles, elevated; also something where you hang the meat, i.e. meat rack, fish rack; something you can stand on up there and fix your stuff up | √.áa-n-aa →  √.sit/situate.[progressive].one(s)-(part.i) (JL)

éit (compound noun) thing; important | important thing | (JL)

éitsʼkʼ! (interjection) yum! | (KE)

éix̱ʼ (landform) slough | (KE)

ga conjugation motion preverbs | these preverbs create motion verbs using the ga conjugation prefix

initiatory motion

[no preverb but general upward motion] | starting off, picking up, upward

N-dáx̱ | starting off, picking up from N

N+ítx̱ | following N

wrongly

ḵut | going astray, getting lost

galg̱aaḵú (compound noun) wilderness; bush ² | ga-l-g̱aa-ḵú →  hsf.cl-(+d,l,–i).[?].areal (JL, JC, KE) • variants: g̱walg̱aḵú (At), kalg̱aḵú (T), kalḵaaḵú •

galtáak • variants: ganaltáak • (compound noun) fire ¹ | in the fire | (JL) gan-la-√taak →  fire.cl-(–d,l,–i).√cavity

gan (noun) fire ¹

ganaswáan (borrowed noun) worker | from English "businessman" | (KE, JC)

gandaa (compound noun) around; fire ¹ | around the fire | gán-daa →  fire/wood.around

gandaadagóogu (compound noun) woodpecker | "pecks around the wood" | gán-daa-da-√góok-u →  wood.around.cl-(+d,∅,–i).√peck.relational (KE)

gandaasʼaají (compound noun) bee; hornet; wasp | "claims the wood" | gan-daa-∅-√sʼaa-ch-í →  wood.around.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√claim-(something to be destroyed).repetitive.relational

gandaasʼaají háatlʼi (compound noun) honey ¹ | "bee poop" | gan-daa-∅-√sʼaa-ch-í + háatlʼ-i →  wood.around.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√claim-(something to be destroyed).repetitive.relational + poop/mess.relational

gandaasʼaají kúdi (compound noun) beehive | "bee nest" | gan-daa-∅-√sʼaa-ch-í + kút-i →  wood.around.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√claim-(something to be destroyed).repetitive.relational + nest.relational

gangook (compound noun) fire ¹; side ² | fireside; by the fire, facing the fire | especially, close to the sides of the logs where the fire is the hottest close to the fire (as opposed to ganchʼóokʼ in the corner by the fire—the rest is crowded, so you take the corner, close to the end) | gán-gook →  fire.near-(fire)

gangook tʼóosʼi (compound noun) fish ¹ | fish heads cooked on the ground, rocks, or logs around the fire | gan-gook + √tʼóosʼ-i →  fire.around-(fire) + √roast-by-fire/toast.relational (JL)

gangookg̱áx̱i (compound noun) • variants: gangukg̱áx̱i • fish ¹ | fish heads cooked on the ground, rocks, or logs around the fire | gan-gook-g̱áx̱-i →  fire.around-fire-[?].[?].relational (JL)

ganigeidí (compound noun) • variants: gan yageit, ganyikyeidí • smoke | smoke spreaders; "against the fire" | layer of boards to protect foods in smokehouse from dry heat | gan-yík-yee-at-i →  fire.in-(shallow container).below.thing-(4n.i).relational (KE, JC, DN)

gankasʼíxʼi (compound noun) • variants: gankaadé sʼíxʼ • dead; dish | fire dish | dish used for offering food to the dead at ḵu.éexʼ held by two or four members of the opposite clan, who hold them above their head while names from the host clan are called out in remembrance, often before the first meal after calling out the names, the dish is burned completely as a spiritual offering | gan-ka-sʼíxʼ-i →  fire.on.dish.relational (JL) gankasʼíxʼi; gankaadé sʼíxʼ | fire dish

ganká (compound noun) fire ¹ | on the fire, in the fire | especially, on the burning wood | gan-ka →  fire.on (JL)

gantutlʼúkʼx̱u (compound noun) • variants: aas tutlʼúkʼx̱u • worm | woodworm | gán-tú-tlʼúkʼx̱-u →  wood.inside.worm.relational (KE)

gantuxoogú (compound noun) firewood; wood | dry inner part of firewood; "dry inside the wood" | gán-tu-∅-√xook-ú →  wood.inside.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√dry.relational (KE)

gantuxʼúxʼu (compound noun) rot ² | dry rot (in decayed wood) | gan-tu-xʼúxʼ-u →  fire.inside.fiber.relational

gantú (compound noun) fire ¹ | inside the fire | ganitóode kḵwagóot →  iʼll go into the fire (when I die, from a song) (JL) gan-tú →  fire.inside

ganyalʼóotʼ (compound noun) flame | "fire face tongue" | gan-yá-lʼóotʼ →  fire.face.tongue (KE)

gan.eetí (compound noun) burn ²; fire ¹; place | fireplace; place where there has been a fire and there is burnt residue | gan + eetí →  fire + remains/imprint (JL)

gawdáan (borrowed noun) horse | from Chinook Jargon « kəwdán » | (KE, JC)

gawdáan yádi (compound noun) colt | "horse child" | gawdáan + yát-i →  horse + child.relational (KE)

gági (preverb) open ²; out | from shadows into the open; out into the open (from shadows) | for motion verbs, creates a ∅-conjugation motion verb (towards a terminus) | (JC)

gán (noun) wood; firewood | firewood | (KE)

gán aan duxash xáshaa (compound noun) chainsaw; saw ² | chainsaw | gán + a-een + du-∅-√xash + √xaash-aa →  firewood + its-(3n.p).with +someone-(4h.s).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√saw/cut + √saw/cut.one(s)-(part.i) (JL)

gán kaḵásʼti (compound noun) kindling | gán + ka-∅-√ḵásʼ-t-i →  firewood + hsf.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√crack/split-(wood).repetitive.relational (KE) • variants: gán yátxʼi •

gán katlʼáakʼ (compound noun) • variants: gén ketlʼáakʼ • wood | wet wood | gán + ka-∅-√tlʼáakʼ →  wood + hsf.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√wet (JL)

gán láx̱ʼi (compound noun) • variants: gén daaláx̱ʼi • wood; firewood | firewood that is wet, moist with tree sap (so that it doesnʼt burn well) | moist wood from the outer layers of the tree or down close to the base of the tree | gán + láx̱ʼi →  wood + wet-outer-wood (JL)

gán yátxʼi (compound noun) • variants: gán kaḵásʼti • kindling | gán + yát-xʼ-i →  firewood + child.[plural].[possessive] (JC)

gánde nagoodí (compound noun) poop ²; excrement | "walking outside" | « gánde nagoodí » is a euphemism, « háatlʼ » is the most common form, and « lʼílʼ » is the most direct & literal | (KE) • variants: lʼílʼ, háatlʼ •

Gánti Yaakw Séedi (placename) Wrangell Narrows | "Steamboat Channel" | √gán-t-i + yaakw + séet-i →  √burn/light.repetitiverelational + canoe/boat + channel.relational (TT)

gántiyaakw boat: motor boat; boat: steamboat; boat: riverboat | "burnt boat" | √gán-t-i-yaakw →  √burn/light.repetitive.relational.canoe/boat

gaan (noun) • variants: gaan ká, gaan woolí • smokehole | (JL)

–gaan (body part) • variants: –shegaan • fontanel | " smokehole" | the soft spot on a babyʼs head | (JL)

gaan ká (compound noun) • variants: gaan, gaan woolí • smokehole | √gaan + ká →  √burn/light + on (JL)

gaan woolí (compound noun) • variants: gaan, gaan ká • smokehole | √gaan + wool-í →  √burn/light + hole.relational (JL)

gaan x̱ʼaháadi (compound noun) smokehole | smokehole cover | gaan + x̱ʼa-√háat-i →  smokehole + mouth.covering.relational (KE)

gaan yéili smokehole | wind block for smokehole | boards above smokehole to shelter it from the wind, can be moved from side to side | gaan + yéil-i →  smokehole + raven.relational

gaaw (noun) drum || clock; time ¹ || bell | (KE) • variants: g̱ayéisʼ gaaw •

gaaw altínx̱ (compound noun) clock-watcher | gaaw + a-∅-la-√tín-x̱ →  drum/clock/bell + them-(s)/it-(3.O).they-(s)-(3.S).cl-(–d,l,–i).√see.repetitive (KE)

gaaw daakexaagú (compound noun) • variants: gaaw kaxéeji, gaaw tukaxéeji • drum | drum frame | the wooden hoop over which the skin is stretched | gaaw + daa-ka-∅-√xaakw-u →  drum + around.hsf.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√grind.relational (JL)

gaaw gwálayi (compound noun) • variants: gaaw x̱íjaa, kagwáali • drum; stick | drumstick | gaaw + √gwál-aa-yi →  drum + √beat/stab.one(s)-(part.i).relational (JL)

gaaw gwáali (compound noun) drummer | gaaw + √gwáal-i →  drum + √beat/stab.relational (VD)

gaaw ítxʼ (compound noun) • variants: gaaw ít • late; after | after the appointed time; "after the drum" | gaaw + ít-xʼ →  drum + after/following.at-(residing) (KE)

?

gaaw kaxéeji (compound noun) • variants: gaaw tukaxéeji, gaaw daakexaagú • drum | drum frame | the wooden hoop over which the skin is stretched | gaaw + ka-∅-√xéech-i →  drum + hsf.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√exert.relational (JL)

Gaaw Tʼaḵ Aan (placename) Hoonah | "Village Beside the Drum" | gaaw + tʼaḵ + aan →  drum + beside + land-(inhabited) (TT) • variants: Xunaa (Xunniyaa) •

gaaw wutaan (compound noun) ḵu.éexʼ; ceremony | opening ceremonies of a ḵu.éexʼ; "Taking up the Drum" | from Dauenhauer (HTY 44): the first part, called « Ḵáa Eetí G̱áax̱i » (“The Cry for Someone”) is conducted by the hosts; it consists of speeches and four songs of mourning. The second part, « L Sʼaati Sháa G̱áax̱i (“The Widowʼs Cry,” literally “the cry for a leaderless woman”) is performed by the opposite moiety (the guests), who respond with a ceremony to remove the grief of the hosts. It, too, consists of speeches and songs. | gaaw + wu-∅-√taan →  drum + pfv.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√carry-(empty container) (NR) • variants: G̱áax̱, G̱áax̱ Kát Anáḵ, Wudanaaḵ, Kei Gax̱dunáaḵ •

gaaw x̱ʼáak (compound noun) hour | "between the drum" | gaaw + x̱ʼáak →  drum + between (KE)

gaaw yáx̱ (compound noun) | "like the drum"; "according to the drum"; on time; in time | gaaw + yáx̱ →  drum + like/according-to (KE)

gaawáḵ (noun) serviceberry; saskatoonberry; berry | (KE) ° (Amelanchier florida/alnifolia) °

Gaawhíttaan (clan name) Clan | "People of the Drum House"; Origin: Dry Bay to Ahrnklin River and Yakutat | Wolf/Eagle Moiety Teiḵweidí Migration Teiḵweidí Group | gaaw-hít-taan →  drum.house.people-of-clan-house (TT, AH, NR, JC, JL, HJ)

Yaakwdáat Ḵwáan

Gaaw Hít | Drum House (same as listed in Teiḵweidí)

–gaawú (relational noun) time | (the) time for | a gaawú áyá →  itʼs time for it atx̱á gaawú áyá →  itʼs time to eat (JL)

gáalʼ (noun) clam || cataract | (KE, JL)

gáan ¹ (independent base) outdoors; outside | (KE)

gáan ² (noun) menstrual; period | menstrual discharge; period | gáan aawa.oo →  she had her period (JL)

gáan aa yee (compound noun) building; house; room | in the spare room or outbuilding | gáan aa yee nayx̱éixʼw! →  you all sleep in the other room/house! (JL) gáan + aa + yee →  outside + one-(s)-(part.i) + inside-(building)

gáannax̱.á area; out; outside | area toward outdoors, outside | ach gáannax̱ g̱alayeix̱í du ya.áak, chashtuhít. →  this is why a place is built outside, a place is prepared for people, a brush hut (SuJ) shákw ḵu.aa, chʼas á áwé a xʼaakeidí gáannax̱.á áa yéi yatee →  strawberries are the only fruit with seeds on the outside (GD, MD) (JL)

gáasʼ (noun) housepost | often refers to carved posts in a clan house, or the four posts that hold the house up | (KE)

gáaxw (noun) duck | default type is likely a mallard ° (Anserinae) °

–gáaxw (relational noun) back ¹; blade; edge; knife; spine | back (of a knife or other blade); back edge, spine of it

gáaxʼu (noun) • variants: algáaxʼw • riddle | gáaxʼu yéi gax̱dusnéi →  theyʼll act out a riddle (JM) (JL)

gedéin (adverb) • variants: gidéin • greatly | √gei-déin →  big/plentiful.[adverb] (JL)

(particle) • variants: gí • | used to create a "yes or no" question | placement of « gé » grammatically depends on the sentence, but it often immediately follows what is being asked in the question learners should consult fluent speakers for proper placement, and avoid always putting it at the end

–gé (relational base) against; opposing | (JL)

géxkw (noun) • variants: kéxkw, té géxkw • pumice | (JL)

géxtlʼ (noun) pumice | (JC) || aluminum | (KE)

–geinyaax̱ (relational noun) instead; place; stead | in their place; taking their place; instead of them | du geinyaax̱ yei daaduné →  a person is doing it it on their behalf, instead of them; a person does it on their behalf, instead of them ax̱ geinyaax̱ yaawagút →  they died instead of me (went in my place) du genyaax̱ kawduwaḵaa →  they were sent instead of them (JL)

–géit (preverb) against –; wrongly; improperly • variants: –géide •

gijook (noun) • variants: kijook • eagle | golden eagle | (JC) ° (Aquila chrysaetos) ° || hawk | mountain or yellow hawk | (JL) kich-√yook →  tail-(bird/fish).√shake

Ginjichwáan (borrowed noun) Canadian; British | from English "King George Man" | (KE, JC) • variants: Ginjoochwáan, Kinguchwáan •

Ginjichwáan xʼóowu • variants: Kinguchwáan xʼóowu • blanket | Hudson Bay blanket; "Canadianʼs blanket" | Ginjichwáan + xʼóow-u →  Canadian + blanket.relational (KE)

gisʼóoḵ (noun) aurora borealis; northern lights | gisʼóoḵ woo.aat →  the northern lights are out (JL)

gishoo (borrowed noun) pig | from Chinook Jargon « (li)košó », which borrows from French "le cochon" | (JC)

gishoo naasí (compound noun) sausage; hot dog | "pig intestines"

gishoo taayí (compound noun) bacon | "pig fat" | gishoo + taay-í →  pig + fat.relational (KE)

Giyaḵw (borrowed noun) Sugpiaq; Alutiiq; Chugach; Aleut | (JC, KE) • variants: Gutéix̱ʼ, Ana.óot •

(particle) perhaps; seem | it would seem | (KE)

gíwé (particle) possibly | the most common ways to express doubt in Tlingit are listed below: • variants: géwé, gíyú •

particles

kwshé | probably (hopeful, likely)

gíwé, géwé, gíyú | possibly

shákdé | perhaps

ḵashde | i thought

gwál | maybe (doubtful)

verb

yéi x̱waajée | i think so; i suspect it to be; i guess

–geení (body part) flippers; tail | tail flippers | (JC)

geesh (noun) kelp | bull kelp | (NR, MD) ° (Nereocystis luetkeana) °

geets (noun) rash; hives | (JL)

–géek (relational noun) stern | stern (of a boat) | (KE)

géewaa (borrowed noun) beer | from Russian "пиво" | (JC)

–gukáaxʼ (relational noun) clear; distinct; understand | (speaking) clearly, distinctly for her/him, so she/he can understand | (JL)

–gukdaa ear | outer ear | (JL)

gukkajaash (compound noun) • variants: gukkadzaas, gukkedzaas • earring | earring made of a strip of hide, worn by men | men used porcupine quills to keep pierced ear from growing shut | (JL)

guklʼéinxw (compound noun) • variants: guk tlʼéinx̱w, guk tlʼínx̱w • earring | "tied up ears"; long earrings made of yarn or hide dangling from the ears for yoo koonáḵk (sway dance)

gukshatú (relational noun) • variants: gukshitú, gukshutú • corner | (in) the corner

gukshí (compound noun) corner | (KE, JL) • variants: (At), gukshú •

gukshú (compound noun) • variants: gukshí, guksh • corner | (KE, JL)

–gukyikkʼóox̱ʼu (compound noun) earwax | "pitch in ear" | guk-yik-kʼóox̱ʼ-u →  ear.in-(shallow container).pitch.relational (KE)

guk.át (compound noun) • variants: guk.ádi, guk.édi (C) • earring | "ear thing"; earring | gúk.át →  ear.thing-(4n.i) (KE)

gunalchéesh! (interjection) (verbal noun) thank you! | "itʼs not easy to get for oneself" | (JL, KE)

gunáayei • variants: kunáayei, kóonayei • chipmunk | northwestern chipmunk ° (Eutamius amanus) °

–guntú (relational base) blanket; cover ²; nestle; under | under the covers, under the blanket with her/him; (sleeping) nestled against her/him | ax̱ guntóot táayin →  he used to sleep under the covers with me (JL) ax̱ guntóot tá →  they-(s) is sleeping nestled in my embrace (JL) guntóonáx̱ daak jiyeel.á déi →  put your hands out (in peace?) (CJ)

gunx̱aa (noun) abalone | (KE)

gusʼkʼiḵwáan (compound noun) person | euroamerican person or people; white person or people; european person or people; "people at the base of the clouds" | in early times of contact, white people were called « gusʼkʼiḵwáan » (people at the base of the clouds), and then often either « Anóoshi » (Russian) or « Waashdan Ḵwáan » (People of Boston) | góosʼ-kʼí-ḵwáan →  cloud.base-of.people-of (NR) • variants: gusʼkʼiyee ḵwáan •

gusʼkʼiḵwáan lʼoowú (compound noun) oak | "white manʼs piece of wood" | góosʼ-kʼí-ḵwáan + lʼoowú →  cloud.base-of.people-of + piece-of-wood (KE)

gusʼshú (compound noun) horizon | "end of the clouds" | góosʼ + shú →  cloud + end (KE) • variants: goosʼ shú •

gusʼx̱lugooḵ (compound noun) Raven ¹ | the bird that Raven turned into during the great flood; "pokes its beak into the cloud" | gusʼ-x̱-lu-∅-√gooḵ ² →  cloud.at-(repeatedly).nose/point.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√push

gusʼyadóoli (compound noun) snipe; sandpiper | least sandpiper; "face of the cloud crane"

gusʼyé kindachooneidí (compound noun) pigeon; dove | "straight up (like an) arrow (to) the face of the clouds" | gusʼ-yá + kin-daa-√choon-át-i →  cloud.face + upwards.around.√wound.thing-(4n.i).relational (KE) • variants: gusʼyá kindachooneidí •

Gutéix̱ʼ (borrowed noun) Sugpiaq; Alutiiq; Chugach; Aleut | (JC, KE) • variants: Giyaḵw, Ana.óot •

–guwateiyí (relational noun) • variants: –shuteiyi, tʼeix̱ teiyí • sinker | sinker (of net, fishing line) | (JL)

guwáatlʼ (verbal adjective) short | verbal adjectives are prenominal, appearing immediately before the noun that it affects | ka-u-∅-√ÿáatlʼ →  comparitive.irr.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√short

gu.aal (particle) hopefully | optative | often combines with a prohibitive mode of the verb, resulting in "i hope that it will [verb]" | gu.aal hél yéi oostínjiḵ →  I hope he doesn’t see her (JC) gu.aal kwshé yéi wuteeḵ →  i hope that it will be (NR)

gu.áa! (interjection) | strong suprise; whoa! | (KE) • variants: gwáa! •

–gú (relational base) base; butt | base, bottom, butt end | (JC)

–gúgu (relational noun) antenna | antenna (of radio) | (KE)

–gúk (body part) ear | (KE)

–gúkg̱aa (relational noun) like ¹; pleasing; sound | pleasing to his/her ear; the way she/he likes it to sound | (JL)

gúnlʼ (noun) burl; growth | (JL)

gút (borrowed noun) dime | from English "bit" | (KE, JC)

gúxʼaa (verbal noun) cup; can | "the one that dips up" | √gúxʼ-aa →  √dip-up.one(s)-(part.i) (KE, JC) • variants: cháashgaa (Y) •

gúxʼaa át kanduḵʼíshji (compound noun) hockey | "batting the can around” | (SN) √gúxʼaa + áa-t + ka-na-du-∅-√ḵʼísh-ch-i →  [dipper-upper-one + there.at-(arrived) + hsf.na-cp.someone-(4h.S).cl-(–d,∅,–i).√bat.rep.rel]

goo sá (question particle) where | rarely appears on its own, and most often contains a relational suffix indicating direction or location, creating combinations like « gooxʼ sá » (located [at rest] where?) and « goodé sá » (going towards where?) determiners may be added to « sá » as in « gooxʼ sáyá » (where is this?), « gooxʼ sáwé? » (where is that) question particles combine most commonly to form questions, but can also be used to create statements like « jánwu alʼóon, sʼaax̱, daa sáyá át wu.aadí » (he hunts mountain goats, marmots, whatever went around there) (David Kadashan 6) | goosú wa.é? →  where are you? goodé sá yaa nagút? →  where is they-(s) going? (JC,KE)

gooch (landform) hill; mound; knoll | small hill | (KE)

goodásʼ (noun) shirt; tunic | (KE) • variants: kʼoodásʼ, kʼoodésʼ (C) •

goon (landform) spring ² | spring (of water) | (KE)

goonhéeni (compound noun) springwater | most Tlingit villages have a spring nearby people who gather and prepare traditional medicines often prefer to use springwater instead of tap water | goon-héen-i →  spring.water.relational

goosʼ shú (compound noun) horizon | "end of the clouds" | góosʼ + shú →  cloud + end (KE) • variants: gusʼshú •

–goosh (body part) thumb | (KE)

–gooshí (body part) fin; orca | dorsal fin (of killerwhale) | (lit. thumb)

gooshúg̱unáx̱ (number) nine | nine people | used for counting people only | (KE)

gooshúḵ (number) nine | "thumb is smiling" | goosh-wu-∅-√shooḵ →  thumb-pfv.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√smile/laugh (CG)

gootl • variants: g̱ootl • (landform) bump; hump; mound || (noun) lump | (JL)

–goowú (plant part) stump | stump, butt end (of tree or other plant)

goox̱ (noun) slave | (KE)

–góogu (relational noun) expert | expert at | √góok-u →  √expertise/know-how.relational (JL)

góoḵ (noun) • variants: a kagúḵxʼu • egg | dried salmon eggs | usually dried in stomach or gunnysack strung in tree | (JL)

góon (noun) gold || (color) gold

–góon (landform) isthmus; portage; passage | portage, passage across; isthmus | (KE)

–góos (body part) vagina; vulva | (JL)

góosʼ (noun) cloud; cloud cover; sky | cloudy sky | (KE)

gwatk sá (question particle) • variants: gutk sá (Y) • some; time ²; when; past | when (in the past); sometime (in the past) | used to talk about past times only determiners may be added to « sá » as in « gwatk sáyá » (when [in the past] was this?), « gwatk sáwé? » (when [in the past] was that?) question particles combine most commonly to form questions, but can also be used to create statements like « jánwu alʼóon, sʼaax̱, daa sáyá át wu.aadí » (he hunts mountain goats, marmots, whatever went around there) (David Kadashan 6) | gwatk sáwé haat iyagút? →  when did you get here? (JC,DA)

gwál (particle) maybe | maybe (doubtful) | the most common ways to express doubt in Tlingit are listed below:

particles

kwshé | probably (hopeful, likely)

gíwé, géwé, gíyú | possibly

shákdéi | perhaps

ḵashde | i thought

gwál | maybe (doubtful)

verb

yéi x̱waajée | i think so; i suspect it to be; i guess

gwálaa (verbal noun) dagger; machete; long knife | "the one that stabs" | √gwál-aa →  √stab/beat.one(s)-(part.i) (KE)

gwátgeen sá (question particle) • variants: gutgéen sá (Y) • some; time ²; when; future | when (in the future); sometime (in the future) | used to talk about future times only determiners may be added to « sá » as in « gwatgéen sáyá » (when [in the future] is this?), « gwatgéen sáwé? » (when [in the future] is that?) question particles combine most commonly to form questions, but can also be used to create statements like « jánwu alʼóon, sʼaax̱, daa sáyá át wu.aadí » (he hunts mountain goats, marmots, whatever went around there) (David Kadashan 6) | gwatgéen sáwé aadé gax̱too.áat? →  when are we going there? (JC,DA)

gwáa! (interjection) | strong suprise; whoa! | (KE) • variants: gu.áa! •

gwéil (noun) bag; sack | (KE)

–gwéinli (body part) • variants: –gwéinlʼi, –gwéinlani • hoof | (JL)

gwíngwin (borrowed noun) • variants: hintaak yaa ndaḵín gáaxw • penguin | from English "penguin" | (HC)

gwéechís (borrowed noun) peaches | from English "peaches" | (JC)

gwéens (borrowed noun) beans | from English "beans" | (MD)

g̱a conjugation motion preverbs | these preverbs create motion verbs using the g̱a conjugation prefix

downward motion

[no preverb but general downward motion] | falling (intransitive uncontrolled themes), downward

ÿaa | moving down

yaax̱ | embarking, getting into boat/vehicle

ÿanax̱ | moving down into ground

N-x̱ | moving down along N

héen-x̱ | moving into water

káx̱ + sha- | falling over, prone

N-náx̱ | moving down by way of, through N

g̱agaan (verbal noun) sun | "shines down" | g̱a-∅-√gaan →  g̱a-conj.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√burn/light (KE)

g̱agaan háatlʼi (compound noun) firestone; flint | firestone (pyrite)

g̱agaan kasʼúkwx̱u (compound noun) dried | sun dried | g̱agaan + ka-∅-√sʼúkw-x̱-u →  sun + hsf.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√?.repetitive.relational (KE)

g̱agaan tʼáx̱ʼi (compound noun) heat; sun | heat of the sun | g̱agaan + √tʼáx̱ʼ-i →  sun + √give-heat.[relational} (JL)

g̱agaan waḵdáanaa (compound noun) sunglasses | "sun eye money"; "sun eye coins" | g̱agaan + waaḵ + dáanaa →  sun + eye + money/coin/dollar

g̱agaan x̱anyádi (compound noun) sundog | "children beside the sun" | g̱agaan + x̱án-yát-i →  sun + beside.child.relational (JL)

g̱agaan x̱ʼusyee (compound noun) beam ²; ray; sun | sunbeam; ray of sunlight; "below the foot of the sun" | more precisely, where the sunbeam hits a surface, illuminating it | g̱agaan + x̱ʼus-yee →  sun + foot.below

g̱agaan x̱ʼus.eetí (compound noun) beam ²; ray; sun | in a sunbeam; in a ray of sunlight; "sunʼs footprint" | referring to the illuminated space where the sun light contacts a surface | g̱agaan + x̱ʼus-eetí →  sun + foot.remains/imprint g̱agaan x̱ʼus.eetí yíkt áa wé g̱áx̱ →  the rabbit is sitting in the sunlight (BC)

?

g̱agaan x̱ʼoos (compound noun) beam ²; ray; sun | sunbeam; ray of sunlight; "foot of the sun" | a beam of sunlight, referring to the beam itself and not where it contacts anything | g̱agaan + x̱ʼoos →  sun + foot

g̱ag̱áḵ (verbal noun) gambling; quoit | gambling sticks for tossing | g̱a-∅-√g̱áḵ →  g̱a-md.cl-(–d,∅,–i).√gamble-(with gambling sticks) (JL)