Lingít Verb Themes

>The Conjugator ( pdf)

 ----

√aa ¹ (verb root) sit; situated | classification: singular

S-∅-√.aa ¹ (* positional verb – subject intransitive) sit | for (singlular) S to be seated | classification: singular subject

N-t + tux̱ʼa-S-d+∅-√.aa ¹ sit | for (singlular) S to be seated on their butthole | classification: singular subject

N-t + O-S-s-√.aa ¹ (* positional verb – transitive) seat | for S to have O (live creature) seated at N

N-t + l-√.aa ¹ (* positional verb – impersonal) situated | for a building to be situated at N

O-x̱ʼa-ÿa-S-∅-√aa ¹ ˟ quiet; shush | for S to shush O (a baby)

√aa ² (verb root) inspect; examine; kiss ¹; consider; think over; come to senses

N + daa + ÿa-S-d+s-√.aa ² (na act verb – subject intransitive) examine; inspect; judge; assess | for S to examine, inspect, look into N; for S to judge, assess N

N + x̱ʼéi-t⁓ + ÿa-d+s-√.aa ² (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) kiss ¹ | for S to kiss N

√aa ³ (verb root) grow | classification: plant || pour | pour forth | classification: water || extend | extend or move forward

ka-∅-√.aa ³ (na act verb – impersonal) grow | for a plant to grow | classification: plant || flow; pour | for a stream of water to flow, pour forth | classification: water

yóo + aan + ka-∅-√.aa ³ (na event verb – impersonal) quake; earthquake | for the earth to quake

ka-s-√.aa ³ (na act verb – impersonal) grow | for a plant to grow | classification: plant

O-ka-S-s-√.aa ³ (na act verb – subject intransitive) grow | for S to cause O (plant) to grow | classification: plant || turn on | for S to turn on O (hose), cause O to flow

ḵei-∅-√.aa ³ (na event verb – impersonal) daylight; daybreak; dawn | for it to become daylight, dawn

O-ḵei-S-s-√.aa ³ (na event verb – transitive) celebrate; set apart | for S to celebrate O, set apart O (a particular day)

√aa ⁴ (verb root) migrate | for fish to migrate | classification: fish

{na preverb} + ÿa-∅-√.aa ⁴ (na motion verb – impersonal) run ⁴; migrate | for fish to run, migrate | classification: fish

{∅ motion preverb} + ÿa-∅-√.aa ⁴ (∅ motion verb – impersonal) | for fish to run

√aa ⁵ (verb root) detain

√aak ¹ (verb root) weave | weave bark or roots | classification: tree bark or roots

O-S-∅-√.aak ¹ (∅ act verb – transitive) weave | for S to weave O (using tree roots or bark)

S-d+∅-√.aak ¹ (∅ act verb – object intransitive) weave | for S to weave (using tree roots or bark)

√aak ² (verb root) fire ² | build fire | classification: fire

shóo-t⁓ + a-S-∅-√.aak ² (∅ event verb – subject intransitive) fire ² | for S to build a fire (using wood) | classification: wood, fire

√aak ³ (verb root) stagger | stagger; move uncontrolled

√aak ⁴ (verb root) make room; reserve | reserve room, space

√aaḵw ¹ (verb root) attempt; try

ka-S-∅-√aaḵw ˟ ¹ (na act verb – subject intransitive) try; attempt | for S to try, attempt

O-ka-(u)-S-∅-√.aaḵw ˟ ¹ (na act verb – object intransitive) test; try out | for S to try out, test O

O-x̱ʼa-ka-(u)-∅-√.aaḵw ˟ ¹ (na act verb – transitive) speak; direct ²; give | for S to give O an opportunity to speak; for S to give O directions as to what to say

√aaḵw ² (verb root) plan; order ¹; command; instruct

át + O-ka-S-∅-√.aaḵw ² (na event verb – transitive) order ¹; command; instruct | for S to give orders to, command, instruct O

yan⁓ + O-ka-S-∅-√.aaḵw ² (∅ motion verb – transitive) decide; plan | for S to make a decision about O; for S to finish planning O

O-ka-S-∅-√.aaḵw ² (∅ act verb – transitive) plan | for S to plan O

át + O-ji-ka-(u)-S-∅-√.aaḵw ² (na act verb – transitive) order ¹; instruct | for S to give O orders, instructions (esp. concerning work)

át + sh ji-ka-S-d+∅-√.aaḵw ² (na event verb – subject intransitive) make ² | for S to make oneself do something

√aan ¹ (verb root) sit quietly; meditate; observe ¹

a-S-∅-√.aan ¹ (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) sit quietly; meditate; observe ¹; navigate | for S to sit quietly (esp. while watching signs of the weather at sundown); for S to meditate (esp. while watching signs of the weather at sundown); for S to observe the weather while sitting quietly; for S to navigate using weather and stars | classification: weather

√aan ² (verb root) kind ¹; gentle; pleasant; good looking

O-tu-l-√.aan ˟ ² (ga state verb – object intransitive) kind ¹; gentle | for O to be kind; for O to be gentle

O-ka-s-√.aan ˟ ² (ga state verb – object intransitive) | classification: inanimate attractive; good-looking | for O to be attractive, good-looking

O-ÿa-s-√.aan ˟ ² (ga state verb – object intransitive) attractive; good-looking; pleasant-faced | for O to be attractive, good-looking, pleasant-faced | classification: animate

√aan ³ (verb root) settlement

N-xʼ + S-d+s-√.aan ˀ ³ (? act verb – subject intransitive) settlement | for S to make village at N; for S to settle at N

√aat ¹ (verb root) | classification: plural subject walk; go

{∅ preverb} + S-∅-√.aat ¹ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) walk; go | for (plural) S to walk, go (by walking or as a general term)

{∅ preverb} + S-∅-√.aat ¹ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) walk; go | for (plural) S to walk, go (by walking or as a general term)

woosh + kaanáx̱ + S-d+∅-√.aat ¹ (ga event verb – subject intransitive) assemble; congregate; gather together; meet | for (plural) S to assemble, congregate, gather together (for meetings)

woosh + x̱oo-t⁓ + S-d+∅-√.aat ¹ (∅ event verb – subject intransitive) assemble; congregate; gather together; meet | for (plural) S to assemble, congregate, gather together (for meetings)

N + jikaadáx̱ + ÿa-(u)-S-∅-√.aat ¹ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) get out of way | for (plural) S to get out of Nʼs way

ji-S-d+∅-√.aat ¹ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) attack; assault | for (plural) S to attack, assault, fall upon

a-ÿa-(u)-S-d+∅-√.aat ¹ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) turn back; go back | for (plural) S to turn back, go back (by walking or as general term)

neil⁓ + O-S-s-√.aat ¹ (∅ motion verb – transitive) let in; welcome | for S to let in, welcome in (plural) O

a + tóo + daak + O-S-s-√.aat ¹ (∅ motion verb – transitive) appoint; choose | for S to appoint (plural) O, choose (plural) O for a certain position

{na preverb} + S-∅-√.aat ¹ (na motion verb – subject intransitive) walk; go | for (plural) S to walk, go (by walking or as a general term)

gánde + S-∅-√.aat ¹ (na motion verb – subject intransitive) go; bathroom ¹; pee; urinate; poop ¹; defecate | for (plural) S to go to the bathroom

{ga preverb} + S-∅-√.aat ¹ (ga motion verb – subject intransitive) walk; go | for (plural) S to walk, go

N-x̱ + yaa + S-∅-√.aat ¹ (ga motion verb – subject intransitive) walking along | for (plural) s to be walking, going (by foot or as general term) along N (basically plural; see √goot ¹ for singular)

yaa + O-shu-S-∅-√.aat ¹ (ga event verb – transitive) lead ² | for S to lead (plural) O (especially by walking ahead) | classification: plural objects

{g̱a preverb} + S-∅-√.aat ¹ (g̱a motion verb – subject intransitive) walk; go | for (plural) S to walk, go (by walking or as a general term)

√aat ² (verb root) | classification: baggage and personal items carry

{∅ preverb} + O-S-l-√.aat ² (∅ motion verb – transitive) carry; take; give | for S to carry, take plural O (esp. baggage)

{na preverb} + O-S-l-√.aat ² (na motion verb – transitive) carry; take; give | for S to carry, take plural O (esp. baggage)

√aat ³ (verb root) carry; lie ¹ | classification: small round or hooplike objects

{∅ preverb} + O-ka-S-l-√.aat ³ (∅ event verb – transitive) carry; take; give | for S to carry O (small, round or hoop-like objects)

{na preverb} + O-ka-S-l-√.aat ³ (na event verb – transitive) carry; take; give | for S to carry O (small, round or hoop-like objects)

aanáx̱ + ka-S-l-√.aat ³ (∅ act verb – transitive) button up | for S to button up O

N-t + ka-l-√.át ³ (* positional verb – impersonal) lie there | for small, round or hoop-like objects to lie at N

N-t + ka-S-l-√.át ³ (* positional verb – transitive) lying there | for S to have O  (small, round or hoop-like objects) lying at N

kei + ÿa-S-l-√.aat ³ (∅ motion verb – transitive) turn ¹ | for S to turn O (boat, car)

√aat ⁴ (verb root) lie down; lie ¹ | classification: plural human

N-t + l-√.át ⁴ (* positional verb – impersonal) lie ¹ | for several things to lie at N; for several persons or animals to lie dead, unconscious, or incapacitated at N

sh S-d+l-√.át ⁴ (* positional verb – subject intransitive) lie down | for (plural) S to be lying down

yan⁓ + sh S-d+l-√.aat ⁴ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) lie down | for (plural) S to lie down

yínde + sh ka-l-√.aat ⁴ (na motion verb – subject intransitive) bend over; lean down | for (plural) S to bend over, lean down

√aat ⁵ (verb root) communicate; think; talk | classification: plural subject

N + daa + yoo + tu-S-l-√.aat ⁵ (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) think; consider; make up mind | for (plural) S to think over, consider, make up oneʼs mind about N

N + daatx̱ + ḵux̱ + tu-S-d+l-√.aat ⁵ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) reconsider; change mind | for (plural) S to change mind about N; for (plural) S to think over and reconsider N

x̱ʼa-S-l-√.aat ⁵ (na event verb – subject intransitive) speak; talk; speech | for (plural) S to speak, talk, make a speech

N + ée-t⁓ + x̱ʼa-S-l-√.aat ⁵ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) speak; talk | for (plural) S to speak, talk to N

yan⁓ + x̱ʼa-S-l-√.aat ⁵ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) stop talking | for (plural) S to stop talking

yoo + x̱ʼa-S-l-√.aat ⁵ (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) speak; talk; converse | for (plural) S to speak, talk, converse

N + géi⁓ + yoo + x̱ʼa-S-l-√.aat ⁵ (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) accuse; speak against | for S to accuse, speak against N

√aat ⁶ (verb root) | classification: plural, hinged objects open ¹; close ¹

√aatʼ (verb root) cold ¹

O-S-s-√.áatʼ (∅ act verb – transitive) cold ¹; cool; chill | for S to make O cold, cool

s-√.áatʼ ˟ (∅ state verb – impersonal) cold ¹ | for an inanimate object to be cold

ḵu-s-√.áatʼ ˟ (ga state verb – impersonal) cold ¹ | for the weather to be cold | classification: weather

O-sa-∅-√.áatʼ (∅ event verb – object intransitive) cold ¹ | for O (person) to feel cold | classification: animate

O-ÿa-d+s-√.áatʼ (∅ event verb – object intransitive) cold ¹ | for Oʼs face to be cold

O-d+s-√.áatʼ (∅ – object intransitive) chilled; cold ¹ | for O (body part or inanimate object) to be chilled, cold

√aatlʼ (verb root) insufficient • variants: √aatsʼ, √aachʼ •

ÿa-ka-u-∅-√.áatlʼ ˟ (na state verb – impersonal) insufficient | for something to be insufficient, not enough

√aaw (verb root) strap ¹

O-ÿa-S-s-√.áaw (∅ event verb – transitive) strap ¹; tie | for S put a strap on O; for S to tie up O with a string

√aaxʼw ¹ (verb root) fracture; crack

√aaxʼw ² (verb root) bitter; spicy

O-s-√.áaxʼw ˟ ² (ga state verb – object intransitive) bitter; spicy | for O to be bitter; for O to be spicy hot

√aax̱ ¹ (verb root) hear; listen; sound off

O-S-∅-√.aax̱ ¹ (∅ event verb – transitive) hear | for S to hear O

N-t⁓ + S-s-√.aax̱ ¹ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) listen | for S to listen to N

N + x̱ʼéi-t⁓ + S-s-√.aax̱ ¹ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) listen to; obey; give heed | for S to listen to, obey, give heed to N

O-S-∅-√.áx̱ch ¹ ˟ (ga state verb – transitive) hear | for S to be able to hear O

N-g̱aa + ḵu-S-s-√.aax̱ ¹ (na motion verb – subject intransitive) listen for | for S to listen for N

O-sa-S-∅-√.aax̱ ¹ (∅ event verb – transitive) hear | for S to hear O (a voice, esp. singing)

O-x̱ʼa-S-∅-√.aax̱ ¹ (∅ event verb – transitive) hear; understand; comprehend | for S to hear O with understanding; for S to understand, comprehend O

N + x̱ʼéide + ḵu-S-d+s-√.aax̱ ¹ (na motion verb – subject intransitive) listen | for S to (take time to) listen to N

O-S-l-√.aax̱ ¹ (∅ act verb – transitive) play ² | for S to play O (musical instrument)

√aax̱ ² (verb root) | classification: textile-like object carry

{na preverb} + O-S-∅-√.aax̱ ² (na motion verb – transitive) carry; give; take | for S to carry O (textile-like object)

{∅ preverb} + O-S-∅-√.aax̱ ² (∅ motion verb – transitive) carry; give; take | for S to carry O (textile-like object)

N-t + ∅-√.áx̱ ² ˟ (* positional verb – impersonal) lie there | for a textile-like object to lie at N

kaax̱ + kei + O-S-d+∅-√.aax̱ ² (∅ motion verb – transitive) take off | for S to take off O (shirt, dress, coat, etc.)

√aax̱w (verb root) tie; bind; bundle; wrap | tie up; tie together

yánde + O-S-∅-√.aax̱w (∅ act verb – transitive) tie; secure | for S to tie up, secure O (esp. a boat to shore)

O-daa-S-s-√.aax̱w (∅ act verb – transitive) tie; bundle; wrap | for S to tie O together in a bundle; for S to wrap O up

O-kʼi-ka-S-s-√.aax̱w (∅ act verb – transitive) tie; wrap up | for S to tie O together by the stems; for S to wrap the stems of O

O-sʼaan-S-∅-√.aax̱w (∅ act verb – transitive) tie | for S to tie hands of O (a captive)

O-x̱ʼa-S-s-√.aax̱w (∅ act verb – transitive) tie | for S to tie up the mouth of O (esp. a sack)

√chán ˟ (verb root) stink; stench; smelly

O-l-√chán ˟ (ga state verb – object intransitive) stink; smelly; stench | for O to stink, have unpleasant odor, smell bad; for O to smell strongly

√chaa (verb root) strain; filter; drain off

O-ka-S-l-√chaa (∅ act verb – transitive) strain; filter; drain off | for S to strain, filter, drain off O

√chaak (verb root) pile; stack; fill

O-ka-S-∅-√cháak (∅ act verb – transitive) pile; stack; pack | for S to pile, stack away neatly, pack O (food, clothing, firewood, etc.)

O-sha-ka-S-∅-√cháak (∅ act verb – transitive) stack; pack; fill | for S to fill, pack to the top neatly, stack up (food, clothing, etc.)

O-ka-S-l-√cháak (∅ act verb – transitive) pile; stack | for S to pile, stack O | classification: stick-like objects

√chaalʼ (verb root) full; drowsy | drowsy from overindulging

√chech ² (verb root) dust ²; clean ² | clean the surface of

√cheich ¹ (verb root) stand; spread | stand spread-legged

√cheix̱ʼ (verb root) • variants: √cheex̱ʼ • shade; shadow

√chígaa ˟ (verb root) fierce; formidable

√cheesh (verb root)

√chook (verb root) soften; rub | soften by rubbing

√chool (verb root) munch | roll around in mouth

√choon ¹ (verb root) wound ¹; injure

O-d+∅-√choon ¹ (∅ event verb – object intransitive) wounded; injured; hurt ¹; bruised | for O to be wounded, injured, bruised; for O to be hurt (emotionally)

O-S-l-√choon ¹ (∅ event verb – transitive) injure; hurt ¹; wound ¹; bruise | for S to injure, hurt, wound, bruise O

√choon ² (verb root) twist; limber | twist (to make limber)

√choox (verb root) knead; massage; roll; pat

O-ka-S-∅-√choox (∅ act verb – transitive) knead; press; pat | for S to knead, press, pat O with palm of hand

√chooxʼ (verb root) rub; touch | rub lightly; touch lightly

√choox̱ (verb root) mooch; cadge; sponge ²; freeload

at u-S-∅-√choox̱ ˟ (g̱a act verb – subject intransitive) mooch; freeload | for S to mooch, freeload; for S to obtain things often without payment

(N eex̱) + O-u-S-∅-O-u-S-∅-√choox̱ ˟ (g̱a – transitive) mooch; bum; sponge ²; cadge | for S to mooch, bum, scrounge O (off of N); for S to obtain O (from N) often without payment

√choox̱ʼ (verb root) roll | fat roll off

√chʼaachʼ (verb root) spotted

O-ka-d+∅-√chʼáachʼ (∅ – object intransitive) spotted | for O to be spotted, have spots

ka-d+l-√chʼáchʼx̱ ˟ (ga state verb – impersonal) spotted | for a natural object (wood, rock, etc.) to be spotted

√chʼaakʼw (verb root) carve; carve design; incise

O-ka-S-∅-√chʼáakʼw (∅ act verb – transitive) carve | for S to carve O (usually smaller, detailed work) using a knife or scoop chisel

ka-S-d+∅-√chʼáakʼw (∅ act verb – transitive) carve | for S to carve (usually smaller, detailed work) using a knife or scoop chisel

√chʼaalʼ (verb root) pale; spotted

√chʼeix̱ʼ (verb root) • variants: √chʼeex̱ʼ • point ¹; poke; push

√chʼeix̱ʼw ¹ (verb root) dirty

O-S-l-√chʼéix̱ʼw ¹ (∅ event verb – transitive) dirty; soil ² | for S to dirty, soil O (esp. clothing or person)

O-l-√chʼéix̱ʼw ¹ (∅ event verb – object intransitive) dirty | for O to be dirty

√chʼeix̱ʼw ² (verb root) tired of | tire (of eating it)

√chʼéitʼaa ˟ (verb root) • variants: √chʼéetʼaa ˟ • play ¹; basketball | play basketball

ash + + ka-u-S-d+l-√chʼéitʼaa ˟ (na act verb – subject intransitive) basketball | for S to play basketball

√chʼeen (verb root) tie | tie in a bow

√chʼeesh (verb root) splash

ka-d+∅-√chʼeesh (∅ act verb – impersonal) splash | for a liquid to splash, be splashed

(N + daadé) + O-ka-S-l-√chʼeesh (∅ act verb – transitive) splash | for S to splash O (on N)

√chʼeetʼ (verb root) dip

√chʼeex̱ʼ • variants: √chʼeix̱ʼ • point ¹; poke; push

O-S-∅-√chʼéix̱ʼ (∅ event verb – transitive) point ¹ | for S to point at, point out O

N-t⁓ + S-∅-√chʼéex̱ʼ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) point ¹ | for S to point in the direction of N

O-ÿa-S-∅-√chʼéex̱ʼ (∅ act verb – transitive) point ¹ | for S to point at O (a person)

√chʼéeyáḵw ˟ (verb root) slow

O-l-√chʼéeyáḵw ˟ (ga state verb – object intransitive) slow | for O to be slow

O-x̱ʼa-l-√chʼéeyáḵw ˟ (ga state verb – object intransitive) slow | for O to be slow in eating or talking

√dáskw ˟ (verb root) quick-tempered

O-tu-ka-u-∅-√dáskw ˟ (ga state verb – object intransitive) quick-tempered | for O to be quick-tempered

√dásʼ ˟ (verb root) hail

√dát ˟ (verb root) bruise

√dáy ˟ (verb root) cry out

√daa ¹ (verb root) flow; rise; flood ¹ | classification: water

daaḵ + ∅-√daa ¹ (∅ motion verb – impersonal) tide ¹ | for the tide to rise, come in

kei + ∅-√daa ¹ (∅ motion verb – impersonal) tide ¹; rise | for water level, tide to rise

shí + N + lóot⁓ + ∅-√daa ¹ (∅ motion verb – impersonal) bleed; run ² | for Nʼs nose to bleed

ka-∅-√daa ¹ (na motion verb – impersonal) flow; run ² | for water, blood to flow; for a nose to run

N-náx̱ + ÿa-∅-√daa ¹ (∅ motion verb – impersonal) flow; flood ¹ | for water, the tide to flow through N; for water, the tide to flood N

N-t⁓ + ka-∅-√daa ¹ (∅ motion verb – impersonal) flow; rise | for water to flow, rise to N

√daa ² (verb root) accustomed to; figure out

N + ee⁓ + ∅-√daa ² (na event verb – impersonal) accustomed to; used to | for N to become accustomed to, get used to it

N + x̱ʼéix̱ + ∅-√daa ² (na event verb – impersonal) accustomed to; used to | for N to become used to, accustomed to it (of manner of speech or flavor of food)

N-x̱ + O-tu-∅-√daa ² (na event verb – impersonal) accustomed to; used to | for O to become used to, accustomed to N (esp. in attitudes)

N + kát⁓ + ÿa-u-S-∅-√daa ² (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) watch ¹; keep eye on | for S to keep an eye on, watch N

N + káa + yan⁓ + ÿa-u-S-∅-√daa ² (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) watch ¹; keep eye on | for S to keep an eye on, watch N

√daak (verb root) cook; steam ¹ | cook or steam food in a pit

√daakw (verb root) render

a-S-∅-√daakw (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) render | for S to render something down (for oil) (esp. seal blubber)

√daaḵ ¹ (verb root) clear up

a-∅-√daaḵ ¹ (na event verb – impersonal) clear up; stop | for rain to stop; for the sky to clear up

N + daa + a-∅-√daaḵ ¹ (na event verb – impersonal) conscious; come to; sober | for N to regain consciousness; for N to come to oneʼs senses; for N to sober up

√daaḵ ² (verb root) move ² | move residence

{na preverb} + O-s-√daaḵ ² (na motion verb – object intransitive) move ²; migrate | for O to move household (permanently), migrate

kei + O-s-√daaḵ ² (∅ motion verb – object intransitive) move ²; migrate | for O to move household (permanently), migrate

√daaḵ ³ (verb root) bankward

√daal (verb root) heavy

O-∅-√dál ˟ heavy; important | for O (an inanimate object) to be heavy; for O to be important

√daalʼ (verb root) imprint ¹; mark ¹

O-ka-S-l-√dáalʼ (∅ act verb – transitive) type; print ¹ | for S to type O

√daan (verb root) pile | pile up

a-ÿa-ka-∅-√dáan (∅ event verb – impersonal) snow ² | for it to snow heavily

√daas (verb root) light ²

√daasʼ (verb root) wear through; snare | wear through (with wire)

O-S-d+l-√dáasʼ (∅ event verb – transitive) snare | for S to snare O

√daat (verb root) bounce

√daax̱ ¹ (verb root) hew

√daax̱ ² (verb root) inertia

√dáanaa ˟ (verb root) money

√deiḵ (verb root) challenge

O-S-∅-√deiḵ ˟ (g̱a act verb – transitive) challenge | for S to challenge O

√deil (verb root) protect ¹

(N + káx̱) + yan⁓ + a-S-∅-√deil (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) watch ¹; lookout; protect ¹; guard ¹ | for S to keep watch, keep a lookout (over N)

√deixʼ (verb root) ashamed; shame

O-ka-∅-√déixʼ ˟ (na state verb – object intransitive) ashamed; shame: feel shame | for O to be ashamed; for O to be feel shame

O-ka-S-l-√déixʼ ˟ (na act verb – transitive) shame: put to shame; embarassed | for O to be shamed by S; for O to be embarrassed by S; for O to be put to shame by S

√dín ˟ (verb root) worry

O-tu-ka-∅-√dín ˟ (∅ state verb – object intransitive) concerned; trouble | for O to be upset, troubled, lacking peace of mind

√deek ¹ (verb root) steer

√deek ² (verb root) dipnet

a-S-d+s-√deek ² (na act verb – subject intransitive) fish ²; dipnet | for S to fish with a dipnet

√deekʼ (verb root) constipate

O-S-s-√déekʼ (∅ event verb – transitive) constipate; plug | for S to constipate, plug O

O-d+s-√déekʼ (∅ event verb – object intransitive) constipated; plugged | for O to be constipated, plugged

√dees (verb root) shine | for the moon to shine

a-d+l-√dées ˟ (g̱a event verb – impersonal) shine; moon | for the moon to shine

√deexʼ (verb root) plug ¹; cork; shut | plug up; cork; shut mouth or opening

O-S-∅-√déexʼ (∅ event verb – transitive) plug ¹ | for S to plug up O (a hole in a surface)

O-x̱ʼa-S-∅-√déexʼ (∅ event verb – transitive) cork; shut | for S to cork up (bottle), shut mouth of O

√dooch (verb root) rub

√doochʼ ¹ (verb root) twisting roll; pinch

√doochʼ ² (verb root) cut ¹ | cut preserving bone

√dook ¹ (verb root) solid ; whole

√dook ² (verb root) dry; smoke ¹ | partially dry and smoke fish

√dooḵ (verb root) slush

√doolʼ (verb root) erection

√doosʼ ¹ (verb root) surge; lurch

√doosʼ ² (verb root) soot

√dootʼ (verb root) hiccup

√dootl ¹ (verb root) doubled-up; crumpled-up

N + séit⁓ + ka-S-d+∅-√dootl ¹ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) hug | for S to hug N

√dootl ² coax to self; entice

tóo-t⁓ + O-ka-S-l-√dootl (∅ motion verb – transitive) coax; entice; call; bring | for s to coax, entice, call, or bring O to oneself (esp. child or wild animal)

√dooxʼ (verb root) tie | tie knot

O-ka-S-∅-√dóoxʼ (∅ act verb – transitive) tie | for S to tie O in a knot

√dlaa (verb root) • variants: √tlaa ¹ • settle | settlements to settle

√dlaakw (verb root) scratch | scratch with nails, claws

√dlaaḵ (verb root) gain; obtain; succeed; defeat

O-ÿa-S-∅-√dlaaḵ (na event verb – transitive) get; obtain; acquire; succeed; accomplish; defeat; beat ² | for S to gain, get, obtain, acquire O; for S to succeed, accomplish O; for S to defeat, beat O

√dlaan (verb root) deep; piled thickly

∅-√dlaan (g̱a state verb – impersonal) deep; piled thickly | for water, snow, etc. to be deep, to be piled thickly

yan⁓ + ka-∅-√dlaan (∅ motion verb – impersonal) deep; piled thickly; pile up | for grain-like objects, pine needles, snow to be deep, thick, pile up

√dlaaxʼw (verb root) coil

√dlaax̱ʼw ¹ (verb root) strand; tide ¹ | stranded by the tide

√dlaax̱ʼw ² (verb root) clear | water to clear

√dlénx̱aa ˟ (verb root) tempt; try out; test

O-ka-u-S-∅-√dlénx̱aa ˟ (na act verb – transitive) tempt; try out; test | for S to tempt, try out, test O

√dleigu • variants: √dleikw • shake hands || pat | pat affectionately

O-S-l-√dléigu ˟ (na act verb – transitive) pat; pet | for S to pat O (esp. under chin or on back, to express affection); for S to pet O (esp. under chin or on back, to express affection)

N + jín + S-l-√dléigu ˟ (na act verb – subject intransitive) shake hands | for s to shake hands with N;

√dleikw (verb root) • variants: √dlaakw • startle

O-S-l-√dléikw (∅ event verb – transitive) startle; scare | for S to scare, startle O

√dleitl (verb root) hang; slack | hang slack

√dleixw (verb root) thumb; remove; peel | remove seafood to eat using thumb; peel skin using thumb

√dleey (verb root) meaty; muscular

√dlooḵ gooey; sticky

O-sh-√dlooḵ (∅ – object intransitive) sticky; gooey | for O to be sticky, gooey

N + waaḵ + ka-d+∅-√dlooḵ (? – object intransitive) pus | for Nʼs eyes to have pus, mucus

√dloox (verb root) • variants: dleexw • peel | to peel skin

√dzaas ¹ thong; lace

√dzaas ² (verb root) winded; tired

√dzaay (verb root) beard

√dzeen (verb root) snare | small snare

√dzeey (verb root) balk; resist

√dzée ˟ (verb root) difficult; hard; frustrating | hard (abstract)

O-l-√dzée ˟ (ga state verb – object intransitive) difficult; frustrating; hard | for O to be very difficult, frustrating, almost impossible, hard (abstract)

√dzoo throw | throw as missile

O-S-∅-√dzoo (∅ act verb – transitive) throw | for S to throw something as missile at O

O-sha-S-∅-√dzoo (∅ act verb – transitive) throw | for S to throw something as missile at the head of O

N-ch + O-S-l-√dzoo (∅ act verb – transitive) throw | for S to throw N as missile at O

N-ch + O-sha-S-l-√dzoo (∅ act verb – transitive) throw | for S to throw N as missile at the head of O

√dzooxʼ (verb root) clam; crush; juice | crush clams for juice

√ei ¹ (verb root) answer; reply ¹

a-S-d+∅-√.ei ¹ (na act verb – subject intransitive) answer; reply ¹ | for S to answer, reply to a greeting or to oneʼs name

√ei ² (verb root) ask for; wish for

O-S-d+s-√.ei ² (g̱a event verb – transitive) ask for; wish for | for S to ask for more O (often as a payment, often by a medicine person); for S to wish for more O

√eik ¹ (verb root) meaningless

√eik ² (verb root) • variants: √aak ⁵ (T,Y,K) • paralyze | paralyzed by shock

O-d+∅-√.éik ² (∅ event verb – subject intransitive) paralyzed\; incapable | for O to be paralyzed with fright, shock or surprise; for O to panic, be incapable of action

√eikw (verb root) whistle

a-ka-u-S-∅-√.éikw ˟ (na act verb – subject intransitive) whistle | for S to whistle

√eilʼ (verb root) salty

l-√.éilʼ ˟ (ga state verb – impersonal) salty | for something to be salty

√ein (verb root) starve

√eis (verb root) stagger

{na preverb} + O-ÿa-ka-l-√.eis ˟ (na motion verb – object intransitive) stagger | for O to stagger (esp. of young child or drunkard)

{ga preverb} + O-ÿa-ka-l-√.eis ˟ (ga motion verb – object intransitive) stagger | for O to stagger (esp. of young child or drunkard)

√eitsʼ (verb root) careful; delicate

√eix̱ (verb root) • variants: √eex̱ • oil ²; grease ² | oily; greasy

√gaa ¹ (verb root) delay; hesitate; tide ¹; calm | slack tide

du-∅-√gaa ¹ ʰ (∅ event verb – impersonal) tide ¹ | for the tide to be slack

N + toowú + du-∅-√gaa ¹ ʰ (∅ event verb – impersonal) calm; peaceful | for N to be calm, at peace

N-x̱ + O-ka-∅-√gaa ¹ (g̱a motion verb – object intransitive) delay; wait ¹; pause; take oneʼs time; stay behind; detained | for O to delay, wait, pause, take oneʼs time, stay behind, or be detained at N

√gaa ² (verb root) distribute; put away

yan⁓ + O-ka-S-l-√gaa ² (∅ motion verb – transitive) put up; store up; accumulate | for S to put up, store up, accumulate O (esp. food for winter)

√gaa ³ (verb root) predict

O-shu-S-s-√gaa ³ (na act verb – transitive) predict | for S to predict O

√gaaḵ (verb root) visit

O-S-∅-√gaaḵ (g̱a event verb – transitive) visit | for S to visit O (esp. a particular person)

√gaalʼ (verb root) cataract

√gaan ¹ (verb root) burn ¹; light ¹; shine

N-t⁓ + a-ka-∅-√gaan ¹ (∅ motion verb – impersonal) burn ¹; alight; on ² | for N (fire) to burn, catch alight; for N (light) to be on

a-d+∅-√gaan ¹ (g̱a event verb – impersonal) sun; shine | for the sun to shine

ka-d+∅-√gáan ¹ (∅ event verb – impersonal) shine; light ¹ | for something to shine, produce light by burning

kei + O-S-s-√gaan ¹ (∅ motion verb – transitive) burn up | for S to burn O up

N-t⁓ + a-ka-S-l-√gaan ¹ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) light ¹; set fire; shine; turn on | for S to light, set fire to, cause N to shine; for S to turn N on (light)

√gaan ² (verb root) lean on

√gaasʼ (verb root) housepost; fall; migrate; move ² | classification: large stick-like object

N-t⁓ + sh S-d+l-√gáasʼ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) leap on; pounce | for S to leap, pounce on N

N-dé + O-l-√gáasʼ (na motion verb – object intransitive) migrate; move ² | for O to migrate (with future plans unspecified) to N; for O to move household (with future plans unspecified) to N

P-t⁓ + O-l-√gáasʼ (∅ motion verb – object intransitive) migrate; move ² | for O to migrate (with future plans unspecified) to N; for O to move household (with future plans unspecified) to N

yan⁓ + O-ÿa-∅-√gáasʼ (∅ motion verb – object intransitive) fall; nod off; fall asleep | for O to fall on face; for O to nod off, fall asleep while sitting up

√gaaw (verb root) loud; noisy || fight; defend

O-sa-l-√gaaw ˟ (ga state verb – object intransitive) loud-voiced; noisy | for O to be loud-voiced, noisy in speech

(n een) + ḵu-S-l-√gaaw ˟ (na act verb – subject intransitive) fight | for S to fight (with N)

N + káx̱ + ḵu-S-l-√gaaw ˟ (na act verb – subject intransitive) fight for; defend | for S to fight for, defend N

√gaaxʼ ¹ (verb root) pray

x̱ʼa-S-d+∅-√gáaxʼ ¹ (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) pray | for S to pray for self

sh + káa + x̱ʼa-S-d+∅-√gáaxʼ ¹ (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) pray | for S to pray (for self)

√gaaxʼ ² (verb root) tired of; annoyed | tired of a sound; annoyed by a sound

√gaaxʼw (verb root) riddle

a-S-d+l-√gáaxʼw (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) riddle | for S to make riddles

O-S-l-√gáaxʼw (∅ act verb – transitive) guess | for S to make O guess

√gaay (verb root) noise | make noise

√gei ¹ (verb root) big; many

∅-√gei ¹ (na state verb – impersonal) many; plenty | for a solid mass or abstracts to be plentiful, be lots, many | classification: general, compact object; abstract

ka-∅-√gei ¹ (na state verb – impersonal) big | for a singular, usually spherical object to be big | classification: round or spherical; singular

(yéi) + ka-u-∅-√gei ¹ ʰ (na state verb – impersonal) big; many | for a thing to be (so) big; for things to be (so) many | classification: singular

(yéi) + ka-u-d+∅-√gei ¹ ʰ (na state verb – impersonal) big | for (plural) things to be (so) big | classification: plural

N + yáanáx̱ + ka-u-d+∅-√gei ¹ ʰ (na state verb – impersonal) bigger | for an object (inanimate) to be bigger than N | classification: plural

N + ḵín + ka-u-d+∅-√gei ¹ ʰ (na state verb – impersonal) smaller | for an object (inanimate) to be smaller than N | classification: plural

O-l-√gei ¹ (na state verb – object intransitive) | for O (esp. live creature or building) to be big, tall | classification: animate or building

√gei ² (verb root) small

yéi + ka-u-∅-√géinkʼ state verb small | for a singular inanimate object to be small | classification: inanimate

yéi + ka-u-s-√géinkʼ state verb small | for a singular animate object to be small | classification: animate

(yéi) + ka-u-d+s-√gei  ² (ga state verb – impersonal) small | for grain-like objects to be small | classification: grain-like objects

√gei ³ (verb root) understand; comprehend

N + daa + yaa + ḵu-shu-s-√géi ³ (ga state verb – impersonal) understand; comprehend | for N to understand, comprehend

tlél + yaa + ḵu-S-d+sh-√géi ³ (ga state verb – subject intransitive) foolish; dimwitted; unwise; crazy | for S to be foolish, dimwitted, unwise, or crazy

yaa + ḵu-S-d+s-√géi ³ (ga state verb – subject intransitive) intelligent; smart; wise | for S to be intelligent, smart, wise

√gei ⁴ (verb root) stingy

yaa + O-S-sh-√gei ⁴ (∅ state verb – transitive) stingy | for S to be stingy with, not want to share, O

√geiḵ (verb root) unsuitable; harmful; restrain

ka-u-d+∅-√géiḵ (ga state verb – impersonal) unsuitable; improper; illegal | for something to be unsuitable, improper

√geil (verb root) braid | braid seal intestines

√geinkʼ (verb root) small

√geis (verb root) call | call for (esp. a dog)

√geit (verb root) walk | walk softly; tiptoe

√geitl (verb root) frail | frail health; poor health

√geiy (verb root) pay | pay off

√geiyáḵw ˟ (verb root) claim; sue | claim as payment; sue for payment

√gídákw ˟ (verb root) show off

√geen (verb root) wrinkle

O-ka-sh-√géen (∅ event verb – transitive) wrinkle | for S to wrinkle O

O-ka-d+sh-√géen (∅ event verb – object intransitive) wrinkled | for O to be wrinkled

√geesh (verb root) soak

√geet ¹ (verb root) fall; move ¹ | move quickly | classification: animate

N-dé + O-d+s-√geet ¹ (na motion verb – object intransitive) fall | for O (live creature) to fall into N | classification: animate

N-t⁓ + O-d+s-√geet ¹ (∅ motion verb – object intransitive) fall | for O (live creature) to fall into, against N

daak + O-d+s-√geet ¹ (∅ motion verb – object intransitive) fall | for O to fall (esp. off of something)

N-náx̱ + yei + O-d+s-√geet ¹ (∅ motion verb – object intransitive) fall; trip | for O (live creature) to fall down N | classification: animate

kei + O-S-s-√geet ¹ (∅ motion verb – transitive) wake ¹; rouse | for S to wake O up, rouse O from sleep

kei + O-d+s-√geet ¹ (∅ motion verb – object intransitive) wake ¹ | for O to wake up

ḵut + O-d+s-√geet ¹ (ga – object intransitive) lost | for O to lose oneself, be lost, usure of oneʼs location

√geet ² (verb root) do; act | classification: animate

at + géit + S-d+s-√geet ² (∅ event verb – subject intransitive) violate; break law; act against; wrongdoing | for s to violate, break (law or custom), to do something wrong

√geets (verb root) rash; hives

√gúkch ˟ (verb root) practice; training; learn how

√gúklʼ (verb root) skilled; learn how | become skilled

√gúnlʼ (verb root) burl; try | have a burl; try hard

√goo ¹ (verb root) happy; fun; joyful

N + toowú + s-√góo ¹ (ga state verb – impersonal) happy; glad | for N to be happy, glad

N + tuwáa + S-s-√góo ¹ (ga state verb – subject intransitive) want; like ¹; desire; pleasing | for N to want, like, desire S; for S to be pleasing to N

tlél + O-tu-sh-√góo ¹ (ga state verb – object intransitive) unhappy; lonesome | for O to be unhappy, lonesome

√goo ² (verb root) swim; travel | swim in school (especially sea mammals); travel in fleet on water | classification: plural

{na preverb} + ÿa-S-∅-√goo ² swim; travel | for S to travel in a pod or fleet (of sea mammals or canoes)

√goo ³ (verb root) push; poke

N-t + x̱ʼus-sha-S-s-√goo ³ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) trip; stumble; stub | for S to trip over N; for S to stub toe on N; for S to stumble on N

yan + x̱ʼus-sha-S-s-√goo ³ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) trip; stumble; stub | for S to trip, stumble, stub toe

√gooch (verb root) carry | carry something to give to someone, esp. food

√gook ¹ (verb root) know how; learn how; master a skill

O-S-sh-√góok ¹ ˟ (ga state verb – transitive) know how; learn how | for S to know, learn how to do O

√gook ² (verb root) peck

O-S-∅-O-S-∅-√gook ² peck | for S to peck O

N + daa + a-S-∅-√gook ² peck | for S to peck around N

√gooḵ ¹ (verb root) run ¹ | classification: plural

{∅ preverb} + O-lu-∅-√gooḵ ¹ (∅ motion verb – object intransitive) run ¹ | for (plural) O to run | classification: plural

{na preverb} + O-lu-∅-√gooḵ ¹ (na motion verb – object intransitive) run ¹ | for (plural) O to run | classification: plural

{ga preverb} + O-lu-∅-√gooḵ ¹ (ga motion verb – object intransitive) run ¹ | for (plural) O to run | classification: plural

√gooḵ ² (verb root) push | move by pushing

O-S-√gooḵ ² push | for S to move O by pushing with hands

√gooḵ ³ (verb root) dry | to dry salmon eggs

√goolʼ (verb root) wink; eye | one eye

√goon (verb root) chance | get a chance

√goosʼ (verb root) cloudy

ḵu-l-√góosʼ (ga state verb – impersonal) cloudy | for the sky to be cloudy

√goot ¹ (verb root) walk; go | classification: singular subject

{∅ preverb} + S-∅-√goot ¹ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) walk; go | for (singular) S to walk, go (by walking or as a general term)

{∅ preverb} + S-∅-√goot ¹ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) walk; go | for (singular) S to walk, go (by walking or as a general term)

neil⁓ + O-S-s-√goot ¹ (∅ motion verb – transitive) let in; welcome | for S to let in, welcome in (singular) O

a + tóo + daak + O-S-s-√goot ¹ (∅ motion verb – transitive) appoint; choose | for S to appoint (singular) O, choose O for a certain position

N + jikaadáx̱ + ÿa-u-S-∅-√goot ¹ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) get out of way | for (singular) S to get out of Nʼs way

a-ÿa-u-S-d+∅-√goot ¹ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) turn back; go back | for (singular) S to turn back, go back (by walking or as general term)

{na preverb} + S-∅-√goot ¹ (na act verb – subject intransitive) walk; go | for (singular) S to walk, go (by walking or as a general term)

gánde + S-∅-√goot (na motion verb – subject intransitive) go; bathroom; pee; urinate; poop ¹; defecate | for (singular) S to go to the bathroom

{ga preverb} + S-∅-√goot ¹ (ga motion verb – subject intransitive) walk; go | for (singular) S to walk, go

yaa + shu-S-∅-√goot ¹ (ga event verb – transitive) lead ² | for S to lead (singular) O (especially by walking ahead)

N + ítx̱ + yaa + S-∅-√goot ¹ (ga motion verb – subject intransitive) follow ¹ | for (singular) S to follow N (on foot)

{g̱a preverb} + S-∅-√goot ¹ (g̱a motion verb – subject intransitive) walk; go | for (singular) S to walk, go (by walking or as a general term)

√gootl (verb root) • variants: √gooch • hill; mound

√gooxʼ (verb root) dip

√goox̱ (verb root) slave | have slave

√gwaal (verb root) beat ¹; knock; hit; ring ¹; stab

O-S-∅-√gwaal (ga act verb – transitive) beat ¹; ring ¹; stab | for S to beat O (esp. drum); for S to ring O (bell); for S to stab O

O-ÿa-S-∅-√gwaal (∅ event verb – transitive) hit; punch | for S to hit O in the face (with fist); for S to punch O

sh d+∅-√gwaal (∅ act verb – impersonal) ring ¹ | for a telephone or bell to ring

√gwaalʼ (verb root) curl

√gwaasʼ (verb root) foggy

ḵu-d+∅-√gwáasʼ (∅ event verb – impersonal) foggy | for the weather to be foggy

√gwaash (verb root) hop | hop on one leg

{na preverb} + ÿa-S-d+l-√gwáash (na motion verb – subject intransitive) hop | for S to hop

√gwaatʼ (verb root) upside down

√gwaatl (verb root) roll; curl up | curl up in a ball (of person or animal)

{na preverb} + O-∅-√gwáatl (na motion verb – object intransitive) roll | for O to roll; for O to move by rolling

{∅ preverb} + O-∅-√gwáatl (∅ motion verb – object intransitive) roll | for O to roll; for O to move by rolling

{∅ preverb} + O-S-∅-√gwáatl (∅ motion verb – transitive) roll | for S to roll O; for S to move O by rolling

N-t⁓ + ka-∅-√gwáatl (∅ motion verb – impersonal) roll | for a spherical object to roll to N | classification: round or spherical object

áa + yax̱ + ∅-√gwáatl (∅ motion verb – impersonal) capsize; overturn | for a boat to capsize, overturn

O-ḵʼa-d+∅-√gwáatl (∅ event verb – object intransitive) astonished; flabbergasted | for O to be astonished, flabbergasted, left open-mouthed

O-ka-S-l-√gwáatl (na motion verb – transitive) roll | for S to roll O (log, barrel, etc.)

O-ka-S-l-√gwaatl (∅ act verb – transitive) bend ¹; fold up | for S to bend O (leg or arm); for S to fold up O (paper, etc.) in a loose roll

N-t + ka-ka-∅-√gwáatl (na motion verb – impersonal) rock ²; roll | for a canoe, boat to rock, roll around at N

N-t + O-ka-ka-S-l-√gwáatl (na motion verb – transitive) rock ²; roll | for S to rock, roll O (boat) at N

√g̱aa (verb root) shy

√g̱aaḵ ¹ bay ²; yelp

√g̱aaḵ ² gamble | gamble with gambling sticks that are tossed

√g̱aas (verb root) forbidden; taboo

l-√g̱aas ˟ (ga state verb – impersonal) forbidden; taboo; inappropriate | for something to be forbidden, taboo, not allowed by custom

at S-l-√g̱aas ˟ (ga state verb – impersonal) abstain; refrain from | for S to abstain, refrain from, keep from doing (usually for ceremonial or religious reasons, esp. of lent)

√g̱aasʼ ¹ (verb root) scratch | scratch with long scratches

O-S-l-√g̱áasʼ ¹ (∅ act verb – transitive) scratch | for S to scratch O to relieve itching; for S to scratch O with long scratches

sh S-d+l-√g̱áasʼ (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) scratch | for S to scratch oneself to relieve itching

√g̱aasʼ ² (verb root) striped

ka-d+l-√g̱áasʼ ˟ ² (ga state verb – impersonal) striped | for something to be striped

√g̱aat ¹ (verb root) split; fall apart; fall | fall scattered | classification: small objects

O-ka-S-l-√g̱áat ¹ (∅ act verb – transitive) sift | for S to sift O

O-ka-S-l-√g̱átch ¹ ˟ (na act verb – transitive) sprinkle; scatter | for S to sprinkle, scatter O carefully

√g̱aat ² (verb root) trap ¹

O-S-d+s-√g̱áat ² (∅ event verb – transitive) trap ¹; catch | for S to trap, catch O in trap (deadfall or other, but not fishtrap)

√g̱aat ³ (verb root) | disoriented

N + daa + yaa + ḵu-∅-√g̱áat ³ (∅ event verb – impersonal) dizzy | for N to be dizzy

yaa + ḵu-S-l-√g̱áat ³ (∅ event verb – transitive) forget | for S to forget O

N + daa + yaa + ḵu-S-l-√g̱áat ³ (∅ event verb – subject intransitive) • variants: N + daa + yaa + ḵu-S-s-√g̱áat ³ • dizzy | for S to make N dizzy

N-t + yaa + ḵu-S-d+l-√g̱áat ³ ˟ (na motion verb – subject intransitive) wander | for S to wander around at N; for S to wander around at N trying to find the way

√g̱aax̱ (verb root) cry; wail

S-∅-√g̱aax̱ (ga act verb – subject intransitive) cry; weep; mourn; lament | for (singluar) S to cry, weep; for (singular) S to mourn, lament | classification: singular subjectclassification: singular

ka-S-d+∅-√g̱aax̱ (ga act verb – subject intransitive) cry out; scream | for S to cry loudly (of child, or person in great pain); for S to cry out or scream (in fear or pain)

O-ka-S-s-√g̱aax̱ (na event verb – transitive) cry | for S to make O cry, cause O to cry

O-S-d+s-√g̱áax̱ ˟ (g̱a act verb – transitive) cry for; ask for | for S to cry for, ask for O

√g̱aax̱ʼ (verb root) thin; skinny

O-sh-√g̱áax̱ʼ (g̱a event verb – object intransitive) thin; lean; skinny | for O to be thin, lean, skinny

√g̱ei (verb root) • variants: √g̱ee • shining; fancy

O-ka-l-√g̱éi (ga state verb – object intransitive) fancy; prominent; conspicuous; attracting attention | for O to be fancy, prominent (esp. in appearance), conspicuous, attracting attention

N + toowú + ka-l-√g̱éi (ga state verb – impersonal) proud; pleased | for N to be proud of, highly pleased with

sh tu-ka-S-d+l-√g̱éi (ga state verb – subject intransitive) proud; conceited; particular; picky; snooty | for s to be proud (esp. of oneself), conceited; for s to be particular, picky, snooty

O-sha-ka-l-√g̱éi (ga state verb – object intransitive) pretty; cute; beautiful | for O to be pretty, cute, beautiful

√g̱eiḵ ¹ (verb root) swing

N-t + O-S-l-√g̱eiḵ ¹ (na motion verb – transitive) swing | for S to swing O back and forth at N

N-t + O-l-√g̱eiḵ ¹ (na motion verb – object intransitive) swing; sway | for O to swing, sway back and forth at N

√g̱eiḵ ² (verb root) • variants: √g̱eeḵ • stingy

O-sh-√g̱eeḵ ˟ (ga state verb – object intransitive) stingy; unwilling to give | for O to be stingy, unwilling to give or share much

√g̱ein (verb root) • variants: √g̱een • cast eyes; look ¹

N-t⁓ + a-S-d+l-√g̱ein (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) look ¹ | for S to look at N

N-t + a-S-d+l-√g̱ein (na motion verb – subject intransitive) look ¹ | for S to look around, about N

√g̱eiwú (verb root) fish with net

a-S-d+s-√g̱eiwú ˟ (na act verb – subject intransitive) fish ²; seine | for S to fish with net, seine

√g̱eiy (verb root) • variants: √g̱eey • dress up

sh ka-S-d+sh-√g̱eiy ˟ (∅ event verb – subject intransitive) dress up | for S to dress up, smarten up, make an effort to look different

√g̱eiyáḵw ˟ (verb root) remove | remove from shell

√g̱íx̱ʼ (verb root) creak; rub; squeak | squeak by rubbing

O-l-√g̱íx̱ʼ (na – object intransitive) rub | for O to be rubbing against something (making a grating or squeaking noise)

O-S-l-√g̱íx̱ʼ (na – transitive) rub | for S to rub O (two surfaces) together

O-√g̱íx̱ʼjaa creak; squeak | for O to be creaky or squeaky

O-sh-√g̱íx̱ʼ creak; squeak | for O to creak, squeak by producing friction

√g̱ee (verb root) shining; fancy

√g̱eech ¹ (verb root) pierce; prick

N-t⁓ + ÿa-d+∅-√g̱eech ¹ (∅ motion verb – impersonal) pierce; prick; bite | for a sharp object to pierce, enter, prick N; for an animal to bite N

N-dé + ÿa-d+∅-√g̱eech ¹ (na motion verb – impersonal) pierce; prick; bite | for a sharp object to pierce, enter, prick N; for an animal to bite N

N-t⁓ + ÿa-d+l-√g̱eech ¹ (∅ motion verb – impersonal) pierce; prick | for (plural) sharp objects to pierce, enter, prick N | classification: plural object

√g̱eech ² throw | classification: stick-like object || | classification: plural objects one at a time || fell tree; knock over || open ¹; close ¹ | classification: book

O-S-∅-√g̱eech ² (∅ act verb – transitive) throw | for S to throw O (one at a time) | classification: one at a time

S-∅-√g̱eech ² (∅ act verb – transitive) throw | for S to throw (one thing at a time) | classification: one at a time

O-ka-S-∅-√g̱eech ² (∅ act verb – transitive) throw; donate | for S to throw O (round object, one at a time, or contents of a container); for S to donate O (money, usually of present action) | classification: one at a time

O-S-l-√g̱eech ² (na – transitive) fell tree | for S to fell O (a single tree) | classification: singular object

O-S-l-√g̱eech ² (∅ – transitive) fell tree; clear | for S to fell O (multiple trees or bushes, rocks); for S to clear O (bushes or trees) from an area | classification: plural objects

káx̱ + O-sha-S-∅-√g̱eech ² (∅ – transitive) knock over | for S to knock over O (plural objects) | classification: plural objects, singular: O-sha-S-s-√g̱eexʼ

O-shu-S-∅-√g̱eech ² (na – transitive) throw; turn over | for S to throw (while holding onto one end); for S to turn over O (pages); for S to leaf through a book or magazine

kát + sha-ka-S-d+l-√g̱eech ² (∅ – subject intransitive) dive | for S (plural) to dive from the surface of the water | classification: singular, plural sha-S-d+∅-√x̱eech ¹

√g̱eel (verb root) dull

ÿa-d+∅-√g̱éel (∅ event verb – impersonal) blunt; dull | for an edge to be blunt, dull

√g̱eelʼ (verb root) sharpen; grind; rub; polish

O-ka-S-sh-√g̱éelʼ (∅ act verb – transitive) polish | for S to polish O

O-ÿa-S-∅-√g̱éelʼ (∅ act verb – transitive) sharpen | for S to sharpen O (with a grindstone)

√g̱eet ¹ (verb root) squall; storm

a-∅-√g̱éet ¹ ˟ (na event verb – impersonal) precipitate; rain; hail; snow ² | for rain, hail, snow to fall (often hard, in dark rainstorm)

√g̱eet ² (verb root) dark

ḵu-ka-d+sh-√g̱éet ² (∅ event verb – impersonal) dark | for the sky to be dark

√g̱eexʼ (verb root) throw | classification: singular inanimate object || donate

ḵut + O-S-∅-√g̱éexʼ (ga motion verb – transitive) lose | for S to lose O | classification: singular inanimate object

O-ka-S-∅-√g̱éexʼ (na event verb – transitive) donate; load; shoot; throw | for S to donate O (esp. money); for S to load O (gun), put bullet in; for S to shoot O (basketball); for S to throw O (ball) | classification: spherical or round object

kei + O-ka-S-∅-√g̱éexʼ (∅ motion verb – transitive) throw | for S to throw O (esp. ball) up in the air | classification: spherical or round object

ka-S-d+∅-√g̱éexʼ (na event verb – subject intransitive) donate; contribute | for S to donate, contribute

N-t⁓ + ka-S-d+∅-√g̱éexʼ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) donate; contribute; add to | for S to donate, contribute, add to N

ḵut + O-ka-S-∅-√g̱éexʼ (ga motion verb – transitive) lose | for S to lose O (round, spherical object) | classification: spherical or round object

√g̱oo (verb root) wipe; mop

O-S-l-O-S-l-√g̱oo (g̱a act verb – transitive) wipe; mop | for S to wipe, mop, clean O by wiping

√g̱ook (verb root) clutch; squeeze

O-ka-S-∅-√g̱ook (∅ event verb – transitive) clutch; hold | for S to clutch, hold tightly onto O

√g̱ootl (verb root) mash; squeeze

O-ka-S-∅-√g̱ootl (∅ act verb – transitive) mash; squeeze | for S to mash O by squeezing in the hand; for S to squeeze O tightly

√g̱waatʼ ¹ (verb root) crawl | crawl on hands and knees

{na preverb} + S-d+∅-√g̱wáatʼ ¹ (na motion verb – subject intransitive) crawl | for S (esp. child) to crawl on hands and knees

{∅ preverb} + S-d+∅-√g̱wáatʼ ¹ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) crawl | for S (esp. child) to crawl on hands and knees

√g̱waatʼ ² (verb root) close ¹ | close up completely

√haa ¹ (verb root) move ¹ | move many small parts

O-ka-S-∅-√haa ¹ (na act verb – transitive) plant ² | for S to plant O

a-ka-S-∅-√haa ¹ (na act verb – subject intransitive) garden ¹; dig | for S to garden, dig

kei + O-ka-S-∅-√haa ¹ (∅ motion verb – transitive) dig up | for S to dig O up

O-ÿa-S-s-√haa ¹ (∅ act verb – transitive) gather up; pick up; take up | for S to gather up, pick up, take up O

√haa ² (verb root) many; numerous

N-t⁓ + O-ÿa-d+∅-√haa ² (∅ motion verb – object intransitive) move ²; come around; crowd ¹ | for O to move in, come around, crowd at N (of large numbers, esp. people, birds)

O-sha-ÿa-d+∅-√haa ʰ ² (na state verb – object intransitive) many; plenty; lots | for O to be many, plenty, lots

√haa ³ (verb root) move ¹; invisible | move imperceptably; move invisibly

N + jee-t⁓ + O-ka-S-∅-√haa ³ give; get | for S to give O to N; for S to get O for N

N + ée-t⁓ + ∅-√haa ³ (∅ motion verb – impersonal) hungry | for N to be hungry

N + ée-t⁓ + yaan + O-S-s-√haa ³ (∅ motion verb – transitive) hungry | for S to make N hungry

N-t⁓ + ḵu-∅-√haa ³ (∅ motion verb – impersonal) time for; arrive | for the time to come for N

N + ée-t⁓ + ḵu-∅-√haa ³ (∅ motion verb – impersonal) turn ²; have a turn | for N to have a turn

N + daatx̱ + ḵu-ka-S-s-√haa ³ (na act verb – subject intransitive) polish; rub | for S to polish N; for S to rub N until shiny

N + káa + daak + sa-∅-√haa ³ (∅ event verb – object intransitive) remember | for O to remember N

N + káa + daak + sa-S-l-√haa ³ (∅ event verb – transitive) remind | for S to remind O about N

sh + tóo + a-sha-S-d+l-√háa ˟ ³ (∅ event verb – subject intransitive) injure | for S to injure oneself

tlél + ga-u-∅-√háa ³ ˟ (ga state verb – impersonal) obvious; visible | for something to be obvious, clearly visible

N-dáx̱ + O-S-s-√haa ³ (na act verb – transitive) erase | for S to erase O off of N; for S to rub O off of N; for S to make off with O from N (withouth them knowing)

√haa ⁴ (verb root) want; willing

(yéi) + O-sa-S-∅-√haa ⁴ (na state verb – transitive) want; decided; agree | for S to want O (a certain way); for S to be decided about O; for S to agree to O

N + géi⁓ + O-ka-S-s-√haa ⁴ (∅ state verb – transitive) accuse; blame | for S to accuse, blame N

√haa ⁵ (verb root) fight

ḵu-S-l-√haa ⁵ (ga – subject intransitive) fight; wrestle | for S to fight hand to hand (with N); for S to wrestle, box (with N)

√haach (verb root) tingle; paralyzed

√haachʼ (verb root) shameful

O-ka-l-√háachʼ (ga state verb – object intransitive) shameful | for O to be a shameful thing

sh ka-S-d+l-√háachʼ (na state verb – subject intransitive) shame; embarrass | for S to shame, embarrass themself

√haakw ¹ (verb root) suspicious

√haakw ² (verb root) rally; encourage | rally round

√haan ¹ (verb root) stand; rise | classification: singular

S-∅-√hán ˟ ¹ (* positional verb – subject intransitive) stand | for (singular) S to be standing | classification: singular

yan⁓ + S-∅-√haan ¹ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) stand | for (singular) S to keep standing; for (singular) S to stand firm | classification: singular

S-d+∅-√haan ¹ (ga event verb – subject intransitive) stand; rise | for (singular) S to stand up, rise | classification: singular

(N + náḵ) + a-ÿa-S-d+∅-√haan ¹ (na motion verb – subject intransitive) flee; run ¹; turn back | S to flee, run, turn back ( from N) | classification: singular

√haan ² (verb root) cut ¹; fringe | cut strips; cut fringe

√haasʼ (verb root) nauseated; vomit

O-∅-√háasʼ (∅ event verb – object intransitive) vomit | for O to vomit

√haash (verb root) drift ¹; float ¹

{∅ preverb} + O-l-√haash (∅ motion verb – object intransitive) float ¹; drift ¹ | for O to float, drift

daak + O-l-√haash (∅ motion verb – object intransitive) float ¹; drift ¹ | for O to float, drift out to sea

{na preverb} + O-l-√haash (na motion verb – object intransitive) float ¹; drift ¹ | for O to float, drift

√haat ¹ (verb root) carry; lug | classification: heavy object

√haat ² (verb root) cover ¹; enclose; herd

√haatlʼ (verb root) soil ²; mess

O-daa-d+∅-√háatlʼ (∅ – object intransitive) soil ²; mess | for O to be covered with excrement, rust, dirt

√hélʼk (verb root) clumsy

tlél + O-ka-u-∅-√hélʼk ˟ (ga state verb – object intransitive) weak; helpless | for O to be weak, helpless

√heik ¹ (verb root) moan

√heik ² (verb root) • variants: √heek ² • hyperactive | move in hyperactive manner; jump hyperactively

√hein (verb root) own; claim

O-S-∅-√héin ˟ (na state verb – transitive) own; claim | for S to own, claim o (esp. clan property)

woosh + teen + O-S-d+∅- √héin ˟ (na – transitive) share; have in common | for S (plural) to share O; for S (plural) to have O in common | classification: plural subject

√heish (verb root) disgraceful

√héix̱waa (verb root) magic; charm; perform rites

O-S-∅-√héix̱waa ˟ (na act verb – transitive) magic; charm; perform rites | for S to make magic, perform rites on O to bring desirable results in nature or give youngsters power and confidence

√hee ¹ (verb root) pay | pay a medicine person

√hee ² (verb root) nasty

√heech (verb root) watch ¹; accuse | watch covertly

√heek (verb root) full; fill | classification: solids or abstracts

O-sha-∅-√heek (∅ event verb – object intransitive) filled; full | for O to be filled, be full (general and abstract) | classification: solids or abstracts

O-sha-S-l-√heek (∅ event verb – transitive) fill | for S to fill O (with solids or abstracts) | classification: solids or abstracts

yan⁓ + O-sha-S-l-√heek (∅ motion verb – transitive) finish; complete | for S to finish, complete O

√heen ¹ (verb root) believe; trust

N + éekʼ + a-S-∅-√heen ˟ ¹ (ga state verb – subject intransitive) believe; trust; believe in | for S to believe, trust, believe in N

sh + tóokʼ + a-S-d+∅-√heen ¹ ˟ (na state verb – subject intransitive) trust self; confidence in self | for S to trust oneself, have confidence in oneself

√heen ² (verb root) swim | school of fish to swim underwater | classification: plural

√heen ³ (verb root) water down; mix | mix with water

√heesʼ (verb root) borrow; loan

O-S-∅-√héesʼ (ga act verb – transitive) borrow | for S to borrow O

O-ka-S-∅-√héesʼ (ga act verb – transitive) borrow | for S to borrow O (esp. round, spherical object) | classification: round or sperical object

N-t⁓ + O-S-∅-√héesʼ (∅ motion verb – transitive) lend | for S to lend O to N

√heets (verb root) singe | singe hair, fur, or feathers

O-S-l-√heets (∅ act verb – transitive) singe | for S to singe hair, fur, or feathres off O

√heexw (verb root) bewitch; witchcraft | practice witchcraft

O-S-∅-√heexw (∅ act verb – transitive) bewitch; witchcraft | for O to bewitch S; for O to perform witchcraft on O

√hoo ¹ (verb root) wade; swim | swim on surface of water | classification: singular

{∅ preverb} + S-∅-√hoo ¹ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) wade; swim | for (singular) S to wade; for (singular) S to swim on surface of water

N-t + ji-S-d+∅-√hoo ¹ (na motion verb – subject intransitive) wade; swim | for S to wade around at N (esp. aimlessly or in circles)

√hoo ² (verb root) suspect

√hoo ³ (verb root) exclaim | to say « hú! »

√hook (verb root) shout

kei + O-S-∅-√hook (∅ act verb – transitive) shout | for S to lift O (an emptied container of berries or fruit) at ḵu.éexʼ | classification: ḵu.éexʼ

chush + tóodáx̱ + kei + S-∅-√hook (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) shout; grief | for S to remove grief with ritual shouts at ḵu.éexʼ | classification: ḵu.éexʼ

√hoon (verb root) sell

O-S-∅-√hoon (na act verb – transitive) sell | for S to sell O

O-S-l-√hoon (na event verb – transitive) selling; peddle; hawk ² | for S to go selling, peddle, hawk O

S-d+l-√hoon (na event verb – subject intransitive) spending; shopping | for S to go spending, go shopping

√hoot (verb root) carry | carry in apron || plank | to put planks on

√hootlʼ (verb root) wrinkled

√ín (verb root) observe; guard ¹

√ítʼch (verb root) sparkle; reflect light

ka-d+l-√ítʼch ˟ (∅ state verb – impersonal) sparkle; reflect light | for something to sparkle, reflect light

√íx̱tʼ (verb root) medicine person

√ee ¹ (verb root) cook

O-S-s-√.ee ¹ (∅ act verb – transitive) cook | for S to cook O

at S-s-√.ee ¹ (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) cook | for S to cook

yan⁓ + ∅-√.ee ¹ (∅ motion verb – impersonal) cooked | for food to be cooked, done cooking

√ee ² (verb root) slide ¹; flow

√een ¹ (verb root) carry | classification: container with contents

O-S-∅-√.een (∅ act verb – transitive) | for S to pick O (esp. berries) into a container

{∅ preverb} + O-S-s-√.een (∅ motion verb – transitive) carry; take; give | for S to pick O (esp. berries) into a container

{na preverb} + O-S-s-√.een (na motion verb – transitive) carry; take; give | for S to pick O (esp. berries) into a container

√een ² | classification: plural kill ¹; slaughter

√een ³ (verb root) sneak

√ees (verb root) whistle | whistle quietly

√eesh (verb root) thread ²; string ² | thread together; string together

O-ka-S-l-√.eesh (∅ act verb – transitive) string ² | for S to thread O (esp. beads), string together

√eesháan (verb root) pitiful; poor

O-l-√eesháan ˟ (∅ pitiful; poor | for O to be pitiable, poor, in an unfortunate state

√eet (verb root) change; transform | change proportion

a-S-d+∅-√éet change; transform | for S to change its proportion; for S to change itself into something else

√eetʼ ¹ (verb root) soak

O-ka-d+∅-√.éetʼ ¹ (∅ event verb – object intransitive) soak; waterlogged | for O to be soaked, waterlogged

√eexʼ (verb root) call out; yell; shout; invite

O-S-∅-√.éexʼ ˟ (na act verb – transitive) call out; shout; holler | for S to call out to, shout to, holler at O

O-S-∅-√.éexʼ ˟ (g̱a event verb – transitive) invite; ask | for S to invite O, ask O to a party

√eex̱ (verb root) • variants: √eix̱ • oily; greasy | oily; greasy

√jaa (verb root) instruct; advise; counsel

O-shu-ka-∅-√jaa ʰ (∅ act verb – transitive) instruct; show ¹; advise; counsel | for S to instruct, show O (by word); for S to advise, give advice to, counsel O

√jaaḵ (verb root) | classification: singular kill ¹

O-S-∅-√jaaḵ (∅ event verb – transitive) kill ¹ | for S to kill O | classification: singular

táach + O-S-∅-√jaaḵ (∅ event verb – transitive) fall asleep | for (singular) O to fall asleep ("for sleep to kill (singular) O) | classification: singular object

táach + yax̱ + O-ÿa-S-l-√jaaḵ (∅ event verb – transitive) fall asleep | for (plural) O to fall asleep ("for sleep to kill (plural) O") | classification: plural object

√jaaḵw ¹ (verb root) beat up; assault

O-S-∅-√jáaḵw ¹ (na act verb – transitive) beat up; assault; attack | for S to beat up, assault, violently attack O

√jaaḵw ² (verb root) fitting; suited for; perfect

√jeich ¹ (verb root) surprise; astonish; amaze

O-ÿa-S-l-√jeich ¹ (g̱a event verb – object intransitive) suprise; astonish; amaze | for S to suprise, astonish, amaze O

O-ÿa-∅-√jeich ¹ (g̱a event verb – object intransitive) surprised; astonished; amazed | for O to be surprised, astonished, amazed

√jeich ² (verb root) weigh down

√jeil ¹ (verb root) move ¹; reach ¹ | move hands over; reach for

N-náx̱ + ÿa-u-S-∅-√jeil ¹ (∅ motion) (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) reach ¹ | for S to reach a hand through, around N

√jeil ² (verb root) carry; take | classification: in loads; all of one type of thing

{∅ preverb} + O-ka-S-∅-√jeil ² (∅ motion verb – transitive) carry; take | for S to carry, take O (esp. to one place, making several trips, or all of one particular type of thing) | classification: in loads; all of one type of thing

{na preverb} + O-ka-S-∅-√jeil ² (na motion verb – transitive) carry; take | for S to carry, take O (esp. to one place, making several trips, or all of one particular type of thing) | classification: in loads; all of one type of thing

√jeitl (verb root) spread apart

√jín ˟ (verb root) hands | have hands

√jee ¹ (verb root) think; wonder

(yéi) + O-u-S-∅-√jee ʰ ¹ (na state verb – transitive) think | for S to think so of O

O-ka-S-∅-√jeek ˟ (na act verb – transitive) wonder; curious; anxious | for S to wonder, be curious, anxious about O

√jee ² (verb root) awful looking; terrible looking; eerie looking

O-ka-u-l-√jée ˟ ² (ga state verb – object intransitive) awful looking; terrible looking; eerie looking; unattractive | for O to be awful, terrible, eerie (in appearance), unattractive

√jee ³ (verb root) punish

O-ÿa-S-∅-√jee ˟ ³ (na – transitive) punish | for S to punish O

√jeekʼ (verb root) carry | carry on shoulders

√jeexw (verb root) • variants: √joox • spin; roll; run ³

√joon (verb root) dream

O-S-∅-√joon (na act verb – transitive) dream | fo S to dream of O

√joow (verb root) messy

√joox (verb root) • variants: √jeexw • spin; roll; run ³

ka-∅-√joox (ga event verb – impersonal) roll; spin; start; run ³ | for a wheel to roll, spin; for an engine to start, run

g̱unéi + ka-∅-√joox (∅ motion verb – impersonal) start | for an engine to start

{∅ preverb} + O-ka-S-l-√joox (∅ motion verb – transitive) wheel ¹ | for S to wheel O

{na preverb} + O-ka-S-l-√joox (na motion verb – transitive) wheel ¹ | for S to wheel O

√joox̱ʼ (verb root) sling ²; cast ¹ | cast (fishing line); sling, fling

√kaa ¹ (verb root) lazy; slow

a-u-S-d+s-√kaa ¹ (ga state verb – subject intransitive) lazy; slow | for S to be lazy, slow

√kaa ² (verb root) make signals; make faces; sign language

O-ka-S-d+∅-√kaa ² (na act verb – transitive) copy ¹ | for S to copy O

O-ÿa-S-d+∅-√kaa ² (na act verb – transitive) make faces | for S to make faces at O

O-x̱ʼa-S-d+∅-√kaa ² (na act verb – transitive) copy ¹ | for S to copy the speech of O

√kaak (verb root) thick

s-√kaak ˟ (ga state verb – impersonal) thick | for something to be thick (cloth, board, food, etc.)

(yéi) + ka-u-s-√kaak ˟ (na state verb – impersonal) thick | for a board, cloth, etc. to be (so) thick

√kaan (verb root) dance ¹ | dance in response

√kaasʼ (verb root) scummy; algae | covered in algae

√kaax̱ (verb root) juicy; rich ³

√kaay (verb root) measure

√káaxʼ (verb root) spotted

O-ka-d+sh-√káxʼx̱ (∅ – object intransitive) • variants: O-ka-d+s-√gáxʼx̱ • spotted | for O to be spotted, have polka-dots

√kéxwk ˟ (verb root) fluffy; light ²

√kei ¹ (verb root) track; trail ² || unravel; undo; untangle

O-ka-S-s-√kei ¹ (g̱a act verb – transitive) track; trail ²; follow ¹; untangle; rip back; undo | for S to track, trail, follow tracks of O; for S to untangle o; for S to rip back, undo O (sewing, knitting)

√kei ² (verb root) stuck; choke | stuck in throat

N + séi-t⁓ + ∅-√kei ² (∅ motion verb – impersonal) choke | for N to choke on something

√keikʼw (verb root) blunder

√keil ¹ (verb root) soak

O-ka-S-l-√keil ¹ (∅ event verb – transitive) soak | for S to soak O

√keil ² (verb root) calloused

√keilʼ ¹ (verb root) tear down; take apart; untie

O-S-∅-√kéilʼ ¹ (∅ event verb – transitive) take apart; tear down | for s to take O apart, tear O down

O-ka-S-∅-√kéilʼ ¹ (∅ event verb – transitive) untie | for S to untie O

√keilʼ ² (verb root) run away; chase | classification: plural

{∅ preverb} + O-S-l-√kéilʼ ² (∅ motion verb – object intransitive) chase | for S to chase O

√keilʼ ³ (verb root) ash

√keit (verb root) skate ² | ice skating

{na preverb} + S-d+s-√keit (na – subject intransitive) skate ² | for S to ice skate

√keits ¹ (verb root) alert

√keits ² (verb root) fluff

√keitsʼ (verb root) wobbly; weak

O-ka-d+∅-√kéitsʼ (∅ event verb – object intransitive) wobbly; weak | for O to be wobbly, weak

√keixʼw (verb root) crane ²

√keech ¹ (verb root) gasp

√keech ² (verb root) putrid

√keech ³ (verb root) housewarming

√keek (verb root) shake; shudder

√keen (verb root) bother; interrupt

O-S-sh-√keen (∅ event verb – transitive) bother; annoy | for S to bother, annoy O

√kees (verb root) inform

√keesʼ (verb root) pass ¹; expire; extinguish

ka-∅-√kéesʼ (∅ event verb – impersonal) • variants: ya-ka-∅-√kéesʼ • end ¹; pass ¹ | for a month to end, pass

N + satú + O-S-l-√kéesʼ (∅ event verb – transitive) • variants: N + leitóox̱ + O-ka-S-l-√kéesʼ • hoarse voice; scratchy voice; tickle | for S to make N have hoarse, scratchy voice; for S to make N have a tickle in the throat

N + satú + ka-l-√kéesʼ (∅ event verb – impersonal) • variants: N + leitóox̱ + ka-∅-√kéesʼ • hoarse voice; scratchy voice; tickle | for Nʼs voice to be hoarse, scratchy; for N to have a tickle in the throat

O-ÿa-ka-S-l-√kéesʼ (∅ event verb – transitive) put out; extinguish; turn off | for S to put out, extinguish O (fire); for S to turn off O (light)

ÿa-ka-l-√kéesʼ (∅ event verb – impersonal) go out | for a fire, light to go out

√keet (verb root) snore

a-S-∅-√keet ¹ (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) snore | for S to snore

√keetʼ (verb root) pry

O-S-∅-√keetʼ (∅ – transitive) pry | for S to pry O off

O-S-s-√keetʼ (∅ – transitive) pry | for S to pry O off the ground

√keets (verb root) singe | singe fur

√keetsʼ (verb root) rock ²

O-S-l-√kéetsʼ (na – transitive) rock ² | for S to rock O

√koo ¹ (verb root) know; learn facts

O-S-s-√koo ʰ  ¹ (∅ event verb – transitive) know; acquainted; learn | for S to know, be acquainted with, make known O (esp. people, facts); for S to learn O (esp. facts)

√koo ² (verb root) hold; spit ¹ | hold water in mouth; spit water that was held in mouth

√koochʼ ¹ (verb root) curl

√koochʼ ² (verb root) fart | short, high pitched fart

a-S-∅-√koochʼ ² (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) fart | for S to fart a short, high-pitched fart

√koodzí ˟ (verb root) amazing; wonderful

O-l-√koodzí ˟ (ga – object intransitive) amazing; wonderful | for O to be amazing, wonderful

√kooḵ ¹ (verb root) move ¹ | move in boiling mass

√kooḵ ² (verb root) cough

a-S-d+s-√kooḵ  ² (∅ state verb – subject intransitive) cough | for S to cough

√koos (verb root) dream; alert | for a dog to dream; for a dog to become alert

√kootl (verb root) fluff up; puff out

√kootlʼ (verb root) fart | noiseless fart

a-S-∅-√kootlʼ (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) fart | for S to fart a noiseless fart

√koox (verb root) drain out; bail out; thirsty

ka-l-√koox (na event verb – impersonal) drain out; go dry | for a kettle, container etc. to drain out, go dry

O-sha-∅-√koox (∅ event verb – object intransitive) thirsty; dry | for O to be thirsty; for O to be dry

O-ka-S-s-√koox (∅ act verb – transitive) bail out | for S to bail out O (water, by hand or pump)

√kwaach (verb root) carry; take; give | classification: in cupped hand(s)

{na preverb} + O-ka-S-∅-√kwaach (na motion verb – transitive) carry; take; give | for S to carry, take O (in cupped hands) | classification: grain-like objects

aax̱ + O-S-∅-√kwaach (ga motion verb – transitive) lift; pick up | for S to pick up O (in cupped hands) | classification: cupped in hand(s)

√kwaan (verb root) wade; swim | swim on surface of water | classification: plural

√kwaat (verb root) soot; smudge; lampblack

√kweiy (verb root) mark ¹ | mark; leave as marker

√kʼátsʼ ˟ (verb root) • variants: √kʼáchʼ • sharp; pointy

ÿa-l-√kʼátsʼ ˟ (ga state verb – impersonal) sharp | for an edge to be sharp

√kʼaa (verb root) small | too small

√kʼaakʼw (verb root) prowl

√kʼaan (verb root) hate; shoo away

O-S-sh-√kʼaan (ga state verb – transitive) hate | for S to hate O

√kʼaasʼ (verb root) tooth | tooth missing

√kʼaatlʼ (verb root) silent; quiet | become silent

sh S-d+l-√kʼáatlʼ (∅ event verb – subject intransitive) silent; quiet; stop talking; stop crying | for S to become silent, keep quiet; for S to stop talking or crying

√kʼei (verb root) good; fine

O-∅-√kʼéi (ga state verb – object intransitive) good; fine; pretty | for O to be good, fine, pretty

N + toowú + ∅-√kʼéi (ga state verb – impersonal) glad; happy; fine | for N to be glad, happy, feel fine

N + x̱ʼé⁓ + ∅-√kʼéi (ga state verb – impersonal) like ¹; taste | for N to like the taste of something

ḵu-∅-√kʼei (ga state verb – impersonal) good | for the weather to be good

O-S-l-√kʼéi (ga event verb – transitive) improve; make peace; make up | for S to improve O; for S to make peace, make up with O (after quarrel)

tlél + O-sh-√kʼéi (ga state verb – object intransitive) bad; evil; terrible | for O to be bad, evil, no good

√kʼein (verb root) jump

{∅ preverb} + S-d+sh-√kʼéin (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) jump | for (singular) S to jump

{na preverb} + S-d+sh-√kʼéin (na motion verb – subject intransitive) jump | for (singular) S to jump | classification: singular subject

{∅ preverb} + O-ka-du-∅-√kʼéin (∅ motion verb – object intransitive) jump | for (plural) O to jump

{na preverb} + O-ka-du-∅-√kʼéin (na motion verb – object intransitive) jump | for (plural) O to jump

√kʼeit ¹ (verb root) move ¹ | move stored goods | classification: stored goods

√kʼeit ² (verb root) walk; tiptoe | walk softly

√kʼeix̱ʼ (verb root) • variants: √kʼeex̱ʼ • gaff; hook ¹

O-S-∅-√kʼéix̱ʼ (∅ event verb – transitive) • variants: O-S-∅-√kʼéex̱ʼ • hook ¹; gaff | for S to hook O; for S to gaff O

N-náx̱ + O-sh-√kʼéix̱ʼ (ga motion verb – object intransitive) • variants: N-náx̱ + O-sh-√kʼéex̱ʼ • delayed; stuck; hung up; hooked | for O to get delayed, stuck, hung up, hooked at N

O-sha-S-∅-√kʼéix̱ʼ (∅ event verb – transitive) hook ¹; gaff | for S to hook O in the head; for S to gaff O in the head

√kʼeetʼ (verb root) move ¹; go | move parts in a mass

{∅ preverb} + O-ka-d+∅-√kʼéetʼ (∅ motion verb – object intransitive) leave; go; die | for O (group of people) to all leave or go; for O (group of people) to die off

{na preverb} + O-ka-d+∅-√kʼéetʼ (na – object intransitive) leave; go; die | for O (group of people) to all leave or go; for O (group of people) to die off

ḵu-S-∅-√kʼéetʼ (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) pick ¹ | for S to pick berries (esp. pick in quantity to take home)

√kʼeetlʼ (verb root) silly; childish | act silly, childish

√kʼeex̱ʼ (verb root) • variants: √kʼeix̱ʼ • gaff; hook ¹

√kʼoot (verb root) bounce

√kʼoots (verb root) break | classification: rope-like objects

O-S-l-√kʼoots (na event verb – transitive) break | for S to break O (esp. rope-like objects) | classification: rope-like objects

√kʼootsʼ (verb root) pluck | pluck off

√kʼoox (verb root) knock; tap | knock lightly

√kʼoox̱ʼ (verb root) pitchy; sticky

√kʼwaach (verb root) break | break apart

√kʼwaatʼ ¹ (verb root) fold

√kʼwáatʼ ² (verb root) lay egg; nest ²

a-d+l-√kʼwáatʼ ² (na event verb – impersonal) lay egg; nest ² | for birds to lay eggs, nest

√ḵaa ¹ (verb root) say; tell; instruct

(yéi/yóo) + O-daa-ÿa-S-∅-√ḵá ¹ ˟ (* act verb – transitive) tell | for S to tell O (a certain thing)

áa + O-ji-ka-(u)-S-∅-√ḵaa ¹ (na event verb – transitive) instruct; give orders | for S to instruct O; for S to give O orders (to do)

O-ka-(u)-S-∅-√ḵaa ¹ (na event verb – transitive) send | for S to send O (esp. on a mission or errand, or to deliver a message)

(yéi/yóo) + ÿa-S-∅-√ḵaa ¹ (na act verb – subject intransitive) say; confess; acknowledge; declare | for S to say (a certain thing); for S to confess, acknowledge, declare (a certain thing)

(yéi/yóo) + O-ÿa-S-s-√ḵaa ¹ (na event verb – transitive) tell; say; ask | for S to tell, say (that) to O; for S to ask O to do (that)

(N + éede) + O-ÿa-s-√ḵaa ¹ (na act verb – transitive) charge ¹; set price; confess; acknowledge; delcare | for S to charge (N) for O; for S to set the price of O; for S to confess, acknowledge, or delcare O

sh + tugéit + O-ÿa-S-d+s-√ḵaa ¹ (∅ event verb – transitive) insult; offend | for S to insult, offend O by what one says

√ḵaa ² (verb root) sew; embroider; bead ¹; tattoo

O-S-∅-√ḵaa ² (∅ act verb – transitive) sew | for S to sew O

S-d+∅-√ḵaa ² (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) sew | for S to sew

O-ka-S-∅-√ḵaa ² (∅ act verb – transitive) sew beads; embroider | for S to sew beads on, embroider O

N-t⁓ + O-ka-S-l-√ḵaa ² (∅ motion verb – transitive) sew | for S to sew O on N

O-ka-S-s-√ḵaa ² (∅ event verb – transitive) tattoo | for S to tattoo O

√ḵaa ³ (verb root) gamble; cards; dice | gamble with cards, dice, in general, or with gambling sticks that are concealed

a-S-d+l-√ḵáa ˟ ³ (na act verb – subject intransitive) gamble; cards | for S to gamble (by means of gambling sticks, dice, etc.); for S to play cards; for S to play bingo

√ḵaach ¹ (verb root) swell up; rise

kei + O-ka-S-l-√ḵaach (∅ event verb – transitive) raise | for S to raise O (bread)

ka-d+∅-√ḵaach (∅ event verb – impersonal) rise; swell up | for bread to rise, swell up

√ḵaach ² (verb root) limp ¹; lame

O-l-√ḵáchk ˟ ² (ga state verb – object intransitive) limp ¹; lame | for O to limp, be lame, walk unevenly

{na preverb} + S-l-√ḵaach ² (na motion verb – subject intransitive) limp ¹ | for S to limp

√ḵaaḵ (verb root) squat; sit; land ²

S-d+sh-√ḵaaḵ (g̱a event verb – subject intransitive) squat; sit; land ² | for S to squat, sit low; for S to squat down, sit quickly; for S to land (of waterfowl, plane) | classification: singular subject

{na preverb} + S-d+sh-√ḵaaḵ walk; crawl | for an octopus to walk/crawl

√ḵaan (verb root) quarrel

N + een + S-d+∅-√ḵaan (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) quarrel | for S to quarrel with, exchange harsh words with N (usually of adults)

√ḵei ¹ (verb root) pay

O-ji-S-∅-√ḵéi ˟ ¹ (na act verb – transitive) pay | for S to pay O (esp. a person, for work done); for S to pay for O

√ḵei ² (verb root) shy

O-ka-u-S-l-√ḵéi ² (ga state verb – transitive) shy | for S to be shy of O

at ka-u-S-l-√ḵéi ² (ga state verb – impersonal) shy; bashful | for S to be shy, bashful

√ḵeitsʼ (verb root) tickle

O-ka-S-l-√ḵéitsʼ (∅ act verb – transitive) tickle; touch | for S to tickle O; for S to touch O lightly

√ḵee ¹ (verb root) sit; situated | classification: plural

S-∅-√ḵee ¹ (* positional verb – subject intransitive) sit; situated | for (plural) S to be seated

(yei) + S-∅-√ḵee ¹ (g̱a event verb – subject intransitive) sit | for (plural) S to sit, sit down (esp. act of sitting)

√ḵee ² (verb root) rise; rouse; get up | classification: plural subject

sha-S-d+∅-√ḵee ² (∅ event verb – subject intransitive) get up; rise | for (plural) S to get up, rise

√ḵeen ¹ (verb root) fly ¹ | classification: singular subject

{na preverb} + S-d+∅-√ḵeen ¹ (na motion verb – subject intransitive) fly ¹ | for (singular) S (bird, or persons in a plane) to fly | classification: singular subject or people in plane

{∅ preverb} + S-d+∅-√ḵeen ¹ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) fly ¹ | for S (of a bird or persons in a plane) to fly | classification: singular subject or people in plane

{ga preverb} + S-d+∅-√ḵeen ¹ (ga motion verb – subject intransitive) fly ¹ | for (singular) S (bird, or persons in a plane) to fly | classification: singular subject or people in plane

N + toowú + kínde + d+∅-√ḵeen ¹ (na – impersonal) overjoyed; happy; excited | for N to be overjoyed, excited

yax̱ + S-d+∅-√ḵeen ¹ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) hover | for S to hover (of bird, helicopter), lift from ground and hang fluttering in the air

√ḵeen ² moon | new moon

ÿa-d+s-√ḵeen ² (∅ event verb – impersonal) moon | for the moon to be new

√ḵeet ¹ (verb root) suspect; annoyed with

O-S-∅-√ḵeet ¹ (∅ event verb – transitive) suspect; distrust; suspicious; lack confidence | for S to suspect, distrust, be suspicious of, lack confidence in O

tóo + O-S-sh-√ḵeet ˟ ¹ (ga state verb – transitive) annoyed with; tired of; fed up with | for S to be annoyed with, tired of, fed up with O

√ḵeet ² (verb root) dam

O-S-s-√ḵeet ² (∅ act verb – transitive) dam | for S to dam up O (incompletely or impermanently)

√ḵeetʼ (verb root) suppurate; infected; fester; pus

d+l-√ḵéetʼ (∅ event verb – impersonal) infected; fester; suppurate; pus | for a wound to be infected, have pus

√ḵoo (verb root) flood ¹; vomit

S-d+l-√ḵoo ʰ (na act verb – subject intransitive) vomit; throw up | for S to vomit, throw up

√ḵootlʼ (verb root) muddy

ka-sh-√ḵóotlʼ (∅ state verb – impersonal) muddy | for a road, etc. to be muddy

√ḵoox̱ ¹ (verb root) go; travel | travel by boat; travel by car

{∅ preverb} + S-∅-√ḵoox̱ ¹ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) boat ²; go; travel | for S to travel, go (by boat, car)

daak + S-∅-√ḵoox̱ ¹ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) boat ²; go; travel | for S to go out to sea (in a boat); for S to move into the open (in a boat, car)

g̱unéi + S-∅-√ḵoox̱ ¹ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) boat ²; go; travel | for S to begin traveling, going by boat or car

{∅ preverb} + O-S-s-√ḵoox̱ ¹ (∅ motion verb – transitive) drive | for S to drive O (boat, car)

{na preverb} + S-∅-√ḵoox̱ ¹ (na motion verb – subject intransitive) boat ²; go; travel | for S to travel, go (in a boat, car)

{na preverb} + O-S-s-√ḵoox̱ ¹ (na motion verb – transitive) drive | for S to drive O (boat, car)

ḵut + S-∅-√ḵoox̱ ¹ (ga motion verb – subject intransitive) lost | for S to get lost (going by motorized vehicle)

yaa + S-∅-√ḵoox̱ ¹ (ga motion verb – subject intransitive) go; travel | for S to be going, traveling along (by boat, car)

N + daax̱ + ÿa-u-S-∅-√ḵoox̱ ¹ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) circle around; drive around | for S to circle, drive around N in a motor vehicle

a-ÿa-u-S-d+∅-√ḵoox̱ ¹ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) turn back; return | for S to turn back, return by boat

{∅ preverb} + O-ÿa-S-s-√ḵoox̱ ¹ (∅ motion verb – transitive) transport; boat ² | for S to transport O by boat; for S to bring, take or fetch O by boat

√ḵʼei (verb root) precious

N + yáa + O-l-√ḵʼéi ˟ (ga state verb – object intransitive) treasure; value; admire; respect | for N to treasure, value O; for N to admire, think highly of, respect O

√ḵʼeikʼw ¹ (verb root) cut ¹ | cut (flesh) with knife

O-S-∅-√ḵʼéikʼw ¹ (∅ event verb – transitive) cut ¹; wound ¹ | for S to cut the flesh of O (usually accidentally); for S to wound O with a sharp instrument

sh S-d+∅-s√ḵʼéikʼw ¹ (∅ event verb – subject intransitive) cut ¹; wound ¹ | for S to cut themself, usually accidentally; for s to wound themself with a sharp instrument

√ḵʼeikʼw ² (verb root) walk | walk with long steps

√ḵʼeekʼ (verb root) jammed; crammed

O-d+∅-√ḵʼéekʼ (∅ event verb – object intransitive) crowded; jammed | for O to be crowded, jammed together

√laa ¹ (verb root) melt || go out

(N-x̱) + ∅-√laa ¹ (g̱a motion verb – impersonal) tide ¹; ebb; go out; recede; subside | for the tide to ebb, go out (from under N); for water to recede, subside, go down (of floodwater)

yan⁓ + ∅-√laa ¹ (∅ motion) (∅ motion verb – impersonal) tide ¹; go out | for the tide to go out, be low

l-√laa ¹ (∅ event verb – impersonal) melt; dissolve; thaw | for something to melt, dissolve, thaw

√laa ² (verb root) yell

√laaxw (verb root) starve

O-∅-√laaxw (∅ event verb – object intransitive) starve | for O to be starving, starved

√laax̱ (verb root) dry; die | for a plant to die and dry up

O-d+∅-√laax̱ (∅ event verb – object intransitive) dry; die | for a plant or tree to be dead but still standing; for an old boat to be dried out and weathered

O-S-l-√laax̱ (∅ act verb – transitive) kill ¹ | for S to kill O (a plant or tree)

√lei (verb root) far; distant

O-∅-√lei (na state verb – object intransitive) far; distant | for something to be far, distant

(yéi) + O-ka-u-∅-√lei (na state verb – object intransitive) far; distant | for something to be (so) far, distant (in time or space)

√leil (verb root) flab; limp ²; baggy

√leix̱ʼw (verb root) red | become red or paint face red

√leek (verb root) dazzle

√leekʼw (verb root) slurp | slurp out of a shell

√leelkʼw (verb root) grandparent | become a grandparent

√leelʼ (verb root) bunch up

√leet ¹ (verb root) throw | classification: plural objects, so as to scatter

N-t⁓ + O-S-∅-√leet ¹ (∅ motion verb – transitive) throw | for S to throw O (usually with force so that object scatters) to N

kei + O-S-∅-√leet ¹ (∅ motion verb – transitive) throw; throw away | for S to throw O up in the air; for S to throw O away (literally and figuratively)

kei + S-d+∅-√leet ¹ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) give up; quit | for S to give up, quit

√leet ² (verb root) slide ¹; glide | slide (esp. an animal); glide on surface | classification: non-human

√loo (verb root) nose | to have a nose

√look sip; drink ¹ | drink in sips | classification: hot liquid

O-S-∅-√look (∅ act verb – transitive) sip; drink ¹ | for S to drink O in sips, sip O (esp. hot liquids)

√loon (verb root) close ¹ | close eyes

√lóoxʼ (verb root) • variants: √leexʼw • pee; urinate || drip ¹ | drip fast

a-S-∅-√lóoxʼ (∅ event verb – subject intransitive) urinate; pee | for S to urinate

sh + daa + a-S-d+∅-√lóoxʼ (∅ event verb – subject intransitive) pee; urinate | for S to pee oneself

a-ka-S-l-√lóoxʼ (na act verb – subject intransitive) | for S to urinate

N-t⁓ + a-ka-S-l-√lóoxʼ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) | for S to urinate at N

√lʼaa (verb root) suck; nurse

O-S-∅-√lʼaa ʰ (∅ act verb – transitive) suck; nurse | for S to suck on O, nurse on O

O-S-l-√lʼaa ʰ (∅ act verb – transitive) suck | for S to suck on O

N + x̱ʼéi + a-S-l-√lʼaa ʰ (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) nurse | for S to nurse N

√lʼaaḵ (verb root) put down; herring | put down hemlock branches for herring eggs

√lʼaaḵw (verb root) stuck | stuck in mud

√lʼaatʼ (verb root) carry; tongs | carry with tongs

√lʼei (verb root) sediment || promiscuous

√lʼeiw (verb root) sand ¹

√lʼeix̱ (verb root) dance ¹

a-S-∅-√lʼeix̱ ˟ (na act verb – subject intransitive) dance ¹ | for S to dance

√lʼeexw (verb root) close eyes • variants: √lʼoox •

√lʼeexʼ (verb root) break | classification: stick-like objects

O-S-∅-√lʼéexʼ (na event verb – transitive) break | for S to break O (esp. of solid objects, wood, metals, etc.) | classification: stick-like objects

∅-√lʼéexʼ (na event verb – impersonal) break | for a general, solid object to break | classification: stick-like objects

O-S-l-√lʼéexʼ (na event verb – transitive) break | for S to break O (often by bending) (usually long objects) | classification: stick-like objects

l-√lʼéexʼ (na event verb – impersonal) break | for a long object to break | classification: stick-like objects

√lʼéelʼ (verb root) defecate; poop ¹

a-S-∅-√lʼéelʼ (∅ event verb – subject intransitive) defecate; poop ¹ | for S to defecate

sh + daa + a-S-d+∅-√lʼéelʼ (∅ event verb – subject intransitive) poop ¹; defecate | for S to poop oneself

√lʼoon (verb root) hunt

O-S-∅-√lʼóon ˟ (na act verb – transitive) hunt | for S to hunt O (wild game)

a-S-∅-√lʼóon ˟ (na act verb – subject intransitive) hunt | for S to hunt

√lʼoox (verb root) close ¹ | close eyes • variants: √lʼéexw (K) •

ka-S-d+∅-√lʼoox (∅ event verb – subject intransitive) close ¹ | for S to close eyes

(N waaḵ) + ka-d+∅-√lʼoox (∅ event verb – impersonal) close ¹ | for Nʼs eyes to be closed

√lʼoox̱ʼ (verb root) spray milt; spawn

(a)-d+∅-√lʼóox̱ʼ (na event verb – impersonal) spawn | for something to spawn (esp. herring)

√nák (verb root) numb

√nátlʼ (verb root) • variants: √nátsʼ • waterlogged

√naa ¹ (verb root) drink

O-S-d+∅-√naa ¹ (∅ act verb – transitive) drink ¹ | for S to drink O

at S-d+∅-√naa ¹ (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) drink ¹ | for S to drink

√naa ² (verb root) damp; moisturize | become damp

√naa ³ (verb root) inherit; die; bury

O-S-∅-√naa ³ (∅ event verb – transitive) inherit | for S to inherit O

O-S-s-√naa ³ (na event verb – transitive) bury | for S to bury O with appropriate ceremonial; for S to give O burial and disperse property

O-∅-√naa ³ (na event verb – object intransitive) die | for O to die

√naa ⁴ (verb root) order ¹; send; command; give

O-ka-u-S-∅-√náa ⁴ (na act verb – transitive) order; send; command | for S to order (esp. to go), send, command O || give | for S to give O (esp. in accordance with clan relationship)

√naa ⁵ (verb root) carry | classification: in bundles

√naak (verb root) shape; habit

√naakw (verb root) medicate

O-S-d+∅-√náakw ˟ (na act verb – transitive) medicate; dose | for S to treat O with medicine; for S to medicate O; for S to dose O

√naaḵ ¹ (verb root) stand; rise | classification: plural subject

S-∅-√náḵ  ¹ ˟ (* positional verb – subject intransitive) stand | for (plural) S to be standing | classification: plural subject

yan⁓ + S-∅-√naaḵ ¹ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) stand; stay standing | for (plural) S to stand, stay standing | classification: plural subject

S-d+∅-√naaḵ ¹ (ga event verb – subject intransitive) stand up; rise | for (plural) S to stand up, rise | classification: plural subject

√naaḵ ² (verb root) let go; release; hand ²; give up

O-ji-S-∅-√naaḵ ² (∅ event verb – transitive) let go; release; relinquish; leave; desert; hand ²; deliver | for S to let go, release, relinquish O; for S to leave, desert O; for S to hand over, deliver up O

ji-S-d+∅-√naaḵ ² (∅ event verb – subject intransitive) quit; stop | for S to quit, stop work

O-x̱ʼa-S-∅-√naaḵ ² (∅ event verb – transitive) quit; give up | for S to quit, give up O (esp. drinking)

√naaḵw ¹ bait; fish ² | to bait hooks (esp. with octopus); to fish with octopus as bait

d+∅-ya-S-d+∅-√náaḵw  ¹ (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) bait | for S to bait hooks, put bait on fish hooks

√naaḵw ² (verb root) rotten; punky | rotten, punky wood

√naal (verb root) steam ¹ || blow nose

S-d+∅-√naal (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) blow nose | for S to blow oneʼs nose

√naalx̱ (verb root) wealthy; rich ¹

O-l-√náalx̱ ˟ (ga state verb – object intransitive) rich ¹; wealthy; profitable | for O to be rich, wealthy, profitable

√naash (verb root) shake; stagger | shake back and forth

√naaw (verb root) leak

√nei ¹ (verb root) • variants: √nee ¹ • carry | classification: plural & varying objects

N-dáx̱ + yéi + O-S-s-√nei ʰ ¹ (ga motion verb – transitive) • variants: N-dáx̱ + yéi + O-S-s-√nee ¹ ʰ • carry; pick up; lift; take | for S to pick up, lift up, take (plural) O (objects) up off of N | classification: plural & varying objects

N + jee-t⁓ + yéi + O-S-s-√nei ʰ ¹ (∅ motion verb – transitive) • variants: N + jee-t⁓ + yéi + O-S-s-√nee ¹ ʰ • give; take; hand ² | for S to give, take, hand (plural) O to N | classification: plural & varying objects

yan⁓ + yéi + O-ka-S-s-√nei ʰ ¹ (∅ motion verb – transitive) • variants: yan⁓ + yéi + O-ka-S-s-√nee ¹ ʰ • put down; leave | for S to put down, leave O (plural round objects) | classification: plural round objects

√nei ² (verb root) • variants: √nee ² • do; work on; happen

(yéi) + O-∅-√nei ʰ ² (na event verb – object intransitive) happen; occur | for (that) to happen, occur to O

(yéi) + at ∅-√nei ʰ ² (na event verb – impersonal) • variants: (yéi) + at + ∅-√nee ² ʰ • happen | for something to happen

ḵáakw-t + O-∅-√nei ʰ ² (∅ motion verb – object intransitive) • variants: ḵáakw-t⁓ + O-∅-√nee ² ʰ • accident ¹; happen | for O to have an accident, get hurt; for something bad to happen to O

N + waḵshiyeexʼ + yéi + O-S-s-√nei ʰ ² (na event verb – transitive) • variants: N + waḵshiyeexʼ + yéi + O-S-s-√nee ² ʰ • demonstrate; perform; show ¹ | for S to demonstrate, perform publicly, show N how to do O by action

yan⁓ + O-∅-√nei ʰ ² (∅ motion verb – object intransitive) • variants: yan⁓ + O-∅-√nee ² ʰ • permanent; finished; ready ¹; prepared | for O to be permanent, happen for good; for O to be finished, complete, ready; for O to be prepared, ready

(yéi) + O-S-s-√nei ʰ ² (na event verb – transitive) do; fix; cause | for S to do (that) to O; for S to fix, cause (that) to happen to O

wooch + yáx̱ + O-S-s-√nei ʰ ² (na event verb – transitive) • variants: wooch + yáx̱ + O-S-s-√nee ² ʰ • straighten; smooth | for S to straighten out O, smooth O over (literal or abstract)

wooch + x̱oo-t⁓ + O-S-s-√nei ʰ ² (∅ event verb – transitive) • variants: wooch + x̱oo-t ⁓ + O-S-s-√nee ² ʰ • mix; stir | for S to mix O together | classification: variety of things

yan⁓ + O-S-s-√nei ʰ ² (∅ motion verb – transitive) finish; complete | for S to finish, complete O

chush + yáa + O-S-d+s-√nei ʰ ² (na event verb – transitive) • variants: chush + yáa + O-S-d+s-√nee ² ʰ • revenge | for S to get revenge, get even with O

yan⁓ + sh S-d+s-√nei ʰ ² (∅ event verb – subject intransitive) • variants: yan⁓ + sh + S-d+s-√nee ² ʰ • dress up | for S to dress up

(yéi) + O-daa-S-∅-√nei ʰ ² (na act verb – transitive) do; perform; work on | for S to do, perform O (a particular action); for S to work on O

yéi + ji-S-∅-√nei ʰ ² (na act verb – subject intransitive) work ¹; do | for S to work; for S to do

O-ÿa-u-S-∅-√nei ² (g̱a act verb – transitive) discipline; restrain; restrict; warn; prevent | for S to discipline, restrain, restrict, warn or prevent O from doing something

N + yáa + ḵut + O-∅-√nei ² (ga – object intransitive) amaze; astonish; surprise | for O to amaze N

√nei ³ (verb root) weave; knit; crochet; make | classification: yarns, fabrics

O-ka-S-s-√nei ³ (na act verb – transitive) weave; knit; crochet; make; mend | for S to make O (cloth of any kind) (by weaving, knitting, or crocheting); for S to make or mend O (net)

ka-S-d+s-√nei ³ (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) weave; knit; crochet; make | for S to knit, weave, or crochet

√nei ⁴ (verb root) respect

N + yáa + a-ÿa-u-S-∅-√néi ⁴ (ga act verb – subject intransitive) respect; regard | for S to respect, regard highly, think highly of N

√neiḵ (verb root) slush

√neilʼ (verb root) carry | carry bulky object(s) by holding close to the body

√neit (verb root) tremble

O-ka-d+∅-√neit (∅ event verb – object intransitive) tremble; quake; shiver | for O to tremble, quake, shiver (from palsy, fear, or cold)

√neitl (verb root) • variants: √neetl (T) • fat ²; weight ¹ | gain weight

O-d+l-√neitl (∅ event verb – object intransitive) fat ²; weight ¹ | for O to get fat; for O to gain weight

√neix̱ (verb root) save; heal; cure ¹

O-S-s-√neix̱ ˟ (g̱a event verb – transitive) save; heal; cure ¹ | for S to save O; for S to heal, cure O

O-∅-√neix̱ (g̱a event verb – object intransitive) save; heal; cure ¹; recover; satisfied | for O to be saved; for O to be healed, cured, recover; for O to be satisfied

√neiy (verb root) baby; twiddle

√nee ¹ (verb root) • variants: √nei ¹ • carry | classification: plural & varying objects

√nee ² (verb root) • variants: √nei ² • do; work on; happen

√neek (verb root) tell; narrate; inform

O-ka-S-∅-√neek (na act verb – transitive) tell; report; inform; testify | for S to tell about, report about, give facts about O; for S to witness to, tell about, testify about O

kei + O-ka-S-∅-√neek (∅ motion verb – transitive) tell on; tattle; inform on; betray | for S to tell on, inform on, betray O

(N + een) + ḵunáax̱ + daak + O-ka-∅-√neek (∅ act verb – transitive) explain | for S to explain O (to N)

O-x̱ʼa-ka-∅-√neek (na act verb – transitive) translate | for S to translate O

O-ka-S-l-√neek ˟ (na act verb – transitive) tell; talk into | for S to tell the story of O; for S to talk into O

sh ka-S-d+l-√neek ˟ (na act verb – subject intransitive) tell; preach; narrate | for S to preach, narrate, tell a story

√neekw ¹ (verb root) sick; hurt ¹

O-∅-√néekw ¹ ˟ (ga state verb – object intransitive) sick; hurt ¹; pain | for O to be sick; for O to hurt, be in pain

N + éex̱ + a-S-∅-√néekw ¹ ˟ (na event verb – subject intransitive) bother | for S to bother N (esp. by touching)

O-S-s-√néekw ¹ ˟ (ga state verb – transitive) sicken | for S to make O sick

√neekw ² (verb root) • variants: √nook ² • feel; touch

√neekw ³ (verb root) • variants: √nook ³ • behave; do

√neekw ⁴ (verb root) bother; tease

√neekʼ (verb root) tidy; picky

√neesʼ (verb root) sea urchin | to eat sea urchins raw

√neexʼ (verb root) smell ¹; sniff

O-d+s-√néexʼ (∅ act verb – transitive) • variants: O-S-s-√néexʼ • smell ¹ | for S to smell O

√néegwálʼ paint ²

O-S-∅-√néegwálʼ ˟ (na act verb – transitive) paint ² | for S to paint O

√núkch ˟ (verb root) helpless

√núkts ˟ (verb root) sweet

O-l-√núkts ˟ (ga state verb – object intransitive) sweet | for O to be sweet

√nook ¹ (verb root) sit | classification: singular

S-∅-√nook ¹ (g̱a event verb – subject intransitive) sit | for (singular) S to sit, sit down (esp. act of sitting)

d+∅-√nook ¹ (g̱a event verb – impersonal) situated | for a building to be situated there | classification: building

O-S-s-√nook ¹ (g̱a event verb – transitive) seat | for S to seat O

√nook ² (verb root) • variants: √neekw ² • feel; touch

du-∅-√nook ² (∅ event verb – subject intransitive) blow; feel | for the wind to blow, be felt (esp. a breeze, light wind)

(yéi) + du-∅-√nook ² (∅ state verb – subject intransitive) taste | for something to taste (a certain way)

jée + O-S-d+∅-√nook ² (∅ state verb – transitive) touch; feel | for S to touch, feel O (esp. with hands)

x̱ʼéi + O-S-d+∅-√nook ² (∅ state verb – transitive) taste; sample | for S to taste, sample O

(yéi) + sh tu-S-d+∅-√nook ² (na state verb – subject intransitive) feel | for S to feel (that way) (esp. physical sensation)

N-dáx̱ + x̱ʼa-S-d+∅-√nook ² (∅ event verb – subject intransitive) hungry; crave | for S to be hungry for, crave N

yan⁓ + O-ka-s-√nook ² (∅ motion verb – transitive) prove; verify; investigate; test | for S to prove, verify, find out and be sure of O; for S to investigate, make trial of, test out O

√nook ³ (verb root) • variants: √neekw ³ • behave; do

(yéi) + ḵu-S-∅-√nook ³ (na act verb – subject intransitive) behave; do; act | for S to behave, do, act (in a certain way)

N-t + S-∅-√nook ³ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) act like | for S to act like N

xʼáan-t⁓ + S-∅-√nook ³ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) • variants: √neekw • angry; mad; mean | for S to be angry, mad, mean

ḵukahín⁓ + S-∅-√nook ³ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) • variants: √neekw • grumpy; petulant; irritated | for S to be grumpy, cranky, irritated

√nook ⁴ (verb root) rise; rouse; get up | classification: singular subject

sha-d+∅-√nook ⁴ (∅ event verb – subject intransitive) get up; rise | for (singular) S to get up, rise

√nook ⁵ (verb root) carry; take | classification: live creature

{na preverb} + O-S-s-√nook ⁵ (na motion verb – transitive) carry; take | for S to carry, take O (live creature) | classification: live creature

kei + O-S-s-√nook ⁵ (∅ motion verb – transitive) lift | for S to lift up O (live creature)

yan⁓ + O-S-s-√nook ⁵ (∅ motion verb – transitive) put down; leave | for S to put down, leave O (live creature)

√nool sing; pretend | pretend to sing

O-S-∅-√nool sing; pretend | for S to pretend to sing; for S to only sing vocables in a song

√noots ¹ (verb root) grin; smile

at ka-S-∅-√noots  ¹ (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) grin; smile | for S to smile at something (often knowingly or sarcastically)

√noots ² (verb root) spoil

ka-d+l-√noots ² (∅ event) (∅ event verb – impersonal) spoil | for animal matter to spoil

√nóotʼ (verb root) swallow ¹

O-ka-S-∅-√nóotʼ (na event verb – transitive) swallow ¹ | for S to swallow O (pill, etc.)

√sátk ˟ (verb root) fast ¹; quick

O-∅-√sátk ˟ (ga – object intransitive) fast ¹ | for O to be fast (at doing things)

√saa ¹ (verb root) narrow

yéi + O-ka-u-l-√saa ¹ (na state verb – object intransitive) narrow; skinny | for O (esp. container) to be narrow; for O (person) to be skinny

√saa ² (verb root) breathe; live || name ¹; call out

O-S-∅-√saa ² (∅ event verb – transitive) name ¹; nominate | for S to name O; for S to nominate O

yéi/yóo + O-S-∅-√sáakw (na state verb – transitive) call out; name ¹ | for S to call O by a certain name

sh S-d+∅-√saa ² (∅ event verb – transitive) name ¹; introduce | for S to introduce themself; for S to say their own name

S-d+∅-√saa ² (na state verb – subject intransitive) breathe; live | for S to breathe; for S to be alive

S-d+l-√saa ² (∅ event verb – subject intransitive) rest ¹ | for S to rest

O-ji-S-l-√saa ² (∅ event verb – subject intransitive) rest ¹ | for S to give rest to O (especially from work with hands)

√saaḵ (verb root) exhausted

√saan (verb root) cure

√saat (verb root) tight; taut

√saay (verb root) flush ¹; sweat; radiate

O-ka-du-∅-√sáay (ga event verb – object intransitive) hot; sweat; flush ¹ | for O (person or animal) to be hot, sweaty, flush

√sei (verb root) close ²; near

(yéi) + ka-u-∅-√sei (na state verb – impersonal) close ²; near | for something to be (so) close, near (in time or space)

√seiḵʼw (verb root) dye; color ¹; stain

O-ka-d+∅-√séiḵʼw (∅ event verb – object intransitive) stain; dye; color ¹ | for O to be stained, dyed, colored

O-ka-S-l-√séiḵʼw (∅ act verb – transitive) stain; dye; color ¹ | for S to stain, dye, color the surface of O

ÿa-ka-S-d+l-√séiḵʼw (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) dye; color ¹; put on | for S to put on makeup

√seil (verb root) tweet; twitter; trill

√seix̱ (verb root) rain | misty rain

√seek ¹ (verb root) delayed; held back

O-ÿa-∅-√seek ¹ (∅ event verb – object intransitive) delayed; held back; weathered in | for O to be delayed, prevented, held back from plans (often due to inclement weather)

√seek ² (verb root) belted; wearing a belt

√seek ³ (verb root) bashful; shy

√seen (verb root) hide ¹; conceal

O-S-l-√seen (∅ – transitive) hide ¹; conceal | for S to hide, conceal, put O out of sight

a-S-d+l-√seen (∅ event verb – subject intransitive) hide ¹ | for S to hide oneself, remain out of sight

√sees (verb root) tired

√seet (verb root) braid

O-ka-l-√seet (∅ act verb – transitive) braid | for S to braid O (hair)

√seetsʼ (verb root) wet | dripping wet

√soo (verb root) supernatural; aid; blessing | supernatural aid

N + eeg̱áa + ∅-√soo (na – impersonal) supernatural; aid; blessing | for N to receive supernatural aid; for N to be blessed by spiritual aid

√soon (verb root) bubble | small bubbles

√soos ¹ (verb root) fall; drop ¹ | fall together; drop together | classification: plural

ḵut + O-ka-∅-√sóos ¹ (ga event verb – object intransitive) lost | for (plural) O (objects, people) to be lost | classification: plural (√geet ¹ singular)

ḵut + O-ka-S-l-√sóos ¹ (ga motion verb – transitive) lose | for S to lose (plural) O | classification: plural (√geet ¹ singular)

√soos ² put to sleep

√sʼaa (verb root) claim; save | claim as payment; save from destruction

√sʼaaḵ (verb root) boney

O-l-√sʼaaḵ ˟ (ga state verb – object intransitive) ambitious; industrious | for O to be ambitious, industrious, hard working

√sʼaatʼ (verb root) left ¹ | left-handed

√sʼaaxw (verb root) stack; hat | put hat on

√sʼáasʼ (verb root) dance ¹ | dance lightly, sliding the feet

√sʼeiḵ ¹ (verb root) • variants: √sʼeeḵ ¹ • suck out

O-S-∅-√sʼeeḵ (∅ act verb – transitive) suck out; drink ¹ | for S to drink O by sucking; for S to drink O through a straw

√sʼeiḵ ² (verb root) • variants: √sʼeeḵ ² • smoke ¹; smoky

sh x̱ʼa-S-d+∅-√sʼeiḵ ² (na act verb – subject intransitive) smoke ¹ | for s to smoke (cigarettes, etc.)

áx̱ + a-ka-S-l-√sʼeiḵ ² (na – subject intransitive) tan; smoke ¹; cure ² | for S to tan, smoke, cure something by placing in smoke

√sʼeilʼ (verb root) tear; rip; peel

O-S-∅-√sʼéilʼ (na event verb – transitive) tear; rip | for S to tear O

O-ka-S-∅-√sʼéilʼ (g̱a act verb – transitive) tear; rip; peel | for S to tear, tear up, rip off O; for S to peel off O (bark from a tree)

O-x̱ʼa-S-∅-√sʼéilʼ (∅ act verb – transitive) tear; open | for S to tear O away (of a fish from a hook); for S to stretch or hold O (opening) open

ka-d+∅-√sʼéilʼ (g̱a state verb – impersonal) tear | for something to be torn up

O-S-l-√sʼéilʼ (∅ act verb – transitive) tear; pull | for S to tear up, pull up O (roots)

√sʼeeḵ ¹ (verb root) • variants: √sʼeiḵ ¹ • suck out

√sʼeeḵ ² (verb root) • variants: √sʼeiḵ ² • smoke ¹; smoky

√sʼeen (verb root) grimace

√sʼees ¹ (verb root) blown | blown by wind; blown around

N-t + O-l-√sʼees ¹ (na motion verb – object intransitive) blown; sail ¹ | for O to be blown around at N (by wind); for O to sail in a boat around at N

N-t + ka-d+l-√sʼees ¹ (na motion verb – impersonal) blown | for an object to be blown around in the wind at N

√sʼees ² tired of; offensive

√sʼeesʼ (verb root) squirt || advise | advise pointedly || whistle | whistle quietly

√sʼeet (verb root) bind; wrap

O-ka-S-∅-√sʼeet (∅ act verb – transitive) bind; wrap; bandage | for S to bind up, wrap around, bandage O

√sʼeex (verb root) aged; ferment; spoil; rot ¹ | aged food

l-√sʼeex (∅ event verb – impersonal) spoil; rot ¹ | for animal matter to age, spoil to stage where still firm, but smelly

√sʼeexw • variants: √sʼoox • sour

√sʼeexʼw (verb root) stick to; adhere; seal together

N-t⁓ + O-ka-S-l-√sʼéexʼw (∅ motion verb – transitive) stick to; adhere | for S to stick O (esp. paper) to N

√sʼéex̱ʼ • variants: √sʼéix̱ʼ • diarrhea

O-∅-√sʼéex̱ʼ (g̱a – object intransitive) diarrhea | for O to get, have diarrhea

O-S-l-√sʼéex̱ʼ (g̱a – transitive) diarrhea | for S to cause O to have diarrhea

√sʼoo (verb root) withe; twist; limber | twist to limber

√sʼook (verb root) • variants: √sʼeekw • fry; toast ¹ | fry until crisp

O-ka-S-l-√sʼook (∅ act verb – transitive) • variants: O-ka-S-l-√sʼeekw • toast ¹; fry | for S to toast O (bread); for S to fry O (usually till crisp)

√sʼoon (verb root) kiss ¹ | to make a kissing noise

√sʼoosʼ (verb root) string ²; thread ² | string fish on stick to dry

√sʼootʼ (verb root) spit ¹

√sʼoow (verb root) chop

O-S-∅-√sʼóow (na act verb – transitive) chop | for S to chop O (esp. chopping down trees, chopping off branches)

√sʼoox (verb root) • variants: √sʼeexw • sour

O-ka-l-√sʼoox (∅ event verb – object intransitive) sour | for O to be sour, taste acidic, lose freshness of taste

√sʼoox̱ʼ (verb root) mucus | dried mucus

√sʼóoshkw ˟ (verb root) pinch | pinch large amount of flesh

√sháchk ˟ (verb root) swamp

√shaa ¹ (verb root) bark ²

a-S-∅-√shaa ¹ (ga act verb – subject intransitive) bark ² | for S (dog) to start barking

a-S-∅-√shaa ¹ (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) bark ² | for S (dog) to bark

O-ÿa-S-l-√shaa ¹ (na act verb – transitive) bark ² | for S (dog) to bark at O

O-ÿa-S-l-√shaa ¹ (ga act verb – transitive) bark ² | for S (dog) to begin barking at O

√shaa ² (verb root) marry

O-S-∅-√shaa ² (∅ event verb – transitive) marry | for S to marry O

wooch + d+∅-√shaa ² (∅ event verb – subject intransitive) marry | for (plural) S to marry each other

O-du-∅-√shaa ² (∅ event verb – object intransitive) marry | for O to get married

√shaaḵ ¹ (verb root) winded; exhausted

O-ka-∅-√shaaḵ ¹ (∅ event verb – object intransitive) winded; exhausted | for O to be winded, short of breath, panting

√shaaḵ ² (verb root) deny

√shaan (verb root) old; age

O-d+∅-√shaan (∅ event verb – object intransitive) old; age | for O to show signs of old age (esp. grey hair), for O to become old, age

√shaash ˟ (verb root) worn out

∅-√sháash ˟ (g̱a event verb – impersonal) worn out | for something to wear out by continuous friction

√shaat (verb root) grab; hold; catch

O-S-∅-√sháat (ga event verb – transitive) catch; grab; hold; arrest; trap ¹ | for S to catch O; for S to grab, take hold of, snatch O; for S to arrest O; for S to trap O

O-S-l-√sháat (g̱a act verb – transitive) hold; capture | for S to hold, retain O in oneʼs grasp; for S to capture, hold O captive

ḵux̱ + tu-S-d+∅-√sháat (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) change mind | for S to change oneʼs mind

N-de⁓ + a-ÿa-∅-√sháat (∅ motion verb – impersonal) wind; gust | for the wind, weather to move in gusts to N

√sheix̱ʼ (verb root) praise; glorify; commend • variants: √shéex̱ʼ •

O-ka-S-∅-√shéex̱ʼ (∅ act verb – transitive) praise; glorify; commend | for S to praise, glorify O; for S to approve, commend O; for S to comment on O

√shísʼḵ (verb root) raw

√shee ¹ (verb root) search for; hope

át + a-S-d+∅-√shee ¹ (∅ event verb – subject intransitive) hope; desire | for S to hope, desire and expect something

N-g̱áa + ḵu-S-∅-√shee ʰ ¹ (na act verb – subject intransitive) search for; look for | for S to search for, look for N

N-káx̱ + ḵu-S-∅-√shee ʰ ¹ (na event verb – subject intransitive) find; come upon | for S to find, come upon N (often after actively searching)

√shee ² (verb root) touch

N-t⁓ + S-∅-√shee ² (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) touch; take | for S to touch, take, pick up

N + séináx̱ + ÿa-u-S-∅-√shee ² (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) embrace; hug | for S to put arm(s) around N

√shee ³ (verb root) help

N + ée-t⁓ + S-d+∅-√shee ³ (∅ event verb – subject intransitive) help; assist | for S (person, medicine, etc.) to help, give help to, assist N

√shee ⁴ sing; compose

O-S-∅-√shee ʰ ⁴ (ga act verb – transitive) sing | for S to sing O

at S-∅-√shee ʰ ⁴ (ga act verb – subject intransitive) sing | for S to sing

kei + + O-ka-S-∅-√shee ʰ ⁴ (∅ event verb – transitive) sing | for S to start singing O (esp. a ceremonial song)

kei + + at ka-S-∅-√shee ʰ ⁴ (∅ event verb – transitive) sing | for S to start singing (esp. ceremonial songs); for S to break into song (especially ceremonial songs)

at ka-S-l-√shee ⁴ (na event verb – subject intransitive) compose; song | for S to compose songs (esp. about opposite clan)

√sheech (verb root) feminine

√sheekʼw • variants: √shookʼ • cramp; shocked by electricity

√sheesʼ (verb root) strip; squeeze | squeeze empty

√sheesh ¹ (verb root) sip; slurp

√sheesh ² (verb root) outdo | outdo in eating

√sheesht (verb root) squeeze | sqeeze empty

√sheetʼ (verb root) crowd ¹; packed; jammed

√sheex̱ʼ • variants: √sheix̱ʼ • praise; glorify; commend • variants: √shéex̱ʼ •

√sheey ¹ (verb root) right ¹ | right handed

√sheey ² (verb root) knotty

√shoo ¹ (verb root) extend

N-de + ∅-√shoo ¹ (na motion verb – impersonal) extend | for a narrow item (esp. a road or trail) to extend towards N

anax̱ + ∅-√shoo ¹ (na state verb – impersonal) stick up; stand | for a singular object to stick up, stand there | classification: singular (plural √.aa ³)

N-t + √shoo ¹ extend | for a narrow item (esp. a road or trail) to extend to N

N-x̱ + ∅-√shoo ¹ (g̱a state verb – impersonal) hang | for a singular object to hang down from N | classification: singular (plural √xwaasʼ)

N-x̱ + kei + l-√shoo ¹ (∅ motion verb – impersonal) extend | for a complex object (esp. road) to extend up to N | classification: complex object

N-x̱ + ÿa-u-∅-√shoo ¹ (∅ motion verb – impersonal) extend | for a slender item (esp. road) to extend around, along N | classification: slender item

√shoo ² (verb root) suffer

O-ka-∅-√shoo ʰ ² (na event verb – object intransitive) intoxicate; drunk ² | for O to be intoxicated

eeshandéin + yoo + O-ka-∅-√shoo ʰ ² (∅ event verb – object intransitive) suffer | for O to suffer

O-ka-S-l-√shoo ʰ ² (na event verb – transitive) intoxicate | for S to intoxicate O

eeshandéin + yoo + O-ka-S-l-√shoo ʰ ² (∅ event verb – transitive) torment; persecute; suffer | for S to torment, persecute or ill-treat O; for S to cause O to suffer

sh ka-d+l-√shoo ʰ ² (na event verb – subject intransitive) crazy | for S to go crazy

√shooch (verb root) soak; bathe

S-d+∅-√shooch (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) bathe; soak | for S to soak in cold waters for strength; for S to bathe, take a bath

O-S-∅-√shooch (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) bathe | for S to bathe O

√shookʼ • variants: √sheekʼw • cramp; shock

O-ka-d+l-√shóokʼ (∅ event verb – object intransitive) cramp; shock; electrocute | for O to have cramps; for O to get shocked (by electricity)

√shooḵ (verb root) laugh; smile

O-S-∅-√shooḵ (∅ act verb – transitive) laugh | for S to laugh at O

at S-∅-√shooḵ (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) laugh | for S to laugh

at S-∅-√shooḵ (na act verb – subject intransitive) laugh; smile | for S to laugh; for S to smile (often with laughter)

O-ka-S-√shooḵ (∅ – transitive) laugh; deride; make fun of; mock | for S to laugh at, deride, mock, make fun of O

O-S-∅-O-ya-S-∅-√shooḵ (∅ act verb – transitive) smile | for S to smile at O

√shoosʼ (verb root) string ² | string on a stick

√tált ˟ (verb root) discourage

√tánu (verb root) gripe

√taa ¹ (verb root) | classification: singular sleep ¹; rest ¹; put to sleep; put to bed

S-∅-√taa ʰ ¹ (na act verb – subject intransitive) sleep ¹ | for (singular) S to sleep (alone)

O-S-s-√taa ʰ ¹ (na event verb – transitive) bed ³; put to bed | for S to put (singular) O to bed

√taa ² (verb root) lie down || carry | classification: dead creature or sleeping baby

(N-t) + sh S-d+s-√táan ² (* positional verb – subject intransitive) lie down | for (singular) S to be lying down (at N)

yan⁓ + sh S-d+s-√taa ² (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) lie down | for (singular) S to lie down

√taa ³ (verb root) fat ²; prime | fat (of animal); prime (of animal) | classification: animal

√taa ⁴ (verb root) steam ¹; boil ¹

O-S-s-√taa ʰ ⁴ (∅ act verb – transitive) steam ¹; boil ¹ | for S to boil, steam O (food, esp. meat)

√taakw (verb root) winter

√taaḵ ¹ (verb root) spear ¹; poke; prod

O-S-∅-√taaḵ ¹ (∅ event verb – transitive) spear ¹; poke; prod; jab | for S to spear, prod, poke, jab O

O-ka-S-l-√taaḵ ¹ (∅ event verb – transitive) poke; prod | for S to poke, prod O (a round object, often to pop it) | classification: round object

O-ÿa-S-∅-√taaḵ ¹ (∅ event verb – transitive) poke | for S to poke O in the face

daak + O-ÿa-S-l-√taaḵ ¹ (∅ motion verb – transitive) pole ²; push | for S to pole, push O (canoe, boat) out away from the shore with a pole

√taaḵ ² (verb root) care; serve

N + daa + O-ÿa-s-√taaḵ ² (∅ event verb – object intransitive) care; look after; serve; minister ¹; note | for O to care for, take care of N; for O to look after N; for O to serve N; for O to minister to N; for O to take note of N

√taan ¹ (verb root) carry; take | classification: empty container or hollow object

O-S-∅-√taan ¹ (ga motion verb – transitive) carry; take | for S to carry, take O (usually a container or hollow object) | classification: hollow object, empty container

N-t + O-S-∅-√taan ¹ (∅ motion verb – transitive) carry; take | for S to carry, take O (usually a hollow object) to N | classification: hollow object, empty container

N + jee-t⁓ + O-S-∅-√taan ¹ (∅ motion verb – transitive) give; hand ² | for S to give, hand O (usually a hollow object) to N | classification: hollow object, empty container

N-t + ∅-√tán ¹ ˟ (* positional verb – impersonal) | for a container or hollow object to sit at N | classification: hollow object, empty container

√taan ² (verb root) cover ¹; open ¹ | open a cover

at S-∅-√taan ² (g̱a event verb – subject intransitive) cover ¹ | for S to cover (esp. pot, etc.), put on lid

héide + O-shu-S-∅-√taan ² (na motion verb – transitive) open ¹ | for S to open O (a hinged door or lid) | classification: hinged door or lid

x̱ʼéi-t⁓ + O-shu-S-∅-√taan ² (∅ motion verb – transitive) close ¹ | for S to close O (a hinged door or lid) | classification: hinged door or lid

aax̱ + O-shu-S-∅-√taan ² (∅ motion verb – transitive) open ¹ | for S to open O by removing (a hinged door or lid) | classification: hinged door or lid

√taan ³ (verb root) carry; take | classification: stick-like object

{∅ preverb} + O-S-s-√taan ³ (∅ motion verb – transitive) carry; take; give | for S to carry O (usually long, complex object)

kei + O-S-s-√taan ³ (∅ motion verb – transitive) bring; unearth; lift; pick up | for S to bring out, unearth O (usually long, complex object)(esp. from a box or other container or place which o is kept); for S to pick up, lift up O

yan⁓ + O-S-s-√taan ³ (∅ motion verb – transitive) put down; leave | for S to put down, lay down, leave, place O (usually long, complex object)

O-ji-S-∅-√taan ³ (ga motion verb – transitive) take; lead ² | for S to take O by the hand; for S to lead O by the hand

a + tóot + O-ji-S-∅-√taan ³ (∅ motion verb – transitive) take; adopt | for S to take O into a clan; for S to adopt O into a clan

kei + ji-S-s-√taan ³ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) raise ¹ | for S to raise a hand

yan⁓ + ji-S-s-√taan ³ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) lower | for S to lower a hand

{∅ preverb} + O-ka-S-s-√taan ³ (∅ motion verb – transitive) carry; take; give | for S to carry O (small, stick-like object) | classification: small stick-like object

N-t + shu-ka-∅-√tán ³ (∅ positional verb – impersonal) extend; end ¹ | for something to extend to, end at N

N-x̱ + + O-gu-ÿa-S-∅-√taanán ³ ˟ (na event verb – transitive) restore; set | for S to set O (dislocated body part, esp. joint) back in to place; for S to restore O (dislocated body part, esp. joint) back in to place

√taan ⁴ (verb root) wash over; rough | rough (of water)

ji-s-√taan ⁴ (na event verb – impersonal) rough; waves | for the ocean to be rough

yan + ji-s-√taan ⁴ (∅ motion verb – impersonal) hit; reach ¹; waves | for waves to hit, reach the beach

N + kanax̱ + ji-ÿa-s-√taan ⁴ (∅ motion verb – impersonal) waves; wash over | for waves to wash over N

√taan ⁵ (verb root) communicate; think; talk | classification: singular

N + jee⁓ + gush-S-d+∅-√taan ⁵ (na motion verb – subject intransitive) text | for (singular) S to text N (on a phone or computer)

N + daa + yoo + tu-S-∅-√taan ⁵ (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) think; consider; make up mind | for (singular) S to think over, consider, make up oneʼs mind about N

N + káa + yan + tu-S-∅-√taan ⁵ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) trust; rely; faith | for (singular) S to put trust in, rely on, have faith in N | classification: singular

(yéi) + tu-S-d+∅-√taan ⁵ (na event verb – subject intransitive) decide; make up mind | for (singular) S to decide, make up oneʼs mind (that way)

N + daatx̱ + ḵux̱ + tu-S-d+∅-√taan ⁵ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) change mind; reconsider | for (singular) S to change mind about N; for (singular) S to think over and reconsider N

N + daax̱ + tu-ÿa-S-d+∅-√taanán ⁵ ˟ (na act verb – subject intransitive) change mind; reconsider | for (singular) S to reconsider N, think over and change oneʼs mind about N

yoo + x̱ʼa-S-∅-√taan ⁵ (∅ act verb – subject intransitive) speak; talk | for (singular) S to speak, talk

N + ée-t⁓ + x̱ʼa-S-∅-√taan ⁵ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) speak; talk | for (singular) S to speak, talk to N | classification: singular

x̱ʼa-S-d+∅-√taan ⁵ (na event verb – subject intransitive) speak; talk; speech | for (singular) S to speak, talk, make a speech

N + jeedé + x̱ʼa-S-d+∅-√taan ⁵ (na motion verb – subject intransitive) call; phone | for (singular) S to call N on telephone

N + jee-t⁓ + x̱ʼa-S-d+∅-√taan ⁵ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) call; phone | for S to call N on telephone

yan⁓ + x̱ʼa-S-d+∅-√taan ⁵ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) stop; talk | for (singular) S to stop talking

√taan ⁶ (verb root) precipitate; fall | classification: precipitation

{precipitation} + daak + s-√taan ⁶ (∅ event verb – impersonal) precipitate; fall; rain; snow ²; hail | for {precipitation} to fall

√taan ⁷ (verb root) bend ¹; bent

O-ka-S-∅-√taan ⁷ (na event verb – transitive) bend ¹ | for S to bend O (usually long, simple object)

yóo + ka-∅-√tán ˟ (∅ positional verb – impersonal) bent | for something to be bent

yínde + sh ka-S-d+∅-√taan ⁷ (na motion verb – subject intransitive) bend over; lean down | for (singular) S to bend over, lean down

√taan ⁸ (verb root) habit; like doing | in habit of

O-ka-u-S-sh-√tán ⁸ ˟ (ga state verb – transitive) habit; like doing | for S to be in habit of doing O; for S to do O frequently because s enjoys doing it

√taan ⁹ (verb root) jump | classification: fish

√taan ¹⁰ (verb root) hunt | hunt octopus

√taats (verb root) pick ¹; shake | pick berries by shaking or hitting branches

√taaw (verb root) steal; sneak

O-S-∅-√táaw (∅ act verb – transitive) steal | for S to steal O

O-S-s-√táaw (∅ act verb – transitive) steal | for S to steal O (large or complex object) | classification: large or complex object

O-ka-S-∅-√táaw (∅ act verb – transitive) steal | for S to steal O (round, spherical object) | classification: round, spherical object

O-ka-S-s-√táaw (∅ act verb – transitive) steal | for S to steal O (stick-like object or plural round objects) | classification: stick-like object or plural round objects

√taaxʼ (verb root) bite; chew

O-S-∅-√táaxʼ (ga event verb bite | for S (esp. an insect) to bite O

√taax̱ (verb root) dew

√taax̱ʼw ¹ (verb root) sink ¹; drown

∅-√táax̱ʼw ¹ (∅ event verb – impersonal) sink ¹ | for something to sink

O-S-s-√táax̱ʼw ¹ (∅ event verb – impersonal) sink ¹ | for S to sink O; for S to cause O to sink

√taax̱ʼw ² (verb root) signal with smoke

√tei (verb root) rocky

√teiḵʼ (verb root) twist | classification: rope-like object

√teis (verb root) mimic

√teisʼ (verb root) flab; limp ² | flabby

√teitlʼ (verb root) fat ² | classification: animal

√teix̱ (verb root) smelly; odor

√teix̱ʼ (verb root) • variants: √teex̱ʼ • wring; twist; screw ¹ || crooked; twisted; windy ²

O-ka-d+s-√téix̱ʼ (∅ event verb – object intransitive) crooked; wicked | for O to be crooked, wicked

O-ka-S-l-√téix̱ʼ (na event verb – transitive) wind ² | for S to wind O

N-t⁓ + O-ka-S-l-√téix̱ʼ (∅ motion verb – transitive) screw ¹ | for S to screw O into N

N-dáx̱ + O-ka-S-l-√téix̱ʼ (∅ motion verb – transitive) screw ¹ | for S to unscrew O from N

x̱ʼéi-t⁓ + O-ka-S-l-√téex̱ʼ (∅ event verb – transitive) lock | for S to lock O

√tíx ˟ (verb root) flea | to have fleas

√tee ¹ (verb root) be

(yéi) + O-∅-√tee ʰ ¹ (na state verb – object intransitive) be | for O to be (that way)

N-xʼ + yéi + O-∅-√tee ʰ ¹ (na state verb – object intransitive) be; stay; remain; dwell; live at | for O to be or stay at N; for O to dwell, live at N; for O to remain at N

N + ee⁓ + O-∅-√tee ʰ ¹ (na state verb – object intransitive) affect | for O to affect N

N + eetée-náx̱ + O-∅-√tee ʰ ¹ (na state verb – object intransitive) need; lacking; require | for O to need N; for O to lack N; for O to require N

N + ka-yáanáx̱ + O-∅-√tee ʰ ¹ (na state verb – object intransitive) overpowered | for N to be overpowered by O

tliyéi + yéi + O-∅-√tee ʰ ¹ (na state verb – object intransitive) wait ¹; still ²; quiet; stop | for O to be still, quiet; for O to stop (car, clock, e.g.); for O to wait

N + tóo-g̱aa + O-∅-√tee ʰ ¹ (na state verb – object intransitive) acceptable; satisfactory; like ¹ | for N to be acceptable to O; for N to be satisfactory to O; for N to be well-liked by O

N + tóon + O-∅-√tee ʰ ¹ (na state verb – object intransitive) care about; concerned about; affected by | for N to care about O; for N to be concerned about O; for N to be affected by O

N + toowú + tliyéi + yéi + O-∅-√tee ʰ ¹ (na state verb – object intransitive) calm; meditate | for N to be calm; for N to meditate

N + tóo-xʼ + yéi + O-∅-√tee ʰ ¹ (na state verb – object intransitive) remember; bear in mind | for N to remember O; for N to bear O in mind

N + waḵsheeyee-xʼ + yéi + O-∅-√tee ʰ ¹ (na state verb – object intransitive) appear before | for O to appear before N; for O to be apparent to N

N + x̱án-xʼ + yéi + O-∅-√tee ʰ ¹ (na state verb – object intransitive) near; stay by; remain by; live by | for O to be near N; for O to stay by N; for O to remain by N; for O to live by N

N + x̱ʼéi-g̱aa + O-∅-√tee ʰ ¹ (na state verb – object intransitive) obey; obedient | for O to obey N; for O to be obedient to N

N + yáx̱ + O-∅-√tee ʰ ¹ (na state verb – object intransitive) like ²; similar | for O to be like N

xʼóolʼ + yáx̱ + O-∅-√tee ʰ ¹ (na state verb – object intransitive) chaos; frenzied; hectic | for O to be chaotic, frenzied, hectic

(yéi) + ḵu-∅-√tee ʰ ¹ (na state verb – impersonal) be; weather | for the weather to be (that way)

O-shu-∅-√tee ʰ ¹ (na state verb – object intransitive) expect | for O to be expected

O-shu-ka-S-∅-√tee ʰ ¹ (na event verb – transitive) postpone | for S to postpone O

(yéi) + O-tu-∅-√tee ʰ ¹ (na state verb – object intransitive) feel; want | for O to want to do, feel like doing (that); for O to feel a certain way

N + daa + O-tu-∅-√tee ʰ ¹ (na state verb – object intransitive) care about; think about; concerned about | for O to care about N; for N to be concerned about O; for N to be affected by O

sh + tóo-g̱aa + O-d+∅-√tee ʰ ¹ (na state verb – object intransitive) grateful; thankful; satisfied | for O to be grateful, thankful; for O to be satisfied

a-ÿa-d+∅-√tee ʰ ¹ (g̱a state verb – impersonal) stormy; rough; windy ¹ | for the weather to be very windy; for the weather to be stormy, rough

N-x̱ + O-s-√tee ʰ ¹ (na state verb – object intransitive) be; become | for O to be N (a member of a group); for O to become N

N + een-x̱ + O-s-√tee ʰ ¹ (na state verb – object intransitive) be with | for O to be with N

g̱ax̱-S-s-√tee ¹ (g̱a act verb – subject intransitive) cry; weep; mourn; howl | for (plural) S to cry, weep, mourn; for (plural) S to howl (esp. of wolves) | classification: plural

O-shu-S-s-√tee ʰ ¹ (na state verb – transitive) expect; anticipate | for S to anticipate, foresee O; for S to expect, consider O likely to happen or arrive

O-ḵu-d+s-√tee ʰ ¹ (g̱a state verb – object intransitive) born; exist; live | for O to be in existence; for O to be born; for O to live

ḵu-S-d+s-√tee ʰ ¹ (g̱a state verb – object intransitive) born; exist; live; subsist | for S to exist; for S to be born; for S to live; for S to subsist

N + daat + át + ḵu-d+s-√tee ʰ ¹ (g̱a state verb – impersonal) busy; occupied | for N to be busy with things; for N to be occupied with things

tlél sh + tóo-g̱aa + O-d+sh-√tee ʰ ¹ (na state verb – object intransitive) disinterested; unconcerned | for O to be disinterested, unconcerned

√tee ² (verb root) carry; take; give | classification: general, compact object; abstract

{na preverb} + O-S-∅-√tee ʰ ² (na motion verb – transitive) carry; take; give | for S to carry, take O (general, compact object; abstract)

kei + O-S-∅-√tee ʰ ² (∅ motion verb – transitive) bring; unearth; lift; pick up | for S to bring out, unearth O (general, often compact object) (esp. from a box or other container or place which O is kept); for S to pick up, lift up O

daak + + O-sha-S-s-√tee ² anchor | for S to anchor O temporarily

√tee ³ (verb root) hang

√tee ⁴ (verb root) wear; put on

√tee ⁵ (verb root) imitate; mimic; quote

√teel ¹ (verb root) scar

√teel ² (verb root) shoe

√teen ¹ (verb root) travel; go

{na preverb} + ḵu-S-∅-√teen ¹ (na motion verb – subject intransitive) travel; go | for S to travel, go on a trip

{∅ preverb} + ḵu-S-∅-√teen ¹ (∅ motion verb – subject intransitive) travel; go | for S to travel, go on a trip

√teen ² (verb root) see; perceive

O-S-∅-√teen ² (ga state verb – transitive) see; perceive | fo